Development Matters FINAL PRINT AMENDED

Transcript

1 Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) This non-statutory guidance material supports practitioners in implementing the statutory requirements of the EYFS. Children develop quickly in the early years, and background, learning difficulties, disabilities or early years practitioners aim to do all they can to gender. This guidance helps adults to understand help children have the best possible start in life. and support each individual child’s development Children have a right, spelled out in the United pathway. Other guidance is provided at Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, . The EYFS statutory www.foundationyears.org.uk to provision which enables them to develop their framework is available on the Foundation Years personalities, talents and abilities irrespective of website as well as the Department for Education ethnicity, culture or religion, home language, family website: www.education.gov.uk/publications

2 Children are born ready, able and eager to learn. They actively reach out to interact with other people, and in the world around them. Development is not an automatic process, however. It depends on each unique child having opportunities to interact in positive relationships and enabling environments. The four themes of the EYFS underpin all the guidance. This document - Development Matters - shows how these themes, and the principles that inform them, work together for children in the EYFS. Positive Learning and A Unique Enabling = + + Relationships Development Child Environments Themes Children develop and learn in Children learn to be strong Every child is a unique child Children learn and develop well different ways. The framework and independent through who is constantly learning in enabling environments, in Principles covers the education and care positive relationships. and can be resilient, capable, which their experiences respond of all children in early years confident and self-assured. to their individual needs and provision, including children there is a strong partnership with special educational needs Positive relationships are Practitioners between practitioners and and disabilities. parents and carers. • warm and loving, and understand and observe • foster a sense of belonging each child’s development Practitioners teach children by Enabling Environments and learning, assess sensitive and responsive to • ensuring challenging, playful progress, plan for next steps value all people • the child’s needs, feelings Practice opportunities across the prime value learning • and interests support babies and children • and specific areas of learning to develop a positive sense and development. • supportive of the They offer of their own identity and child’s own efforts and culture They foster the stimulating resources, • independence characteristics of effective relevant to all the children’s identify any need for • • consistent in setting clear early learning cultures and communities additional support boundaries • Playing and exploring rich learning opportunities • • keep children safe • stimulating through play and playful Active learning • • built on key person • value and respect all children teaching relationships in early years and families equally Creating and thinking critically • • support for children to take settings risks and explore 2

3 Using this guidance to support each child’s learning and development Development matters can help practitioners to support children’s learning and development, by closely matching what they provide to a child’s current needs. On-going formative assessment is at the heart of effective early years practice. Practitioners can: Observe children as they act and interact in • their play, everyday activities and planned activities, and learn from parents about what Planning Start here (observation) the child does at home . What next? • Consider the examples of development Observation Experiences and in the columns headed ‘Unique Child: Look, listen and note. opportunities, learning observing what children can do’ to help Describing environment, resources, The Child identify where the child may be in their own routines, practitioners’ role. . developmental pathway (assessment) • Consider ways to support the child to strengthen and deepen their current learning and development, reflecting on guidance in columns headed ‘Positive Relationships’ and ‘Enabling Environments’ Assessment . These columns contain some (planning) examples of what practitioners might do to Analysing observations support learning. Practitioners will develop what they and deciding many other approaches in response to the tell us about children. children with whom they work. Where appropriate, use the development • Summative assessment statements to identify possible areas in which to challenge and extend the Development Matters might be used by early years The EYFS requires early years practitioners to review child’s current learning and development settings throughout the EYFS as a guide to making children’s progress and share a summary with . (planning) best-fit judgements about whether a child is showing parents at two points: typical development for their age, may be at risk of This way of teaching is particularly • in the prime areas between the ages of 24 delay or is ahead for their age. Summative assessment appropriate to support learning in early years and 36 months supports information sharing with parents, colleagues settings. and other settings. • and at the end of the EYFS in the EYFS Profile. 3

4 The Characteristics of Effective Learning and the prime and specific Areas of Learning and Development are all interconnected. • The ways in which the child engages with The • prime areas begin to develop quickly in specific • The areas include essential skills and other people and their environment – playing response to relationships and experiences, and knowledge. They grow out of the prime areas, and exploring, active learning, and creating run through and support learning in all other areas. and provide important contexts for learning. and thinking critically – underpin learning and The prime areas continue to be fundamental development across all areas and support the child throughout the EYFS. to remain an effective and motivated learner. The Unique Child reaches out to Prime areas are fundamental, work together, and move through relate to people and things through to support development in all other Characteristics of Effective the , which move through all Learning areas. playing and exploring areas of learning. Personal, Social and Emotional • Development playing and exploring • Communication and Language • • active learning Physical Development • • creating and thinking critically active learning Unique Child areas include essential Specific Children develop in the skills and knowledge for children to context of relationships participate successfully in society. and the environment Literacy • around them. • Mathematics This is unique to each family, and reflects • Understanding the World individual communities • Expressive Arts and Design and cultures. creating & thinking critically 4

5 Area of Learning and Characteristics of Effective Learning Aspect Development Prime Areas – engagement Playing and exploring Personal, Social and Making relationships Emotional Development Self-confidence and self-awareness Finding out and exploring Playing with what they know Managing feelings and behaviour Being willing to ‘have a go’ Physical Development Moving and handling Health and self-care Communication and Language Listening and attention Active learning – motivation Understanding Speaking Being involved and concentrating Keeping trying Specific areas Enjoying achieving what they set out to do Literacy Reading Writing Mathematics Numbers – thinking Creating and thinking critically Shape, space and measure Understanding the World People and communities Having their own ideas The world Making links Technology Choosing ways to do things Expressive Arts and Design Exploring and using media and materials Being imaginative 5

6 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Characteristics of Effective Learning Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: what adults could provide what adults could do observing how a child is learning Finding out and exploring Provide stimulating resources which are • Play with children. Encourage them to explore, and show • accessible and open-ended so they can be your own interest in discovering new things. Showing curiosity about objects, events and people • used, moved and combined in a variety of ways. • Help children as needed to do what they are trying to do, • Using senses to explore the world around them Make sure resources are relevant to children’s • without taking over or directing. • Engaging in open-ended activity interests. • Join in play sensitively, fitting in with children’s ideas. Showing particular interests • Arrange flexible indoor and outdoor space and • Playing Model pretending an object is something else, and help • resources where children can explore, build, Playing with what they know develop roles and stories. and move and role play. Pretending objects are things from their experience • Encourage children to try new activities and to judge risks • Exploring Help children concentrate by limiting noise, and • for themselves. Be sure to support children’s confidence Representing their experiences in play • making spaces visually calm and orderly. with words and body language. Taking on a role in their play • Plan first-hand experiences and challenges • • Pay attention to how children engage in activities -- engagement • Acting out experiences with other people appropriate to the development of the children. the challenges faced, the effort, thought, learning and Being willing to ‘have a go’ Ensure children have uninterrupted time to play • enjoyment. Talk more about the process than products. and explore. Initiating activities • Talk about how you and the children get better at things • through effort and practice, and what we all can learn when Seeking challenge • things go wrong. Showing a ‘can do’ attitude • • Taking a risk, engaging in new experiences, and learning by trial and error Enabling Environments: Positive Relationships: A Unique Child: what adults could do what adults could provide observing how a child is learning Being involved and concentrating • Children will become more deeply involved when Support children to choose their activities – what they want • you provide something that is new and unusual to do and how they will do it. • Maintaining focus on their activity for a period of time for them to explore, especially when it is linked to Stimulate children’s interest through shared attention, and • • Showing high levels of energy, fascination their interests. calm over-stimulated children. Not easily distracted • Notice what arouses children’s curiosity, looking • Help children to become aware of their own goals, make • Paying attention to details • for signs of deep involvement to identify learning plans, and to review their own progress and successes. that is intrinsically motivated. Describe what you see them trying to do, and encourage Keeping on trying Active Ensure children have time and freedom to • children to talk about their own processes and successes. Persisting with activity when challenges occur • Learning become deeply involved in activities. Be specific when you praise, especially noting effort such • Showing a belief that more effort or a different approach will • • Children can maintain focus on things that as how the child concentrates, tries different approaches, pay off motivation interest them over a period of time. Help them to persists, solves problems, and has new ideas. • Bouncing back after difficulties keep ideas in mind by talking over photographs Encourage children to learn together and from each other. • of their previous activities. Enjoying achieving what they set out to do Children develop their own motivations when you give • Keep significant activities out instead of routinely • • Showing satisfaction in meeting their own goals reasons and talk about learning, rather than just directing. tidying them away. • Being proud of how they accomplished something – not just Make space and time for all children to • the end result contribute. Enjoying meeting challenges for their own sake rather than • external rewards or praise Characteristics of Effective Learning Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 6 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

7 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Characteristics of Effective Learning Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: what adults could provide observing how a child is learning what adults could do Having their own ideas In planning activities, ask yourself: • Is this an • Use the language of thinking and learning: think, know, opportunity for children to find their own ways to remember, forget, idea, makes sense, plan, learn, find out, Thinking of ideas • represent and develop their own ideas? Avoid . confused, figure out, trying to do Finding ways to solve problems • children just reproducing someone else’s ideas. Creating • Model being a thinker, showing that you don’t always know, • Finding new ways to do things • Build in opportunities for children to play with are curious and sometimes puzzled, and can think and and materials before using them in planned tasks. find out. Making links Thinking • Play is a key opportunity for children to think Encourage open-ended thinking by not settling on the first • Making links and noticing patterns in their experience • Critically creatively and flexibly, solve problems and link What else ideas: is possible? • Making predictions ideas. Establish the enabling conditions for rich • Always respect children’s efforts and ideas, so they feel safe Testing their ideas • play: space, time, flexible resources, choice, to take a risk with a new idea. thinking Characteristics of Effective Learning • Developing ideas of grouping, sequences, cause and effect control, warm and supportive relationships. • Talking aloud helps children to think and control what they • Recognisable and predictable routines help Choosing ways to do things do. Model self-talk, describing your actions in play. children to predict and make connections in their • Planning, making decisions about how to approach a task, • Give children time to talk and think. experiences. solve a problem and reach a goal Value questions, talk, and many possible responses, without • Routines can be flexible, while still basically • • Checking how well their activities are going rushing toward answers too quickly. orderly. Changing strategy as needed • Support children’s interests over time, reminding them • Plan linked experiences that follow the ideas • of previous approaches and encouraging them to make Reviewing how well the approach worked • children are really thinking about. connections between their experiences. • Use mind-maps to represent thinking together. • Model the creative process, showing your thinking about • Develop a learning community which focuses on some of the many possible ways forward. and not just what we are learning. how Sustained shared thinking helps children to explore ideas • and make links. Follow children’s lead in conversation, and think about things together. • Encourage children to describe problems they encounter, and to suggest ways to solve the problem. Show and talk about strategies – how to do things – • including problem-solving, thinking and learning. • Give feedback and help children to review their own progress and learning. Talk with children about what they are doing, how they plan to do it, what worked well and what they would change next time. • Model the plan-do-review process yourself. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 7

8 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Making relationships Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: what adults could do what adults could provide observing what a child is learning Ensure staff are aware of the importance of attachment • Make sure babies have their own special person in the • • Enjoys the company of others and seeks contact with others in relationships. setting, who knows them really well and understands their from birth. wants and needs. • Ensure the key person is paired with a ‘buddy’ who • Gazes at faces and copies facial movements. e.g. sticking out knows the baby and family as well, and can step in • Tune in sensitively to babies, and provide warm, loving, tongue, opening mouth and widening eyes. when necessary. consistent care, responding quickly to babies’ needs. • Responds when talked to, for example, moves arms and legs, At times of transition (such as shift changes) make sure • Hold and handle babies, since sensitive touch helps to • changes facial expression, moves body and makes mouth Birth - 11 staff greet and say goodbye to babies and their carers. build security and attachment. movements. months This helps to develop secure and trusting three-way • Ensure that the key person or buddy is available to greet Recognises and is most responsive to main carer’s voice: face • relationships. a young baby at the beginning of the session, and to brightens, activity increases when familiar carer appears. • Plan to have one-to-one time to interact with young hand them over to parents at the end of a session, so the Responds to what carer is paying attention to, e.g. following • babies when they are in an alert and responsive state young baby is supported and communication with parents their gaze. and willing to engage. is maintained. Likes cuddles and being held: calms, snuggles in, smiles, • Display photos of family and other special people. • Engage in playful interactions that encourage young • gazes at carer’s face or strokes carer’s skin. babies to respond to, or mimic, adults. Share knowledge about languages with staff and • parents and make a poster or book of greetings in all Follow the baby’s lead by repeating vocalisations, • languages used within the setting and the community. mirroring movements and showing the baby that you are • Seeks to gain attention in a variety of ways, drawing others ‘listening’ fully. • Repeat greetings at the start and end of each session, into social interaction. so that young babies recognise and become familiar • Notice when babies turn away, signalling their need for • Builds relationships with special people. with these daily rituals. less stimulation. Is wary of unfamiliar people. • • Discover from parents the copying games that their babies enjoy, and use these as the basis for your play. • Interacts with others and explores new situations when supported by familiar person. • Talk with babies about special people, such as their family members, e.g. grandparents. • Shows interest in the activities of others and responds 8-20 months differently to children and adults, e.g. may be more interested in watching children than adults or may pay more attention when children talk to them. • Play name games to welcome children to the setting Involve all children in welcoming and caring for one • • Plays alongside others. and help them get to know each other and the staff. another. • Uses a familiar adult as a secure base from which to explore • Regularly evaluate the way you respond to different Give your full attention when young children look to you • independently in new environments, e.g. ventures away to children. for a response. play and interact with others, but returns for a cuddle or reassurance if becomes anxious. • Ensure there are opportunities for the child to play Enable children to explore by providing a secure base for • alongside others and play cooperative games with a them. • Plays cooperatively with a familiar adult, e.g. rolling a ball back familiar adult. and forth. • Help young children to understand the feelings of others 16-26 months Provide matching items to encourage adult and child • by labelling emotions such as sadness or happiness. to mimic each other in a cooperative game. e.g. two identical musical instruments. PSED: Making relationships Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 8 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

9 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Making relationships Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Make time for children to be with their key person, • • Interested in others’ play and starting to join in. Ensure that children have opportunities to join in. • individually and in their key group. • Seeks out others to share experiences. Help them to recognise and understand the rules for • Create areas in which children can sit and chat with • being together with others, such as waiting for a turn. Shows affection and concern for people who are special to • friends, such as a snug den and cosy spaces. them. • Continue to talk about feelings such as sadness, Provide resources that promote cooperation between • happiness, or feeling cross. • May form a special friendship with another child. two children such as a big ball to roll or throw to each Model ways of noticing how others are feeling and • other. comforting/helping them. 22-36 months PSED: Making relationships • Plan activities that require collaboration, such as • Support children in developing positive relationships by Can play in a group, extending and elaborating play ideas, • parachute activities and ring games. challenging negative comments and actions towards e.g. building up a role-play activity with other children. either peers or adults. • Provide stability in staffing, key person relationships and Initiates play, offering cues to peers to join them. • in grouping of the children. • Encourage children to choose to play with a variety of Keeps play going by responding to what others are saying or • friends from all backgrounds, so that everybody in the • Provide time, space and materials for children to doing. group experiences being included. collaborate with one another in different ways, for • Demonstrates friendly behaviour, initiating conversations and example, building constructions. • Help children understand the feelings of others by labelling forming good relationships with peers and familiar adults. 30-50 months emotions such as sadness, happiness, feeling cross, Provide a role-play area resourced with materials • lonely, scared or worried. reflecting children’s family lives and communities. Consider including resources reflecting lives that are • Plan support for children who have not yet made friends. unfamiliar, to broaden children’s knowledge and reflect an inclusive ethos. • Choose books, puppets and dolls that help children explore their ideas about friends and friendship and to talk about feelings, e.g. someone saying ‘You can’t play’. Ensure that children have opportunities over time to get • Support children in linking openly and confidently with • Initiates conversations, attends to and takes account of what • to know everyone in the group, not just their special others, e.g. to seek help or check information. others say. friends. Model being a considerate and responsive partner in • • Explains own knowledge and understanding, and asks Ensure children have opportunities to relate to their key • interactions. appropriate questions of others. person, individually and in small groups. Ensure that children and adults make opportunities to • Takes steps to resolve conflicts with other children, e.g. • • Provide activities that involve turn-taking and sharing in listen to each other and explain their actions. finding a compromise. small groups. 40-60+ • Be aware of and respond to particular needs of children months who are learning English as an additional language. Early Learning Goal Children play co-operatively, taking turns with others. They take account of one another’s ideas about how to organise their activity. They show sensitivity to others’ needs and feelings, and form positive relationships with adults and other children. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 9

10 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Self-confidence and self-awareness Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: what adults could provide observing what a child is learning what adults could do • Provide a sofa or comfy chair so that parents, • Laughs and gurgles, e.g. shows pleasure at being tickled and Show your pleasure in being with the baby. • practitioners and young babies can sit together. other physical interactions. • Be close by and available, to ensure that babies feel safe • Give babies toys to hold while you are preparing their Uses voice, gesture, eye contact and facial expression to • and loved even when they are not the centre of adult food, or gathering materials for a nappy change. make contact with people and keep their attention. attention. Plan to have times when babies and older siblings or • Say or sing made-up rhymes or songs while stroking or • friends can be together. pointing to the babies’ hands, feet or cheeks. Birth - 11 Devote uninterrupted time to babies when you can play • Respond to and build on babies’ expressions, actions, • months with them when they are ready to engage. Be attentive and gestures. Babies will repeat actions that get a and fully focused. positive response from you. Plan time to share and reflect with parents on babies’ • • Find out what babies like and dislike through talking to progress and development, ensuring appropriate their parents. support is available where parents do not speak or understand English. • Place mirrors where babies can see their own reflection. • Playfully help babies to recognise that they are separate • Enjoys finding own nose, eyes or tummy as part of naming Talk with them about what they see. and different from others, e.g. pointing to own and baby’s games. nose, eyes, fingers. • Offer choices, e.g. different vegetables and fruit at Learns that own voice and actions have effects on others. • snack time or different toys. Give opportunities for babies to have choice, where • Uses pointing with eye gaze to make requests, and to share • possible. • Allow enough space for babies to move, roll, stretch an interest. and explore. • Follow young babies’ lead as they explore their Engages other person to help achieve a goal, e.g. to get an • surroundings, people and resources. Respond to what babies show you they are interested • object out of reach. 8-20 months in and want to do, by providing a variety of activities, Talk to babies about puzzles they encounter such as how • stories and games. to get their sock back from where it has fallen, asking whether they can do it or if they might need help. Make sure the child can explore from the secure, close-by Making choices is important for all children. Consider • • • Explores new toys and environments, but ‘checks in’ regularly presence of their key person. ways in which you provide for children with disabilities with familiar adult as and when needed. to make choices, and express preferences about their Model pretend play. • • Gradually able to engage in pretend play with toys (supports carers and activities. child to understand their own thinking may be different from • Share children’s pleasure when they do something for Display photographs of carers, so that when young • others). themselves. children arrive, their parents can show them who will be • Demonstrates sense of self as an individual, e.g. wants to do there to take care of them. things independently, says “No” to adult. 16-26 months • Share with children photographs of their activities, talking with them about what they did and how they felt. PSED: Self-confidence and self-awareness Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 10 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

11 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Self-confidence and self-awareness Enabling Environments: Positive Relationships: A Unique Child: what adults could do what adults could provide observing what a child is learning • Discuss with staff and parents how each child responds Separates from main carer with support and encouragement Recognise that children’s interest may last for short or • • to activities, adults and their peers. from a familiar adult. long periods, and that their interest and preferences vary. • Build on this to plan future activities and experiences for • Expresses own preferences and interests. • Value and support the decisions that children make each child. • Talk to children about choices they have made, and help • As children differ in their degree of self-assurance, plan them understand that this may mean that they cannot do to convey to each child that you appreciate them and something else. their efforts. • Be aware of cultural differences in attitudes and 22-36 months • Consult with parents about children’s varying levels of expectations. Continue to share and explain practice confidence in different situations. with parents, ensuring a two-way communication using interpreter support where necessary. • Record individual achievements which reflect significant Can select and use activities and resources with help. • progress for every child. • Encourage children to see adults as a resource and as PSED: Self-confidence and self-awareness partners in their learning. Welcomes and values praise for what they have done. • Seek and exchange information with parents about • young children’s concerns, so that they can be • Teach children to use and care for materials, and then Enjoys responsibility of carrying out small tasks. • reassured if they feel uncertain. trust them to do so independently. • Is more outgoing towards unfamiliar people and more • Vary activities so that children are introduced to different Ensure that key practioners offer extra support to children • confident in new social situations. materials. in new situations. Confident to talk to other children when playing, and will • 30-50 months Make materials easily accessible at child height, to • communicate freely about own home and community. ensure everybody can make choices. Shows confidence in asking adults for help. • Give time for children to pursue their learning without • Encourage children to explore and talk about what they • • Confident to speak to others about own needs, wants, interruption, to complete activities to their satisfaction, are learning, valuing their ideas and ways of doing things. interests and opinions. and to return to activities. Offer help with activities when asked but not before. • • Can describe self in positive terms and talk about abilities. Provide experiences and activities that are challenging • Intervene when children need help with difficult situations, • but achievable. e.g. is experiencing prejudice or unkindness. Early Learning Goal • Provide opportunities for children to reflect on • Recognising and enjoying children’s success with them Children are confident to try new activities, and say why 40-60+ successes, achievements and their own gifts and helps them to feel confident. they like some activities more than others. They are months talents. Support children to feel good about their own success, • confident to speak in a familiar group, will talk about Provide regular opportunities for children to talk to their • rather than relying on a judgement from you such as their ideas, and will choose the resources they need for small group about something they are interested in or wanting a sticker. their chosen activities. They say when they do or don’t have done. need help. Involve children in drawing or taking photographs of • favourite activities or places, to help them describe their individual preferences and opinions. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 11

12 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Managing feelings and behaviour A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could do observing what a child is learning what adults could provide Find out as much as you can from parents about young • • Learn lullabies that children know from home and share • Is comforted by touch and people’s faces and voices. babies before they join the setting, so that the routines them with others in the setting. Seeks physical and emotional comfort by snuggling in to • you follow are familiar and comforting. Have a cosy, quiet place for babies to be calm. • trusted adults. Use calming processes such as rocking or hugging. • • Provide comfortable seating such as a sofa or cushions Calms from being upset when held, rocked, spoken or sung • for baby and key person to be together. to with soothing voice. Suggest to parents bringing something from home as a • • Shows a range of emotions such as pleasure, fear and Birth - 11 transitional (comfort) object. excitement. months Reacts emotionally to other people’s emotions, e.g. smiles • when smiled at and becomes distressed if hears another child crying. • Have resources including picture books and stories that Establish shared understandings between home and • • Uses familiar adult to share feelings such as excitement or focus on a range of emotions, such as ‘I am happy’. setting about ways of responding to babies’ emotions. pleasure, and for ‘emotional refuelling’ when feeling tired, stressed or frustrated. • Keep toys and comforters in areas that are easy for Make sure the key person stays close by and provides • babies to locate. a secure presence and a refuge at times a child may be • Growing ability to soothe themselves, and may like to use a feeling anxious. comfort object. • Ensure that children can use their comfort objects from home when in the setting. Support children who are anxious on separating from their • Cooperates with caregiving experiences, e.g. dressing. • parents by acknowledging their feelings and reassuring • Share information with parents to create consistency • Beginning to understand ‘yes’, ‘no’ and some boundaries. 8-20 months them. between home and setting so that babies learn about boundaries. Demonstrate clear and consistent boundaries and • reasonable yet challenging expectations. Choose books and stories in which characters help and • Help young children to label emotions such as sadness • • Is aware of others’ feelings, for example, looks concerned if support each other. or happiness, by talking to them about their own feelings hears crying or looks excited if hears a familiar happy voice. and those of others. Duplicate some materials and resources to reduce • • Growing sense of will and determination may result in feelings conflict, e.g. two tricycles or two copies of the same • Be aware of and alert to possible dangers, while of anger and frustration which are difficult to handle, e.g. may book. recognising the importance of encouraging young have tantrums. children’s sense of exploration and risk-taking. • Responds to a few appropriate boundaries, with Reduce incidents of frustration and conflict by keeping • encouragement and support. 16-26 months routines flexible so that young children can pursue their • Begins to learn that some things are theirs, some things are interests. shared, and some things belong to other people. PSED: Managing feelings and behaviour Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 12 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

13 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Managing feelings and behaviour A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Have agreed procedures outlining how to respond to • Support children’s symbolic play, recognising that • Seeks comfort from familiar adults when needed. changes in children’s behaviour. pretending to do something can help a child to express • Can express their own feelings such as sad, happy, cross, their feelings. Share policies and practice with parents, ensuring an • scared, worried. accurate two-way exchange of information through Help children to understand their rights to be kept safe by • Responds to the feelings and wishes of others. • an interpreter or through translated materials, where others, and encourage them to talk about ways to avoid • Aware that some actions can hurt or harm others. necessary. harming or hurting others. • Tries to help or give comfort when others are distressed. • Provide areas to mirror different moods and • Help children to recognise when their actions hurt others. 22-36 months • Shows understanding and cooperates with some boundaries feelings- quiet restful areas as well as areas for active Be wary of expecting children to say ‘sorry’ before they and routines. exploration. have a real understanding of what this means. Can inhibit own actions/behaviours, e.g. stop themselves • Provide books, stories, puppets that can be used to • from doing something they shouldn’t do. model responding to others’ feelings and being helpful PSED: Managing feelings and behaviour and supportive to them. • Growing ability to distract self when upset, e.g. by engaging in a new play activity. • Provide photographs and pictures of emotions for Name and talk about a wide range of feelings and make it • • Aware of own feelings, and knows that some actions and children to look at and talk about. clear that all feelings are understandable and acceptable, words can hurt others’ feelings. including feeling angry, but that not all behaviours are. Use Persona Dolls to help children consider feelings, • Begins to accept the needs of others and can take turns and • ways to help others feel better about themselves, and Model how you label and manage your own feelings, e.g. • share resources, sometimes with support from others. dealing with conflicting opinions. ‘I’m feeling a bit angry and I need to calm down, so I’m • Can usually tolerate delay when needs are not immediately going to...’ Make available a range of music that captures different • met, and understands wishes may not always be met. moods. Ask children for their ideas on what might make people • • Can usually adapt behaviour to different events, social 30-50 months feel better when they are sad or cross. Put in place ways in which children can let others know • situations and changes in routine. how they are feeling, such as pegging their own photo • Show your own concern and respect for others, living onto a feelings tree or feelings faces washing line. things and the environment. Provide familiar, predictable routines, including • Establish routines with predictable sequences and events. • opportunities to help in appropriate tasks, e.g. dusting, • Prepare children for changes that may occur in the setting table or putting away toys. routine. • To support children with SEN, use a sequence of Share with parents the rationale of boundaries and • photographs to show the routines in the setting. expectations to maintain a joint approach. Set, explain and maintain clear, reasonable and • Model and involve children in finding solutions to problems • consistent limits so that children can feel safe and and conflicts. secure in their play and other activities. • Collaborate with children in creating explicit rules for the • Use pictures or consistent gestures to show children care of the environment. with SEN the expected behaviours. • Provide materials for a variety of role play themes. Provide a safe space for children to calm down or when • they need to be quiet. • Provide activities that help children to develop safe ways of dealing with anger and other strong feelings. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 13

14 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Managing feelings and behaviour Positive Relationships: A Unique Child: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Plan small group circle times when children can explore • Talk about fair and unfair situations, children’s feelings Understands that own actions affect other people, for • feelings, e.g. help children to recall when they were about fairness, and how we can make things fair. example, becomes upset or tries to comfort another child happy, when they were excited, or when they felt lonely. when they realise they have upset them. • Model being fair, e.g. when choosing children for special Provide activities that require give and take or sharing • jobs. Aware of the boundaries set, and of behavioural expectations • for things to be fair. in the setting. • Be alert to injustices and let children see that they are Use Persona Dolls to support children in considering • addressed and resolved. • Beginning to be able to negotiate and solve problems without fair ways to share and get on with each other. aggression, e.g. when someone has taken their toy. 40-60+ Affirm and praise positive behaviour, explaining that it • months Involve children in agreeing codes of behaviour and • makes children and adults feel happier. taking responsibility for implementing them. • Encourage children to think about issues from the Early Learning Goal Provide books with stories about characters that follow • viewpoint of others. Children talk about how they and others show feelings, or break rules, and the effects of their behaviour on Ensure that children have opportunities to identify and • talk about their own and others’ behaviour, and its others. discuss boundaries, so that they understand why they are consequences, and know that some behaviour is Carefully prepare children with SEN, such as those with • there and what they are intended to achieve. unacceptable. They work as part of a group or class, autistic spectrum disorder, for any changes to their and understand and follow the rules. They adjust their Make time to listen to children respectfully and kindly, and • routine. behaviour to different situations, and take changes of explain to all the children why this is important. Children routine in their stride. will then know that they will be listened to when they raise injustices. PSED: Managing feelings and behaviour Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 14 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

15 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Listening and attention A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could do what adults could provide observing what a child is learning • Share stories, songs and rhymes from all cultures and in • Being physically close, making eye contact, using • Turns toward a familiar sound then locates range of sounds babies’ home languages. touch or voice all provide ideal opportunities for with accuracy. early conversations between adults and babies, • Display photographs showing how young babies Listens to, distinguishes and responds to intonations and • and between one baby and another. communicate. sounds of voices. • Encourage playfulness, turn-taking and responses, Share favourite stories as babies are settling to sleep, or at • • Reacts in interaction with others by smiling, looking and including peek-a-boo and rhymes. other quiet times. moving. • Use a lively voice, with ups and downs to help Birth - 11 • Plan times when you can sing with young babies, encouraging Quietens or alerts to the sound of speech. • babies tune in. months them to join in. Looks intently at a person talking, but stops responding if • • Sing songs and rhymes during everyday routines. • Create an environment which invites responses from babies speaker turns away. and adults, for example, touching, smiling, smelling, feeling, Use repeated sounds, and words and phrases so • Listens to familiar sounds, words, or finger plays. • listening, exploring, describing and sharing. babies can begin to recognise particular sounds. Fleeting Attention – not under child’s control, new stimuli takes • whole attention. Communication and Language: Listening and attention • Moves whole bodies to sounds they enjoy, such as music or a regular beat. • Has a strong exploratory impulse. Concentrates intently on an object or activity of own choosing • for short periods. • Pays attention to dominant stimulus – easily distracted by noises or other people talking. 8-20 months • Encourage young children to explore and imitate • Collect resources that children can listen to and learn to Listens to and enjoys rhythmic patterns in rhymes and stories. • sound. distinguish between. These may include noises in the street, • Enjoys rhymes and demonstrates listening by trying to join in and games that involve guessing which object makes a with actions or vocalisations. • Talk about the different sounds they hear, such as a particular sound tractor’s “chug chug” while sharing a book. Rigid attention – may appear not to hear. • 16-26 months Keep background noise to a minimum, e.g. use music or radio • • Encourage repetition, rhythm and rhyme by using • Listens with interest to the noises adults make when they briefly only for particular purposes. tone and intonation as you tell, recite or sing read stories. stories, poems and rhymes from books. • Use puppets and other props to encourage listening and • Recognises and responds to many familiar sounds, e.g. responding when singing a familiar song or reading from a Be aware of the needs of children learning English • turning to a knock on the door, looking at or going to the door. story book. as an additional language from a variety of cultures • Shows interest in play with sounds, songs and rhymes. and ask parents to share their favourites from their Encourage children to learn one another’s names and to • • Single channelled attention. Can shift to a different task if home languages. pronounce them correctly. attention fully obtained – using child’s name helps focus. 22-36 months Ensure all staff can pronounce the names of children, parents • and other staff members. Make sure that shortened names and nicknames are not substituted instead. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 15

16 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Listening and attention A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could provide what adults could do observing what a child is learning When making up alliterative jingles, draw attention to • Model being a listener by listening to children and taking • • Listens to others one to one or in small groups, when the similarities in sounds at the beginning of words account of what they say in your responses to them. conversation interests them. and emphasise the initial sound, e.g. “mmmmummy”, Cue children, particularly those with communication • Listens to stories with increasing attention and recall. • “shshshshadow”, “K-K-K-KKaty”. Now we difficulties, into a change of conversation, e.g. ‘ • Joins in with repeated refrains and anticipates key events and • Plan activities listening carefully to different speech are going to talk about... ’ phrases in rhymes and stories. sounds, e.g. a sound chain copying the voice sound • For those children who find it difficult to ‘listen and do’, • Focusing attention – still listen or do, but can shift own around the circle, or identifying other children’s voices say their name before giving an instruction or asking a attention. 30-50 months on tape. question. Is able to follow directions (if not intently focused on own • • Help children be aware of different voice sounds by Share rhymes, books and stories from many cultures, • choice of activity). using a mirror to see what their mouth and tongue do sometimes using languages other than English, as they make different sounds. particularly where children are learning English as an When singing or saying rhymes, talk about the • additional language. Children then all hear a range of similarities in the rhyming words. Make up alternative languages and recognise the skill needed to speak more endings and encourage children to supply the last word than one. of the second line, e.g. ‘Hickory Dickory boot, The Introduce ‘rhyme time’ bags containing books to take • mouse ran down the... home and involve parents in rhymes and singing games. • Set up a listening area where children can enjoy rhymes • Ask parents to record regional variations of songs and and stories. rhymes. • Choose stories with repeated refrains, dances and • Play games which involve listening for a signal, such as • Maintains attention, concentrates and sits quietly during action songs involving looking and pointing, and songs ’ ‘ready, steady...go! ‘Simon Says’, and use appropriate activity. that require replies and turn-taking such as ‘Tommy • Use opportunities to stop and listen carefully for • Two-channelled attention – can listen and do for short span. Thumb’. environmental sounds, and talk about sounds you can Plan regular short periods when individuals listen • hear such as long, short, high, low. Early Learning Goal to others, such as singing a short song, sharing an • Explain why it is important to pay attention when others Children listen attentively in a range of situations. They experience or describing something they have seen are speaking. listen to stories, accurately anticipating key events and 40-60+ or done. respond to what they hear with relevant comments, Give children opportunities both to speak and to listen, • months Use sand timers to help extend concentration for • questions or actions. They give their attention to what ensuring that the needs of children learning English as children who find it difficult to focus their attention on others say and respond appropriately, while engaged in an additional language are met, so that they can a task. . another activity participate fully. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 16 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. Communication and Language: Listening and attention

17 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Understanding A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Let babies see and hear the sequence of actions you • Look at the baby and say their name. Make eye contact • Stops and looks when hears own name. go through as you carry out familiar routines. and wait for them to react. Starts to understand contextual clues, e.g. familiar gestures, • • Provide resources that stimulate babies’ interests such • Interpret and give meaning to the things young babies words and sounds. as a shiny bell, a book or a mirror. show interest in, e.g. when babies point to an object tell them what it is. • Display lists of words from different home languages, and invite parents and other adults to contribute. • Talk to babies about what you are doing and what is Birth - 11 Include languages such as Romany and Creole, since happening, so they will link words with actions, e.g. months seeing their languages reflected in the setting will preparing lunch. encourage all parents to feel involved and valued. Use actions to support your words, e.g. waving when you • Developing the ability to follow others’ body language, • When you use nursery rhymes, help children • say ‘bye bye’. including pointing and gesture. understand the words by using actions as well. Speak clearly. Babies respond well to a higher pitched, • Responds to the different things said when in a familiar • sing-song voice. ‘Where’s Mummy?’, context with a special person (e.g. Communication and Language: Understanding ‘Where’s your nose? ’). Use and repeat single words, so the baby can gradually • link the word to its meaning. • Understanding of single words in context is developing, e.g. ’. ‘cup’, ‘milk’, ‘daddy 8-20 months Plan play activities and provide resources which • • Selects familiar objects by name and will go and find objects Be aware that young children’s understanding is much • encourage young children to engage in symbolic when asked, or identify objects from a group. greater than their ability to express their thoughts and play, e.g. putting a ‘baby’ to bed and talking to it ideas. Understands simple sentences (e.g. ’) • ‘Throw the ball. appropriately. Recognise young children’s competence and appreciate • • Use pictures, books, real objects, and signs alongside their efforts when they show their understanding of new your words. words and phrases. 16-26 months • Include things which excite young children’s curiosity, • Use talk to describe what children are doing by providing • Identifies action words by pointing to the right picture, such as hats, bubbles, shells, story books, seeds and a running commentary, e.g. ‘Oh, I can see what you are e.g., “Who’s jumping?” snails. doing. You have to put the milk in the cup first.’ ‘Put your toys Understands more complex sentences, e.g. • Provide activities, such as cooking, where talk is used • • Provide opportunities for children to talk with other away and then we’ll read a book.’ to anticipate or initiate what children will be doing, children and adults about what they see, hear, think and • Understands ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’ in simple questions “We need some eggs. Let’s see if we can find e.g. feel. ). Who’s that/can? What’s that? Where is.? (e.g. some in here.” ). big/little Developing understanding of simple concepts (e.g. • 22-36 months Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 17

18 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Understanding A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could do observing what a child is learning what adults could provide Set up shared experiences that children can reflect • • Prompt children’s thinking and discussion through • Understands use of objects (e.g. “What do we use to cut upon, e.g. visits, cooking, or stories that can be re- involvement in their play. things?’ ) enacted. Talk to children about what they have been doing and • Shows understanding of prepositions such as ‘under’, ‘on • • Help children to predict and order events coherently, by help them to reflect upon and explain events, e.g. “You top’, ‘behind’ by carrying out an action or selecting correct providing props and materials that encourage children told me this model was going to be a tractor. What’s this picture. to re-enact, using talk and action. lever for?” Responds to simple instructions, e.g. to get or put away an • Find out from parents how children make themselves • • Give children clear directions and help them to deal with object. 30-50 months understood at home; confirm which their preferred “Put the cars those involving more than one action, e.g. • Beginning to understand ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions. language is. away, please, then come and wash your hands and get ready for lunch”. Provide practical experiences that encourage children • to ask and respond to questions, e.g. explaining pulleys When introducing a new activity, use mime and gesture to • or wet and dry sand. support language development. • Introduce, alongside books, story props, such as Showing children a photograph of an activity such as • pictures, puppets and objects, to encourage children to hand washing helps to reinforce understanding. retell stories and to think about how the characters feel. Be aware that some children may watch another child in • order to know what to do, rather than understanding it themselves. • Ask children to think in advance about how they will Responds to instructions involving a two-part sequence. • • Set up displays that remind children of what they have accomplish a task. Talk through and sequence the stages Understands humour, e.g. nonsense rhymes, jokes. experienced, using objects, artefacts, photographs and together. books. Able to follow a story without pictures or props. • Use stories from books to focus children’s attention on • • Provide for, initiate and join in imaginative play and • Listens and responds to ideas expressed by others in predictions and explanations, e.g. “Why did the boat tip role-play, encouraging children to talk about what is conversation or discussion. over?” happening and to act out the scenarios in character. 40-60+ Help children to • Early Learning Goal months identify patterns, e.g. what generally happens to ‘good’ ◆ Children follow instructions involving several ideas or and ‘wicked’ characters at the end of stories actions. They answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions about ‘The sky has gone dark. It must be ◆ draw conclusions: their experiences and in response to stories or events . going to rain’ ◆ explain effect: ‘It sank because it was too heavy’ ‘It might not grow in there if it is too dark’ predict: ◆ ◆ speculate: ‘What if the bridge falls down?’ Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 18 Communication and Language: Understanding They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

19 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Speaking A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could provide observing what a child is learning what adults could do • Learn and use key words in the home languages of • Find out from parents how they like to communicate with Communicates needs and feelings in a variety of ways • babies in the setting. their baby, noting especially the chosen language. including crying, gurgling, babbling and squealing. Provide tapes and tape recorders so that parents can • Ensure parents understand the importance of talking with • Makes own sounds in response when talked to by familiar • record familiar, comforting sounds, such as lullabies in babies in their home language. adults. home languages. Use these to help babies settle if they • Encourage babies’ sounds and babbling by copying their Lifts arms in anticipation of being picked up. • are tired or distressed. sounds in a turn-taking ‘conversation’. • Practises and gradually develops speech sounds (babbling) Birth - 11 • Communicate with parents to exchange and update baba, nono, to communicate with adults; says sounds like ‘ months information about babies’ personal words. gogo’. Find out from parents the words that children use for • Try to ‘tune in’ to the different messages young babies are • • Uses sounds in play, e.g. ‘brrrm’ for toy car. ‘bankie’ things which are important to them, such as attempting to convey. Uses single words. • Communication and Language: Speaking for their comfort blanket, remembering to extend this • Share the fun of discovery and value babies’ attempts at Frequently imitates words and sounds. • question to home languages. words, e.g., by picking up a doll in response to “baba”. • Enjoys babbling and increasingly experiments with using • Explain that strong foundations in a home language When babies try to say a word, repeat it back so they can • sounds and words to communicate for a range of purposes support the development of English. hear the name of the object clearly. (e.g. teddy, more, no, bye-bye. ) • Find out from parents greetings used in English and in • Uses pointing with eye gaze to make requests, and to share 8-20 months languages other than English, and use them in the setting. an interest. Recognise and equally value all languages spoken and • Creates personal words as they begin to develop language. • written by parents, staff and children. • Allow time to follow young children’s lead and have • Copies familiar expressions, e.g. ‘Oh dear’, ‘All gone’. apple or Build vocabulary by giving choices, e.g. ‘ • fun together while developing vocabulary, e.g. saying satsuma?’ Beginning to put two words together (e.g. ‘want ball’, • ’. ’, ‘going ‘ down jumping up We’re ’). ‘more juice Model building sentences by repeating what the child • Plan to talk through and comment on some activities • says and adding another word, e.g. child says ‘car’, say • Uses different types of everyday words (nouns, verbs and to highlight specific vocabulary or language structures, ‘mummy’s car’ or ‘blue car’. ). banana, go, sleep, hot adjectives, e.g. “You’ve caught the ball. I’ve caught the ball. e.g. Show children how to pronounce or use words by • • Beginning to ask simple questions. Nasima’s caught the ball”. responding and repeating what they say in the correct 16-26 months Beginning to talk about people and things that are not • Provide stories with repetitive phrases and structures to • way, rather than saying they are wrong. present. read aloud to children to support specific vocabulary or Accept and praise words and phrases in home languages, • language structures. saying English alternatives and encouraging their use. Encourage parents whose children are learning English as • an additional language to continue to encourage use of the first language at home. • Support children in using a variety of communication strategies, including signing, where appropriate. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 19

20 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Speaking Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Display pictures and photographs showing familiar • • Wait and allow the child time to start the conversation. Uses language as a powerful means of widening contacts, • events, objects and activities and talk about them with sharing feelings, experiences and thoughts. • Follow the child’s lead to talk about what they are the children. • Holds a conversation, jumping from topic to topic. interested in. Provide activities which help children to learn to • Learns new words very rapidly and is able to use them in • Give children ‘thinking time’. Wait for them to think about • distinguish differences in sounds, word patterns and what they want to say and put their thoughts into words, communicating. rhythms. without jumping in too soon to say something yourself. Uses gestures, sometimes with limited talk, e.g. reaches • Plan to encourage correct use of language by telling • • ‘I have it’. toward toy, saying For children learning English as an additional language, 22-36 months repetitive stories, and playing games which involve value non-verbal communications and those offered in what, where, who ). • Uses a variety of questions (e.g. repetition of words or phrases. home languages. ) • Uses simple sentences (e.g.’ Mummy gonna work.’ Provide opportunities for children whose home • Add words to what children say, e.g. child says ‘ • Brush ). Beginning to use word endings (e.g. going, cats • language is other than English, to use that language. dolly hair’, you say ‘Yes, Lucy is brushing dolly’s hair.’ Help children to build their vocabulary by extending the • Talk with children to make links between their body • • Beginning to use more complex sentences to link thoughts range of their experiences. “Your face does look cross. Has language and words, e.g. ). using and, because (e.g. • Ensure that all practitioners use correct grammar. something upset you?” • went down Can retell a simple past event in correct order (e.g. Foster children’s enjoyment of spoken and written • Introduce new words in the context of play and activities. • slide, hurt finger ). language by providing interesting and stimulating play • Use a lot of statements and fewer questions. When • Uses talk to connect ideas, explain what is happening and opportunities. you do ask a question, use an open question with many anticipate what might happen next, recall and relive past possible answers. experiences. 30-50 months Show interest in the words children use to communicate • • Questions why things happen and gives explanations. Asks and describe their experiences. who, what, when, how. e.g. Help children expand on what they say, introducing and • ). Uses a range of tenses (e.g. • play, playing, will play, played reinforcing the use of more complex sentences. • Uses intonation, rhythm and phrasing to make the meaning clear to others. • Uses vocabulary focused on objects and people that are of particular importance to them. Builds up vocabulary that reflects the breadth of their • experiences. • Uses talk in pretending that objects stand for something else ‘This box is my castle.’ in play, e,g, Communication and Language: Speaking Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 20 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

21 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Communication and Language: Speaking A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could provide observing what a child is learning what adults could do • Give time for children to initiate discussions from shared Support children’s growing ability to express a wide range • • Extends vocabulary, especially by grouping and naming, experiences and have conversations with each other. of feelings orally, and talk about their own experiences. exploring the meaning and sounds of new words. • Give thinking time for children to decide what they want • Encourage conversation with others and demonstrate Uses language to imagine and recreate roles and experiences • to say and how they will say it. appropriate conventions: turn-taking, waiting until in play situations. someone else has finished, listening to others and using Set up collaborative tasks, for example, construction, • Links statements and sticks to a main theme or intention. • expressions such as “ ” and “ can please ”, “ thank you food activities or story-making through role-play. • Uses talk to organise, sequence and clarify thinking, ideas, ”. At the same time, respond sensitively to social I...? 40-60+ • Help children to talk about and plan how they will feelings and events. conventions used at home. months begin, what parts each will play and what materials they • Introduces a storyline or narrative into their play. • Show children how to use language for negotiating, by will need. Would it be all right...? saying “ I think May I...? ”, “ ”, “ Decide on the key vocabulary linked to activities, and • that... ” in your interactions with them. ” and “ Will you...? Early Learning Goal ensure that all staff regularly model its use in a range of Communication and Language: Speaking Model language appropriates for different audiences, for • Children express themselves effectively, showing contexts. example, a visitor. awareness of listeners’ needs. They use past, present Provide opportunities for talking for a wide range • and future forms accurately when talking about events Encourage children to predict possible endings to stories • of purposes, e.g. to present ideas to others as that have happened or are to happen in the future. and events. descriptions, explanations, instructions or justifications, They develop their own narratives and explanations by and to discuss and plan individual or shared activities. Encourage children to experiment with words and sounds, • connecting ideas or events. e.g. in nonsense rhymes. Provide opportunities for children to participate in • meaningful speaking and listening activities. For • Encourage children to develop narratives in their play, example, children can take models that they have first, last, next, before, after, all, using words such as: made to show children in another group or class and most, some, each, every. explain how they were made. • Encourage language play, e.g. through stories such as ‘Goldilocks and the Three Bears’ and action songs that require intonation. • Value children’s contributions and use them to inform and shape the direction of discussions. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 21

22 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Physical Development: Moving and Handling A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Encourage babies to explore the space near them by Help babies to become aware of their own bodies through • Turns head in response to sounds and sights. • putting interesting things beside them, such as crinkly touch and movement, e.g. clapping the baby’s hands Gradually develops ability to hold up own head. • paper, or light, soft material. together, gently shaking baby’s foot. Makes movements with arms and legs which gradually • • Let babies kick and stretch freely on their tummies and Play games, such as offering a small toy and taking it • become more controlled. backs. again to rattle, or sail through the air. Rolls over from front to back, from back to front. • Have well-planned areas that allow babies maximum • Encourage young babies in their efforts to gradually share • When lying on tummy becomes able to lift first head and then • Birth - 11 space to move, roll, stretch and explore in safety control of the bottle with you. chest, supporting self with forearms and then straight arms. months indoors and outdoors. • Watches and explores hands and feet, e.g. when lying on Provide resources that move or make a noise when • back lifts legs into vertical position and grasps feet. touched to stimulate babies to reach out with their • Reaches out for, touches and begins to hold objects. arms and legs. Explores objects with mouth, often picking up an object and • • Provide objects to be sucked, pulled, squeezed and holding it to the mouth. held, to encourage the development of fine motor skills. • Provide novelty in the environment that encourages Engage babies in varied physical experiences, such as • Sits unsupported on the floor. • babies to use all of their senses and move indoors and bouncing, rolling, rocking and splashing, both indoors and When sitting, can lean forward to pick up small toys. • outdoors. outdoors. Pulls to standing, holding on to furniture or person for • • Offer low-level equipment so that babies can pull up Encourage babies to use resources they can grasp, • support. to a standing position, shuffle or walk, ensuring that squeeze and throw. • Crawls, bottom shuffles or rolls continuously to move around. they are safe at all times, while not restricting their • Encourage babies to notice other babies and children • Walks around furniture lifting one foot and stepping sideways explorations. coming and going near to them. (cruising), and walks with one or both hands held by adult. 8-20 months • Provide tunnels, slopes and low-level steps to stimulate Support and encourage babies’ drive to stand and walk. • • Takes first few steps independently. and challenge toddlers. • Be aware that babies have little sense of danger when • Passes toys from one hand to the other. • Provide push-along toys and trundle trikes indoors and their interests are focused on getting something they out. Holds an object in each hand and brings them together in the • want. middle, e.g. holds two blocks and bangs them together. Make toys easily accessible for children to reach and • Use feeding, changing and bathing times to share finger • fetch. Picks up small objects between thumb and fingers. • plays, such as ‘Round and Round the Garden’. • Plan space to encourage free movement. • Enjoys the sensory experience of making marks in damp Show babies different ways to make marks in dough or • sand, paste or paint. Provide resources that stimulate babies to handle and • paint by swirling, poking or patting it. manipulate things, e.g. toys with buttons to press or • Holds pen or crayon using a whole hand (palmar) grasp and books with flaps to open. makes random marks with different strokes. Use gloop (cornflour and water) in small trays so that • babies can enjoy putting fingers into it and lifting them out. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. Physical Development: Moving and Handling 22 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

23 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Physical Development: Moving and Handling A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Anticipate young children’s exuberance and ensure Encourage independence as young children explore • • Walks upstairs holding hand of adult. the space is clear and suitable for their rapid and particular patterns of movement, sometimes referred to as Comes downstairs backwards on knees (crawling). • sometimes unpredictable movements. schemas. Beginning to balance blocks to build a small tower. • Use music to stimulate exploration with rhythmic • Tell stories that encourage children to think about the way • Makes connections between their movement and the marks • movements. they move. they make. Provide different arrangements of toys and soft play • Treat mealtimes as an opportunity to help children to use • materials to encourage crawling, tumbling, rolling and fingers, spoon and cup to feed themselves. 16-26 months climbing. • Help young children to find comfortable ways of grasping, • Provide a range of wheeled toys indoors and outdoors, holding and using things they wish to use, such as a such as trundle trikes, buggies for dolls, push carts. hammer, a paintbrush or a teapot in the home corner. • Provide items for filling, emptying and carrying, such as Physical Development: Moving and Handling small paper carrier bags, baskets and buckets. • Provide materials that enable children to help with chores such as sweeping, pouring, digging or feeding pets. • Provide sticks, rollers and moulds for young children to use in dough, clay or sand. • Plan opportunities for children to tackle a range of • Be aware that children can be very energetic for short • Runs safely on whole foot. levels and surfaces including flat and hilly ground, bursts and need periods of rest and relaxation. • Squats with steadiness to rest or play with object on the grass, pebbles, asphalt, smooth floors and carpets. Value the ways children choose to move. • ground, and rises to feet without using hands. • Provide a range of large play equipment that can Give as much opportunity as possible for children to move • • Climbs confidently and is beginning to pull themselves up on be used in different ways, such as boxes, ladders, freely between indoors and outdoors. nursery play climbing equipment. A-frames and barrels. • Talk to children about their movements and help them to Can kick a large ball. • • Plan time for children to experiment with equipment explore new ways of moving, such as squirming, slithering 22-36 months Turns pages in a book, sometimes several at once. • and to practise movements they choose. and twisting along the ground like a snake, and moving • Shows control in holding and using jugs to pour, hammers, Provide safe spaces and explain safety to children and • quickly, slowly or on tiptoe. books and mark-making tools. parents. Encourage body tension activities such as stretching, • • Beginning to use three fingers (tripod grip) to hold writing tools Provide real and role-play opportunities for children • reaching, curling, twisting and turning. Imitates drawing simple shapes such as circles and lines. • to create pathways, e.g. road layouts, or going on a • Be alert to the safety of children, particularly those who picnic. Walks upstairs or downstairs holding onto a rail two feet to a • might overstretch themselves. step. • Provide CD and tape players, scarves, streamers and • Encourage children in their efforts to do up buttons, pour musical instruments so that children can respond May be beginning to show preference for dominant hand. • ‘Can you a drink, and manipulate objects in their play, e.g. spontaneously to music. put the dolly’s arm in the coat?’ • Plan activities that involve moving and stopping, such as musical bumps. Provide ‘tool boxes’ containing things that make marks, • so that children can explore their use both indoors and outdoors. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 23

24 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Physical Development: Moving and Handling A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Provide time and space to enjoy energetic • Encourage children to move with controlled • Moves freely and with pleasure and confidence in a range of ways, such as • play daily. effort, and use associated vocabulary such slithering, shuffling, rolling, crawling, walking, running, jumping, skipping, sliding as ‘ strong’, ‘firm’, ‘gentle’, ‘heavy’, ‘stretch’, and hopping. Provide large portable equipment that • ‘reach’, ‘tense’ and ‘floppy’. children can move about safely and • Mounts stairs, steps or climbing equipment using alternate feet. cooperatively to create their own structures, Use music of different styles and cultures to • Walks downstairs, two feet to each step while carrying a small object. • such as milk crates, tyres, large cardboard create moods and talk about how people move Runs skilfully and negotiates space successfully, adjusting speed or direction to • tubes. when they are sad, happy or cross. avoid obstacles. 30-50 months • Practise movement skills through games with • Motivate children to be active through games Can stand momentarily on one foot when shown. • beanbags, cones, balls and hoops. such as follow the leader. • Can catch a large ball. Plan activities where children can practise • • Talk about why children should take care when • Draws lines and circles using gross motor movements. moving in different ways and at different moving freely. speeds, balancing, target throwing, rolling, • Uses one-handed tools and equipment, e.g. makes snips in paper with child Teach children the skills they need to use • kicking and catching scissors. equipment safely, e.g. cutting with scissors or Provide sufficient equipment for children to • using tools. Holds pencil between thumb and two fingers, no longer using whole-hand grasp. • share, so that waiting to take turns does not • Encourage children to use the vocabulary of Holds pencil near point between first two fingers and thumb and uses it with good • spoil enjoyment. ‘gallop’ , ‘slither’ ; of instruction movement, e.g. control. • Mark out boundaries for some activities, such ‘follow’, ‘lead’ and ‘copy’. w e.g. Can copy some letters, e.g. letters from their name. • as games involving wheeled toys or balls, so • Can you Pose challenging questions such as ‘ that children can more easily regulate their • Experiments with different ways of moving. get all the way round the climbing frame without own activities. ’ your knees touching it? • Jumps off an object and lands appropriately. Provide activities that give children the • • Talk with children about the need to match their Negotiates space successfully when playing racing and chasing games with other • opportunity and motivation to practise actions to the space they are in. children, adjusting speed or changing direction to avoid obstacles. manipulative skills, e.g. cooking, painting, • Show children how to collaborate in throwing, • Travels with confidence and skill around, under, over and through balancing and clay and playing instruments. rolling, fetching and receiving games, climbing equipment. Provide play resources including small- • encouraging children to play with one another 40-60+ Shows increasing control over an object in pushing, patting, throwing, catching or • world toys, construction sets, threading and once their skills are sufficient. months kicking it. posting toys, dolls’ clothes and material for Introduce and encourage children to use the • collage. Uses simple tools to effect changes to materials. • vocabulary of manipulation, e.g. ‘ ’ and squeeze Teach children skills of how to use tools and • Handles tools, objects, construction and malleable materials safely and with • prod. ’ ‘ materials effectively and safely and give them increasing control. • Explain why safety is an important factor in opportunities to practise them. Shows a preference for a dominant hand. • handling tools, equipment and materials, and Provide a range of left-handed tools, • have sensible rules for everybody to follow. • Begins to use anticlockwise movement and retrace vertical lines. especially left-handed scissors, as needed. Begins to form recognisable letters. • • Support children with physical difficulties with • Uses a pencil and holds it effectively to form recognisable letters, most of which nonslip mats, small trays for equipment, and are correctly formed. triangular or thicker writing tools. • Provide a range of construction toys of Early Learning Goal different sizes, made of wood, rubber Children show good control and co-ordination in large and small movements. or plastic, that fix together in a variety of They move confidently in a range of ways, safely negotiating space. They ways, e.g. by twisting, pushing, slotting or handle equipment and tools effectively, including pencils for writing. magnetism. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. Physical Development: Moving and Handling 24 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

25 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Physical Development: Health and self-care Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: what adults could provide what adults could do observing what a child is learning • Plan to take account of the individual cultural and Responds to and thrives on warm, sensitive physical contact Encourage babies gradually to share control of food and • • feeding needs of young babies in your group. and care. drink. There may be considerable variation in the way parents • Expresses discomfort, hunger or thirst. • • Talk to parents about the feeding patterns of young feed their children at home. Remember that some babies. • Anticipates food routines with interest. parents may need interpreter support. • Talk to young babies as you stroke their cheeks, or pat • Trained staff can introduce baby massage sessions that their backs, reminding them that you are there and they Birth - 11 make young babies feel nurtured and promote a sense are safe. months of well-being. Involving parents helps them to use this • Notice individual baby cues when spending special one- approach at home. to-one time with them to ensure they are ready to engage. Discuss the cultural needs and expectations for • skin and hair care with parents prior to entry to the Physical Development: Health and self-care setting, ensuring that the needs of all children are met appropriately and that parents’ wishes are respected. Be aware of specific health difficulties among the babies in • the group. Provide a comfortable, accessible place where babies • Talk to parents about how their baby communicates • Opens mouth for spoon. • can rest or sleep when they want to. needs. Ensure that parents and carers who speak Holds own bottle or cup. • languages other than English are able to share their views. Plan alternative activities for babies who do not need • • Grasps finger foods and brings them to mouth. sleep at the same time as others do. • Help children to enjoy their food and appreciate healthier • Attempts to use spoon: can guide towards mouth but food choices by combining favourites with new tastes and • Ensure mealtime seating allows young children to have often falls off. textures.. feet firmly on the floor or foot rest. This aids stability Can actively cooperate with nappy changing (lies still, helps • and upper trunk control supporting hand-to-mouth co- Be aware that babies have little sense of danger when • hold legs up). 8-20 months ordination. their interests are focused on getting something they Starts to communicate urination, bowel movement. • want. • Provide safe surroundings in which young children have freedom to move as they want, while being kept safe by watchful adults. Ensure that there is time for young children to complete • Encourage efforts such as when a young child offers their • Develops own likes and dislikes in food and drink. • a self-chosen task, such as trying to put on their own arm to put in a coat sleeve. • Willing to try new food textures and tastes. shoes. Be aware of and learn about differences in cultural • Holds cup with both hands and drinks without much spilling. • • Establish routines that enable children to look after attitudes to children’s developing independence. Clearly communicates wet or soiled nappy or pants. • themselves, e.g. putting their • Discuss cultural expectations for toileting, since in some • Shows some awareness of bladder and bowel urges. clothes and aprons on hooks or washing themselves. cultures young boys may be used to sitting rather than Shows awareness of what a potty or toilet is used for. • standing at the toilet. Create time to discuss options so that young children • 16-26 months • Shows a desire to help with dressing/undressing and hygiene have choices between healthy options, such as Value children’s choices and encourage them to try • routines. whether they will drink water or milk. something new and healthy. Place water containers where children can find them • easily and get a drink when they need one. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 25

26 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Physical Development: Health and self-care A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could do what adults could provide observing what a child is learning • Allow children to pour their own drinks, serve their own • Respond to how child communicates need for food, Feeds self competently with spoon. • food, choose a story, hold a puppet or water a plant. drinks, toileting and when uncomfortable. • Drinks well without spilling. • Offer choices for children in terms of potties, trainer Support parents’ routines with young children’s toileting • • Clearly communicates their need for potty or toilet. seats or steps. by having flexible routines and by encouraging children’s Beginning to recognise danger and seeks support of • efforts at independence. • Create opportunities for moving towards independence, significant adults for help. e.g. have hand-washing facilities safely within reach. • Support children’s growing independence as they do Helps with clothing, e.g. puts on hat, unzips zipper on jacket, • things for themselves, such as pulling up their pants after • Provide pictures or objects representing options to 22-36 months takes off unbuttoned shirt. toileting, recognising differing parental expectations. support children in making and expressing choices. Beginning to be independent in self-care, but still often needs • • Involve young children in preparing food. Choose some stories that highlight the consequences • adult support. of choices. • Give children the chance to talk about what they like to eat, while reinforcing messages about healthier choices. • Ensure children’s safety, while not unduly inhibiting their risk-taking. • Remember that children who have limited opportunity to play outdoors may lack a sense of danger. Display a colourful daily menu showing healthy meals • and snacks and discuss choices with the children, reminding them, e.g. that they tried something previously and might like to try it again or encouraging them to try something new. • Be aware of eating habits at home and of the different ways people eat their food, e.g. that eating with clean fingers is as skilled and equally valued as using cutlery. Provide a cosy place with a cushion and a soft light • • Talk with children about why you encourage them to rest Can tell adults when hungry or tired or when they want to rest • where a child can rest quietly if they need to. when they are tired or why they need to wear wellingtons or play. when it is muddy outdoors. • Plan so that children can be active in a range of ways, Observes the effects of activity on their bodies. • including while using a wheelchair. Encourage children to notice the changes in their bodies • Understands that equipment and tools have to be used safely. • after exercise, such as their heart beating faster. Encourage children to be active and energetic by • • Gains more bowel and bladder control and can attend to organising lively games, since physical activity is • Talk with children about the importance of hand-washing. toileting needs most of the time themselves. important in maintaining good health and in guarding • Help children who are struggling with self-care by leaving 30-50 months • Can usually manage washing and drying hands. against children becoming overweight or obese in a last small step for them to complete, e.g. pulling up their Dresses with help, e.g. puts arms into open-fronted coat or • later life. trousers from just below the waist. shirt when held up, pulls up own trousers, and pulls up zipper once it is fastened at the bottom. Physical Development: Health and self-care Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 26 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

27 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Physical Development: Health and self-care Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Plan opportunities, particularly after exercise, for Acknowledge and encourage children’s efforts to manage • Eats a healthy range of foodstuffs and understands need for • children to talk about how their bodies feel. their personal needs, and to use and return resources variety in food. appropriately. • Find ways to involve children so that they are all able Usually dry and clean during the day. • to be active in ways that interest them and match their Promote health awareness by talking with children • Shows some understanding that good practices with regard • health and ability. about exercise, its effect on their bodies and the positive to exercise, eating, sleeping and hygiene can contribute to contribution it can make to their health. good health. 40-60+ Be sensitive to varying family expectations and life • • Shows understanding of the need for safety when tackling months patterns when encouraging thinking about health. new challenges, and considers and manages some risks. Discuss with children why they get hot and encourage • Shows understanding of how to transport and store • them to think about the effects of the environment, such equipment safely. as whether opening a window helps everybody to be Practices some appropriate safety measures without direct • Physical Development: Health and self-care cooler. supervision. Early Learning Goal Children know the importance for good health of physical exercise, and a healthy diet, and talk about ways to keep healthy and safe. They manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs successfully, including dressing and going to the toilet independently. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 27

28 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Literacy: Reading A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Collect a range of board books, cloth books and stories • • Enjoys looking at books and other printed material with • Use finger play, rhymes and familiar songs from home to familiar people. to share with young babies. support young babies’ enjoyment. Birth - 11 months • • Handles books and printed material with interest. • Notice and support babies’ developing responses as they Let children handle books and draw their attention to pictures. learn to anticipate and join in with finger and word play. • Tell, as well as read, stories, looking at and interacting with young babies. Make family books using small photo albums with • photos of family members, significant people in the child’s life, familiar everyday objects. 8-20 months • Interested in books and rhymes and may have favourites. • Encourage and support children’s responses to picture • Provide CDs of rhymes, stories, sounds and spoken books and stories you read with them. words. • Use different voices to tell stories and encourage young Provide picture books, books with flaps or hidden • children to join in wherever possible. words, books with accompanying CDs and story sacks. Provide story sacks for parents to take them home to • encourage use of books and talk about stories. 16-26 months • • Has some favourite stories, rhymes, songs, poems or jingles. Create an attractive book area where children and • Encourage children to use the stories they hear in their adults can enjoy books together. play. • Repeats words or phrases from familiar stories. Read stories that children already know, pausing at • • Find opportunities to tell and read stories to children, Fills in the missing word or phrase in a known rhyme, story or • intervals to encourage them to ‘read’ the next word. using puppets, soft toys, or real objects as props. game, e.g. ‘Humpty Dumpty sat on a ...’. Provide stories, pictures and puppets which allow • children to experience and talk about how characters feel. 22-36 months Literacy: Reading Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 28 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

29 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Literacy: Reading Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could provide what adults could do • Provide some simple poetry, song, fiction and non-fiction • Focus on meaningful print such as a child’s name, • Enjoys rhyming and rhythmic activities. books. words on a cereal packet or a book title, in order to • Shows awareness of rhyme and alliteration. discuss similarities and differences between symbols. Provide fact and fiction books in all areas, e.g. • • Recognises rhythm in spoken words. construction area as well as the book area. Help children to understand what a word is by using • • Listens to and joins in with stories and poems, one-to-one names and labels and by pointing out words in the Provide books containing photographs of the children • and also in small groups. environment and in books. that can be read by adults and that children can begin to Joins in with repeated refrains and anticipates key events and • ‘read’ by themselves. • Provide dual language books and read them with all Literacy: Reading phrases in rhymes and stories. children, to raise awareness of different scripts. Try to 30-50 months Add child-made books and adult-scribed stories to the • • Beginning to be aware of the way stories are structured. match dual language books to languages spoken by book area and use these for sharing stories with others. families in the setting. Suggests how the story might end. • Create an environment rich in print where children can • • Remember not all languages have written forms and • Listens to stories with increasing attention and recall. learn about words, e.g. using names, signs, posters. not all families are literate either in English, or in a • Describes main story settings, events and principal characters. • When children can see the text, e.g. using big books. different home language. model the language of print, such as letter, word, page, Shows interest in illustrations and print in books and print in • • Discuss with children the characters in books being beginning, end, first, last, middle. the environment. read. • Introduce children to books and other materials that Recognises familiar words and signs such as own name and • Encourage them to predict outcomes, to think of • provide information or instructions. Carry out activities advertising logos. alternative endings and to compare plots and the using instructions, such as reading a recipe to make a Looks at books independently. • feelings of characters with their own experiences. cake. Handles books carefully. • Plan to include home language and bilingual story • • Ensure access to stories for all children by using a range sessions by involving qualified bilingual adults, as well • Knows information can be relayed in the form of print. of visual cues and story props. as enlisting the help of parents. Holds books the correct way up and turns pages. • • Knows that print carries meaning and, in English, is read from left to right and top to bottom. Encourage children to add to their first-hand experience • Discuss and model ways of finding out information • • Continues a rhyming string. of the world through the use of books, other texts from non-fiction texts. • Hears and says the initial sound in words. and information, and information and communication Provide story sacks and boxes and make them with • • Can segment the sounds in simple words and blend them technology (ICT). the children for use in the setting and at home. together and knows which letters represent some of them. Help children to identify the main events in a story and to • • Encourage children to recall words they see frequently, Links sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of • enact stories, as the basis for further imaginative play. such as their own and friends’ names. the alphabet. Provide story boards and props which support children to • • Model oral blending of sounds to make words in Begins to read words and simple sentences. • 40-60+ talk about a story’s characters and sequence of events. ‘Can you get your h-a-t hat?’ everyday contexts, e.g. months Uses vocabulary and forms of speech that are increasingly • • When children are ready (usually, but not always, by the • Play games like word letter bingo to develop children’s influenced by their experiences of books. age of five) provide regular systematic synthetic phonics phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Enjoys an increasing range of books. • sessions. These should be multisensory in order to Model to children how simple words can be • capture their interests, sustain motivation and reinforce • Knows that information can be retrieved from books and segmented into sounds and blended together to make learning. computers. words. • Demonstrate using phonics as the prime approach to Support and scaffold individual children’s reading as • Early Learning Goal decode words while children can see the text, e.g. using opportunities arise. big books. Children read and understand simple sentences. They use phonic knowledge to decode regular words and read • Provide varied texts and encourage children to use all their them aloud accurately. They also read some common skills including their phonic knowledge to decode words. irregular words. They demonstrate understanding when Provide some simple texts which children can decode to • talking with others about what they have read. give them confidence and to practise their developing skills. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 29

30 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Literacy: Writing Positive Relationships: A Unique Child: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Birth - 11 months See Communication and Language See Communication and Language Children’s later writing is based on skills and understandings which they develop as babies and toddlers. Before they can write, they need to learn to use spoken language to communicate. Later they learn to write down the words they in Communication and can say. (See the roots of Writing language ). Early mark-making is not the same as writing.It is a sensory and physical experience for babies and toddlers, which they do 8-20 months not yet connect to forming symbols which can communicate meaning.(See roots of mark-making and handwriting in Playing and ). Physical Development and exploring 16-26 months • Draw attention to marks, signs and symbols in the • • Distinguishes between the different marks they make. Listen and support what children tell you about the marks environment and talk about what they represent. they make. Ensure this involves recognition of English and other relevant scripts. Provide materials which reflect a cultural spread, so that • children see symbols and marks with which they are familiar, e.g. Chinese script on a shopping bag. 22-36 months Literacy: Writing Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 30 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

31 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Literacy: Writing A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Write down things children say to support their • • Notice and encourage the marks children make and the Sometimes gives meaning to marks as they draw and paint. developing understanding that what they say can meanings that they give to them, such as when a child • Ascribes meanings to marks that they see in different places. be written down and then read and understood by covers a whole piece of paper and says, “I’m writing”. someone else. Encourage parents to do this as well. Support children in recognising and writing their own • Model writing for a purpose, e.g. a shopping list, • names. message for parents, or reminder for ourselves. Make books with children of activities they have been • Literacy: Writing Model writing poems and short stories, writing down • doing, using photographs of them as illustrations. 30-50 months ideas suggested by the children. • Provide activities during which children will experiment with writing, for example, leaving a message. Include opportunities for writing during role-play and • other activities. • Encourage the children to use their phonic knowledge when writing. • Provide word banks and writing resources for both Talk to children about the letters that represent the sounds • Gives meaning to marks they make as they draw, write and • indoor and outdoor play. they hear at the beginning of their own names and other paint. familiar words. Provide a range of opportunities to write for different • • Begins to break the flow of speech into words. purposes about things that interest children. Demonstrate writing so that children can see spelling in • • Continues a rhyming string. action. • Resource role-play areas with listening and writing Hears and says the initial sound in words. • equipment Ensure that role-play areas encourage Demonstrate how to segment the sounds(phonemes) in • Can segment the sounds in simple words and blend them • 40-60+ writing of signs with a real purpose, e.g. a pet shop. simple words and how the sounds are represented by together. months letters (graphemes). • Plan fun activities and games that help children Links sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of • create rhyming strings of real and imaginary words, • Expect them to apply their own grapheme/phoneme the alphabet. Maddie, daddy, baddie, laddie. e.g. knowledge to what they write in meaningful contexts. Uses some clearly identifiable letters to communicate • When children are ready (usually, but not always, by the • • Support and scaffold individual children’s writing as meaning, representing some sounds correctly and in age of five) provide regular systematic synthetic phonics opportunities arise. sequence. sessions. These should be multisensory in order to • Writes own name and other things such as labels,captions. capture their interests, sustain motivation and reinforce learning. Attempts to write short sentences in meaningful contexts. • Early Learning Goal Children use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which match their spoken sounds. They also write some irregular common words. They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others. Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 31

32 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Mathematics: Numbers A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Sing number rhymes as you dress or change babies, e.g. Notices changes in number of objects/images or sounds in • Display favourite things so that a young baby can see • group of up to 3. ‘One, Two, Buckle My Shoe’. them. • Move with babies to the rhythm patterns in familiar songs Provide a small group of the same objects in treasure • and rhymes. baskets, as well as single items, e.g. two fir cones or three shells. Encourage babies to join in tapping and clapping along to • simple rhythms. • Create a mobile, occasionally changing the number of items you hang on it. Birth - 11 Collect number rhymes which are repetitive and are • months related to children’s actions and experiences, for Develops an awareness of number names through their • example, ‘Peter Hammers with One Hammer’. enjoyment of action rhymes and songs that relate to their • Use song and rhymes during personal routines, e.g. experience of numbers. ‘Two Little Eyes to Look Around’, pointing to their eyes, • Has some understanding that things exist, even when out of one by one. sight. Collect number and counting rhymes from a range of • cultures and in other languages. This will benefit all children and will give additional support for children 8-20 months learning English as an additional language. • Knows that things exist, even when out of sight. and • Provide varied opportunities to explore ‘few’ ‘lots’ • Use number words in meaningful contexts, e.g. ‘ Here is in play. your other mitten. Now we have two’. Beginning to organise and categorise objects, e.g. putting all • the teddy bears together or teddies and cars in separate piles. • Equip the role-play area with things that can be sorted Talk to young children about ‘lots’ and ‘few’ as they play. • in different ways. • Says some counting words randomly. Talk about young children’s choices and, where • Provide collections of objects that can be sorted and • appropriate, demonstrate how counting helps us to find matched in various ways. out how many. Provide resources that support children in making one- • Talk about the maths in everyday situations, e.g. doing up • 16-26 months to-one correspondences, e.g. giving each dolly a cup. a coat, one hole for each button. • Tell parents about all the ways children learn about numbers in your setting. Have interpreter support or translated materials to support children and families learning English as an additional language • Make a display with the children about their favourite Encourage parents of children learning English as an • • Selects a small number of objects from a group when asked, things. Talk about how many like apples, or which of additional language to talk in their home language about for example, ‘please give me one’, ‘please give me two’. them watches a particular TV programme at home. quantities and numbers. • Recites some number names in sequence. Provide props for children to act out counting songs • Sing counting songs and rhymes which help to develop • Creates and experiments with symbols and marks • and rhymes. children’s understanding of number, such as ‘Two Little representing ideas of number. Dickie Birds’. Provide games and equipment that offer opportunities • • Begins to make comparisons between quantities. for counting, such as skittles. • Play games which relate to number order, addition and 22-36 months Uses some language of quantities, such as ‘a lot’. • and ‘more’ subtraction, such as hopscotch and skittles and target Plan to incorporate a mathematical component in areas • Mathematics: Numbers Knows that a group of things changes in quantity when • games. such as the sand, water or other play areas. something is added or taken away. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 32 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

33 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Mathematics: Numbers A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could do observing what a child is learning what adults could provide Give children a reason to count, e.g. by asking them to • Uses some number names and number language • ‘one’, ‘two’, ‘three’, ‘lots’, • Use number language, e.g. select enough wrist bands for three friends to play with spontaneously. ‘fewer’, ‘hundreds’, ‘how many?’ and ‘count’ in a variety the puppets. of situations. Uses some number names accurately in play. • ‘There Enable children to note the ‘missing set’, e.g. • Support children’s developing understanding of • • Recites numbers in order to 10. when sharing things out. are none left’ abstraction by counting things that are not objects, such • Knows that numbers identify how many objects are in a set. as hops, jumps, clicks or claps. • Provide number labels for children to use, e.g. • Beginning to represent numbers using fingers, marks on paper by putting a number label on each bike and a Model counting of objects in a random layout, showing • 30-50 months or pictures. Mathematics: Numbers corresponding number on each parking space. the result is always the same as long as each object is • Sometimes matches numeral and quantity correctly. only counted once. Include counting money and change in role-play • • Shows curiosity about numbers by offering comments or games. • Model and encourage use of mathematical language e.g. asking questions. asking questions such as ‘How many saucepans will fit on • Create opportunities for children to separate objects the shelf?’ Compares two groups of objects, saying when they have the • into unequal groups as well as equal groups. same number. • Help children to understand that one thing can be shared Provide story props that children can use in their play, • by number of pieces, e.g. a pizza. • Shows an interest in number problems. e.g. varieties of fruit and several baskets like Handa’s in Handa’s Surprise the story by Eileen Browne. ‘When As you read number stories or rhymes, ask e.g. • Separates a group of three or four objects in different ways, • one more frog jumps in, how many will there be in the beginning to recognise that the total is still the same. pool altogether?’ • Shows an interest in numerals in the environment. Use pictures and objects to illustrate counting songs, • Shows an interest in representing numbers. • rhymes and number stories. Realises not only objects, but anything can be counted, • Encourage children to use mark-making to support their • including steps, claps or jumps. thinking about numbers and simple problems. • Talk with children about the strategies they are using, e.g. to work out a solution to a simple problem by using fingers or counting aloud. • Provide collections of interesting things for children to Encourage estimation, e.g. estimate how many • • Recognise some numerals of personal significance. sort, order, count and label in their play. sandwiches to make for the picnic. Recognises numerals 1 to 5. • Display numerals in purposeful contexts, e.g. a sign • Encourage use of mathematical language, e.g. number • Counts up to three or four objects by saying one number • showing how many children can play on a number ‘Have you got enough to give me three?’ names to ten: name for each item. track. • Ensure that children are involved in making displays, e.g. Counts actions or objects which cannot be moved. • • Use tactile numeral cards made from sandpaper, velvet making their own pictograms of lunch choices. Develop • Counts objects to 10, and beginning to count beyond 10. 40-60+ or string. this as a 3D representation using bricks and discuss the • Counts out up to six objects from a larger group. months most popular choices. Create opportunities for children to experiment with a • number of objects, the written numeral and the written • Add numerals to all areas of learning and development, number word. Develop this through matching activities e.g. to a display of a favourite story, such as ‘The Three with a range of numbers, numerals and a selection of Billy Goats Gruff’. objects. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 33

34 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Mathematics: Numbers Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: what adults could do what adults could provide observing what a child is learning Use a 100 square to show number patterns. • Make books about numbers that have meaning for the • Selects the correct numeral to represent 1 to 5, then 1 to 10 • child such as favourite numbers, birth dates or telephone objects. Encourage children to count the things they see and • numbers. talk about and use numbers beyond ten • Counts an irregular arrangement of up to ten objects. Use rhymes, songs and stories involving counting on and • • Make number games readily available and teach • Estimates how many objects they can see and checks by counting back in ones, twos, fives and tens. children how to use them. counting them. • Emphasise the empty set and introduce the concept of • Display interesting books about number. • Uses the language of ‘more’ and ‘fewer’ to compare two sets nothing or zero. of objects. • Play games such as hide and seek that involve • Show interest in how children solve problems and value counting. Finds the total number of items in two groups by counting all • their different solutions. of them. Encourage children to record what they have done, e.g. • Make sure children are secure about the order of numbers • by drawing or tallying. • Says the number that is one more than a given number. before asking what comes after or before each number. • Use number staircases to show a starting point and Finds one more or one less from a group of up to five objects, • • Discuss with children how problems relate to others they how you arrive at another point when something is then ten objects. have met, and their different solutions. added or taken away. • In practical activities and discussion, beginning to use the • Talk about the methods children use to answer a problem Provide a wide range of number resources and • vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting. ‘Get one more, and then we will they have posed, e.g. encourage children to be creative in identifying and • Records, using marks that they can interpret and explain. both have two.’ devising problems and solutions in all areas of learning. • Begins to identify own mathematical problems based on own Encourage children to make up their own story problems • • Make number lines available for reference and interests and fascinations. for other children to solve. encourage children to use them in their own play. Encourage children to extend problems, e.g. • “Suppose • Big number lines may be more appropriate than Early Learning Goal there were three people to share the bricks between counters for children with physical impairments. instead of two”. Children count reliably with numbers from one to 20, Help children to understand that five fingers on each • place them in order and say which number is one more Use mathematical vocabulary and demonstrate methods • hand make a total of ten fingers altogether, or that two or one less than a given number. Using quantities and of recording, using standard notation where appropriate. rows of three eggs in the box make six eggs altogether. objects, they add and subtract two single-digit numbers Give children learning English as additional language • and count on or back to find the answer. They solve opportunities to work in their home language to ensure problems, including doubling, halving and sharing. accurate understanding of concepts. Mathematics: Numbers Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 34 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

35 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Mathematics: Shape, space and measure Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Babies’ early awareness of shape, space and measure grows from their sensory awareness and opportunities to observe See Characteristics of Effective Learning - Playing and Characteristics of Effective Learning - Playing and See objects and their movements, and to play and explore. Exploring, Physical Development. and Exploring, Physical Development. and Characteristics of Effective Learning - Playing and See Birth - 11 Physical Development. and Exploring, months Provide a range of objects of various textures and • • Recognises big things and small things in meaningful contexts. Play games that involve curling and stretching, popping • weights in treasure baskets to excite and encourage up and bobbing down. Gets to know and enjoy daily routines, such as getting-up • babies’ interests. time, mealtimes, nappy time, and bedtime. Encourage babies’ explorations of the characteristics of • Mathematics: Shape, space and measure Look at books showing objects such as a big truck and • objects, e.g. by rolling a ball to them. a little truck; or a big cat and a small kitten. • Talk about what objects are like and how objects, such as Use story props to support all children and particularly • a sponge, can change their shape by being squeezed or those learning English as an additional language. stretched. 8-20 months • Encourage children, when helping with domestic tasks, Use ‘tidy up time’ to promote logic and reasoning about • Attempts, sometimes successfully, to fit shapes into spaces on • to put all the pieces of apple on one dish and all the where things fit in or are kept. inset boards or jigsaw puzzles. pieces of celery on another for snacks. Talk to children, as they play with water or sand, to • • Uses blocks to create their own simple structures and Use pictures or shapes of objects to indicate where • encourage them to think about when something is full, arrangements. things are kept and encourage children to work out empty or holds more. Enjoys filling and emptying containers. • where things belong. • Help young children to create different arrangements in • Associates a sequence of actions with daily routines. Provide different sizes and shapes of containers • the layout of road and rail tracks. 16-26 months • Beginning to understand that things might happen ‘now’. in water play, so that children can experiment with • Highlight patterns in daily activities and routines. quantities and measures. Help children use their bodies to explore shape, through • • Offer a range of puzzles with large pieces and knobs touching, seeing and feeling shape in art, music and or handles to support success in fitting shapes into dance. spaces. • Collect pictures that illustrate the use of shapes and • Talk about and help children to recognise patterns. Notices simple shapes and patterns in pictures. • patterns from a variety of cultures, e.g. Arabic designs. • Draw children’s attention to the patterns e.g. square/ Beginning to categorise objects according to properties such • • Provide opportunities for children to measure time oblong/square which emerges as you fold or unfold a as shape or size. (sand timer), weight (balances) and length (standard tablecloth or napkin. Begins to use the language of size. • and non-standard units). ’ in everyday play ’ and ‘ • little big Use descriptive words like ‘ • Understands some talk about immediate past and future, e.g. Vary the volume and capacity equipment in the sand, • situations and through books and stories. ’ or ‘ later soon ’. ’, ‘ before ‘ water and other play areas to maintain interest. Be consistent in your use of vocabulary for weight and • 22-36 months Anticipates specific time-based events such as mealtimes or • Use coins for sorting on play trays and into bags, • mass. home time. purses and containers. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 35

36 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Mathematics: Shape, space and measure Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Measure for a purpose, such as finding out whether a • teddy will fit in a bed. Organise the environment to foster shape matching, • • Demonstrate the language for shape, position and • Shows an interest in shape and space by playing with shapes e.g. pictures of different bricks on containers to show measures in discussions, e.g. ‘sphere’, ‘shape’, ‘box’, or making arrangements with objects. where they are kept. ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘inside’, ‘under’, long, longer’, ‘longest’, ‘short’, • Shows awareness of similarities of shapes in the environment. shorter’, ’shortest’, ‘heavy’, ‘light’, ‘full’ and ‘empty’. • Have large and small blocks and boxes available for • Uses positional language. construction both indoors and outdoors. • Find out and use equivalent terms for these in home • Shows interest in shape by sustained construction activity or languages. Play games involving children positioning themselves • by talking about shapes or arrangements. inside, behind, on top and so on. • Encourage children to talk about the shapes they see and 30-50 months • Shows interest in shapes in the environment. use and how they are arranged and used in constructions. Provide rich and varied opportunities for comparing • Uses shapes appropriately for tasks. • length, weight, capacity and time. • Value children’s constructions, e.g. helping to display • Beginning to talk about the shapes of everyday objects, them or taking photographs of them. Use stories such as Rosie’s Walk by Pat Hutchins to • ’. tall round e.g. ‘ ’ and ‘ talk about distance and stimulate discussion about non-standard units and the need for standard units. Show pictures that have symmetry or pattern and talk • to children about them. Make books about shape, time and measure: shapes • Ask ‘silly’ questions, e.g. show a tiny box and ask if there • • Beginning to use mathematical names for ‘solid’ 3D shapes found in the environment; long and short things; things is a bicycle in it. and ‘flat’ 2D shapes, and mathematical terms to describe of a specific length; and ones about patterns, or shapes. • Play peek-a-boo, revealing shapes a little at a time and at comparing things that are heavier or lighter. different angles, asking children to say what they think the • Selects a particular named shape. • Have areas where children can explore the properties of shape is, what else it could be or what it could not be. ’ or • Can describe their relative position such as ‘ behind objects and where they can weigh and measure, such • Be a robot and ask children to give you instructions to get next to ’. ‘ as a cookery station or a building area. to somewhere. Let them have a turn at being the robot for 40-60+ Orders two or three items by length or height. • • Plan opportunities for children to describe and compare you to instruct. months • Orders two items by weight or capacity. shapes, measures and distance. Introduce children to the use of mathematical names • • Uses familiar objects and common shapes to create and Provide materials and resources for children to observe • for ‘solid’ 3D shapes and ‘flat’ 2D shapes, and the recreate patterns and build models. and describe patterns in the indoor and outdoor mathematical terms to describe shapes. • Uses everyday language related to time. environment and in daily routines. • Encourage children to use everyday words to describe • Beginning to use everyday language related to money. Provide a range of natural materials for children to • position, e.g. when following pathways or playing with arrange, compare and order. outdoor apparatus. • Orders and sequences familiar events. Measures short periods of time in simple ways. • Early Learning Goal Children use everyday language to talk about size, weight, capacity, position, distance, time and money to compare quantities and objects and to solve problems. They recognise, create and describe patterns. They explore characteristics of everyday objects and shapes and use mathematical language to describe them. Mathematics: Shape, space and measure Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 36 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

37 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Understanding the world: People and communities A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide The beginnings of understanding of People and communities and Personal, Social and Emotional Development See and Personal, Social and Emotional Development See Birth - 11 Personal, lie in early attachment and other relationships. See Communication and Language. Communication and Language. months Social and Emotional Development Communication and and Language. Understanding the world: People and communities 8-20 months • Provide opportunities for babies to see people and Is curious about people and shows interest in stories about • Help children to learn each other’s names, e.g. through • things beyond the baby room, including the activities of themselves and their family. songs and rhymes. older children. • Enjoys pictures and stories about themselves, their families Be positive about differences between people and • • Collect stories for, and make books about, children in and other people. support children’s acceptance of difference. Be aware the group, showing things they like to do. that negative attitudes towards difference are learned from examples the children witness. • Provide books and resources which represent children’s diverse backgrounds and which avoid negative • Ensure that each child is recognised as a valuable 16-26 months stereotypes. contributor to the group. • Make photographic books about the children in the Celebrate and value cultural, religious and community • setting and encourage parents to contribute to these. events and experiences • Provide positive images of all children including those with diverse physical characteristics, including disabilities. • Talk to children about their friends, their families, and why • Share photographs of children’s families, friends, pets • Has a sense of own immediate family and relations. they are important. or favourite people. • In pretend play, imitates everyday actions and events from • Support children’s understanding of difference and of own family and cultural background, e.g. making and drinking empathy by using props such as puppets and dolls tea. to tell stories about diverse experiences, ensuring that Beginning to have their own friends. • negative stereotyping is avoided. Learns that they have similarities and differences that connect • them to, and distinguish them from, others. 22-36 months Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 37

38 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Understanding the world: People and communities Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Plan extra time for helping children in transition, such • Encourage children to talk about their own home and • • Shows interest in the lives of people who are familiar to them. as when they move from one setting to another or community life, and to find out about other children’s Remembers and talks about significant events in their own • between different groups in the same setting. experiences. experience. • Provide activities and opportunities for children to share Ensure that children learning English as an additional • Recognises and describes special times or events for family or • experiences and knowledge from different parts of their language have opportunities to express themselves in friends. lives with each other. their home language some of the time. Shows interest in different occupations and ways of life. • Provide ways of preserving memories of special events, • Encourage children to develop positive relationships with • 30-50 months • Knows some of the things that make them unique, and can e.g. making a book, collecting photographs, tape community members, such as fire fighters who visit the talk about some of the similarities and differences in relation to recording, drawing and writing. setting friends or family. • Invite children and families with experiences of living in other countries to bring in photographs and objects from their home cultures including those from family members living in different areas of the UK and abroad. • Ensure the use of modern photographs of parts of the world that are commonly stereotyped and misrepresented, • Help children to learn positive attitudes and challenge negative attitudes and stereotypes, e.g. using puppets, Persona Dolls, stories and books showing black heroes • Encourage children to share their feelings and talk about Enjoys joining in with family customs and routines. • or disabled kings or queens or families with same sex why they respond to experiences in particular ways. parents, having a visit from a male midwife or female Early Learning Goal fire fighter. • Explain carefully why some children may need extra help or support for some things, or why some children feel Children talk about past and present events in their own • Visit different parts of the local community, upset by a particular thing. lives and in the lives of family members. They know that including areas where some children may be very other children don’t always enjoy the same things, and knowledgeable, e.g. Chinese supermarket, local Help children and parents to see the ways in which their • are sensitive to this. They know about similarities and church, elders lunch club, Greek café. cultures and beliefs are similar, sharing and discussing 40-60+ differences between themselves and others, and among practices, resources, celebrations and experiences. months • Provide role-play areas with a variety of resources families, communities and traditions. reflecting diversity. Strengthen the positive impressions children have of • their own cultures and faiths, and those of others in • Make a display with the children, showing all the people their community, by sharing and celebrating a range of who make up the community of the setting. practices and special events. Share stories that reflect the diversity of children’s • experiences. Invite people from a range of cultural backgrounds to • talk about aspects of their lives or the things they do in their work, such as a volunteer who helps people become familiar with the local area. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 38 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. Understanding the world: People and communities

39 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Understanding the world: The world Enabling Environments: Positive Relationships: A Unique Child: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Encourage young babies’ movements through your Provide a range of everyday objects for babies to • Moves eyes, then head, to follow moving objects. • interactions, e.g. touching their fingers and toes and explore and investigate such as treasure baskets. • Reacts with abrupt change when a face or object suddenly showing delight at their kicking and waving. • Provide novelty – make small changes in the disappears from view. predictable environment. Looks around a room with interest; visually scans environment • Provide spaces that give young babies different views • for novel, interesting objects and events. of their surroundings, such as a soft play area, with Smiles with pleasure at recognisable playthings. • different levels to explore. Birth - 11 Repeats actions that have an effect, e.g. kicking or hitting a • months mobile or shaking a rattle. Characteristics of Effective Learning – Playing and See also Understanding the world: The world Physical Development and Exploring, Play hiding and finding games inside and outdoors. • Provide lift-the-flap books to show something hidden • • Closely observes what animals, people and vehicles do. from view. Plan varied arrangements of equipment and materials that • Watches toy being hidden and tries to find it. • can be used with babies in a variety of ways to maintain Provide a variety of interesting things for babies to see • Looks for dropped objects. • interest and provide challenges. when they are looking around them, looking up at the Becomes absorbed in combining objects, e.g. banging two • ceiling or peering into a corner. • Draw attention to things in different areas that stimulate objects or placing objects into containers. interest, such as a patterned surface. Display and talk about photographs of babies’ favourite • • Knows things are used in different ways, e.g. a ball for rolling places. or throwing, a toy car for pushing. 8-20 months • Explores objects by linking together different approaches: Talk with children about their responses to sights, sounds • • Develop the use of the outdoors so that young children shaking, hitting, looking, feeling, tasting, mouthing, pulling, and smells in the environment and what they like about can investigate features, e.g. a mound, a path or a wall. turning and poking. playing outdoors. Provide a collection of sets of items for children to • Remembers where objects belong. • Encourage young children to explore puddles, trees and • explore how objects can be combined together in surfaces such as grass, concrete or pebbles. heuristic play sessions. Matches parts of objects that fit together, e.g. puts lid on • teapot. 16-26 months • Make use of outdoor areas to give opportunities for Enjoys playing with small-world models such as a farm, a • Tell stories about places and journeys. • garage, or a train track. investigations of the natural world, for example, provide chimes, streamers, windmills and bubbles to investigate • Notices detailed features of objects in their environment. the effects of wind. • Provide story and information books about places, such as a zoo or the beach, to remind children of visits to real places. 22-36 months Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 39

40 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Understanding the world: The world A Unique Child: Enabling Environments: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could provide what adults could do • Use the local area for exploring both the built and the • Use parents’ knowledge to extend children’s experiences Comments and asks questions about aspects of their familiar • natural environment. of the world. world such as the place where they live or the natural world. Provide opportunities to observe things closely • Support children with sensory impairment by providing • • Can talk about some of the things they have observed such as through a variety of means, including magnifiers and supplementary experience and information to enhance plants, animals, natural and found objects. photographs. their learning about the world around them. • Talks about why things happen and how things work. Provide play maps and small world equipment for • Arouse awareness of features of the environment in the • • Developing an understanding of growth, decay and changes children to create their own environments. setting and immediate local area, e.g. make visits to over time. 30-50 months shops or a park. • Teach skills and knowledge in the context of practical Shows care and concern for living things and the environment. • activities, e.g. learning about the characteristics of • Introduce vocabulary to enable children to talk about their liquids and solids by involving children in melting observations and to ask questions. chocolate or cooking eggs. • Give opportunities to record findings by, e.g. drawing, Help children to notice and discuss patterns around them, • Looks closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change. • writing, making a model or photographing. e.g. rubbings from grates, covers, or bricks. Provide stories that help children to make sense of • Examine change over time, for example, growing plants, • Early Learning Goal different environments. and change that may be reversed, e.g. melting ice. Children know about similarities and differences in Provide stimuli and resources for children to create • Use appropriate words, e.g. ‘town’, ‘village’, ‘road’, • relation to places, objects, materials and living things. simple maps and plans, paintings, drawings and ‘path’, ‘house’, ‘flat’, ’temple’ and ‘synagogue’, to help They talk about the features of their own immediate 40-60+ models of observations of known and imaginary children make distinctions in their observations. environment and how environments might vary from months landscapes. Help children to find out about the environment by talking • one another. They make observations of animals and • Give opportunities to design practical, attractive to people, examining photographs and simple maps and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about environments, for example, taking care of the visiting local places. changes. flowerbeds or organising equipment outdoors. • Encourage children to express opinions on natural and built environments and give opportunities for them to hear different points of view on the quality of the environment. • Encourage the use of words that help children to express ‘busy’, ‘quiet’ ‘pollution’. and opinions, e.g. • Use correct terms so that, e.g. children will enjoy naming a chrysalis if the practitioner uses its correct name. Pose carefully framed open-ended questions, such as • How can we...?” “ “What would happen if...?”. or Understanding the world: The world Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 40 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

41 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Understanding the world: Technology Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: what adults could do observing what a child is learning what adults could provide The beginnings of understanding technology lie in babies - Playing and - Playing and See Characteristics of Effective Learning See Characteristics of Effective Learning Birth - 11 exploring and making sense of objects and how they behave. Creating and Thinking Critically and Creating and Thinking Critically and Exploring Exploring months - Playing and Exploring See Characteristics of Effective Learning Creating and Thinking Critically and Understanding the world: Technology 8-20 months • Anticipates repeated sounds, sights and actions, e.g. when an Comment on the ways in which young children investigate • Have available robust resources with knobs, flaps, keys • adult demonstrates an action toy several times. how to push, pull, lift or press parts of toys and domestic or shutters. equipment. • Shows interest in toys with buttons, flaps and simple • Incorporate technology resources that children mechanisms and beginning to learn to operate them. • Talk about the effect of children’s actions, as they recognise into their play, such as a camera. investigate what things can do. 16-26 months • Provide safe equipment to play with, such as torches, • • Support children in exploring the control technology of Seeks to acquire basic skills in turning on and operating some ICT equipment. transistor radios or karaoke machines. toys, e.g. toy electronic keyboard. • Operates mechanical toys, e.g. turns the knob on a wind-up • • Talk about ICT apparatus, what it does, what they can do Let children use machines like the photocopier to copy with it and how to use it safely. toy or pulls back on a friction car. their own pictures. 22-36 months Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 41

42 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Understanding the world: Technology Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: what adults could do what adults could provide observing what a child is learning Support and extend the skills children develop as they • • When out in the locality, ask children to help to press • Knows how to operate simple equipment, e.g. turns on CD become familiar with simple equipment, such as twisting the button at the pelican crossing, or speak into an player and uses remote control. or turning a knob. intercom to tell somebody you have come back. • Shows an interest in technological toys with knobs or pulleys, • Draw young children’s attention to pieces of ICT or real objects such as cameras or mobile phones. apparatus they see or that they use with adult supervision. • Shows skill in making toys work by pressing parts or lifting flaps to achieve effects such as sound, movements or new images. 30-50 months Knows that information can be retrieved from computers • • Encourage children to speculate on the reasons why Provide a range of materials and objects to play with • Completes a simple program on a computer. • things happen or how things work. that work in different ways for different purposes, • Uses ICT hardware to interact with age-appropriate computer for example, egg whisk, torch, other household • Support children to coordinate actions to use technology, software. implements, pulleys, construction kits and tape for example, call a telephone number. recorder. • Teach and encourage children to click on different icons to Early Learning Goal • Provide a range of programmable toys, as well as cause things to happen in a computer program. Children recognise that a range of technology is used in equipment involving ICT, such as computers. 40-60+ places such as homes and schools. They select and use months technology for particular purposes. Understanding the world: Technology Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 42 They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

43 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Expressive arts and design: Exploring and using media and materials Enabling Environments: Positive Relationships: A Unique Child: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide Babies explore media and materials as part of their exploration Characteristics of Effective Learning – Playing and ee S Characteristics of Effective Learning – Playing and ee S of the world around them. Characteristics of Effective See Exploring, Physical Development, Understanding the World Exploring, Physical Development, Understanding the Learning – Playing and Exploring, Physical Development, – The World World – The World Understanding the World – The World Birth - 11 months Have a range of puppets that can glide along the table, • • Encourage babies to join in tapping and clapping along to Explores and experiments with a range of media through • or dance around on the end of a fist in time to some simple rhythms. sensory exploration, and using whole body. lively music. Notice the different ways babies move in response to • • Move their whole bodies to sounds they enjoy, such as music Expressive arts and design: media and materials • Place big sheets of plastic or paper on the floor so that sounds, e.g. patting the floor when on their tummy, flexing or a regular beat. babies can be near or crawl on to it to make marks. and relaxing their legs, or opening and closing their palms. • Imitates and improvises actions they have observed, e.g. • Provide materials to encourage large motor Encourage babies to make marks and to squeeze and • clapping or waving. movements, e.g. sprinkling, throwing or spreading feel media such as paint, gloop (cornflour and water), • Begins to move to music, listen to or join in rhymes or songs. 8-20 months paint, glue, torn paper or other materials. dough and bubbles. Notices and is interested in the effects of making movements • • Make a sound line using a variety of objects strung • Listen with children to a variety of sounds, talking about which leave marks. safely, that will make different sounds, such as wood, favourite sounds, songs and music. pans and plastic bottles filled with different things. • Introduce children to language to describe sounds and • Provide a wide range of materials, resources and rhythm, e.g., loud and soft, fast and slow. sensory experiences to enable children to explore Accept wholeheartedly young children’s creations and • colour, texture and space. help them to see them as something unique and valuable • Provide space and time for movement and dance both Make notes detailing the processes involved in a child’s • indoors and outdoors. creations, to share with parents. 16-26 months Invite dancers and musicians from theatre groups, the • Help children to listen to music and watch dance when • Joins in singing favourite songs. • locality or a nearby school so that children begin to opportunities arise, encouraging them to focus on how • Creates sounds by banging, shaking, tapping or blowing. experience live performances. sound and movement develop from feelings and ideas. Shows an interest in the way musical instruments sound. • • Draw on a wide range of musicians and story-tellers • Encourage and support the inventive ways in which Experiments with blocks, colours and marks. • from a variety of cultural backgrounds to extend children add, or mix media, or wallow in a particular children’s experiences and to reflect their cultural experience. heritages. 22-36 months • Choose unusual or interesting materials and resources that inspire exploration such as textured wall coverings, raffia, string, translucent paper or water-based glues with colour added. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 43

44 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Expressive arts and design: Exploring and using media and materials A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: what adults could provide observing what a child is learning what adults could do • Lead imaginative movement sessions based on Support children’s responses to different textures, e.g. • • Enjoys joining in with dancing and ring games. children’s current interests such as space travel, zoo touching sections of a texture display with their fingers, • Sings a few familiar songs. animals or shadows. or feeling it with their cheeks to get a sense of different Beginning to move rhythmically. • properties. Provide a place where work in progress can be kept • Imitates movement in response to music. • safely. • Introduce vocabulary to enable children to talk about Taps out simple repeated rhythms. • ’smooth’ ‘shiny’ their observations and experiences, e.g. • Talk with children about where they can see models ‘rough’ ‘prickly’ ‘flat’ ‘patterned’ ‘jagged’, ‘bumpy’ ‘soft’ • Explores and learns how sounds can be changed. and plans in the environment, such as at the local 30-50 months and ‘hard’. planning office, in the town square, or at the new Explores colour and how colours can be changed. • apartments down the road. Talk about children’s growing interest in and use of colour • Understands that they can use lines to enclose a space, and • as they begin to find differences between colours. • Demonstrate and teach skills and techniques associated then begin to use these shapes to represent objects. with the things children are doing, for example, show Make suggestions and ask questions to extend children’s • Beginning to be interested in and describe the texture of • them how to stop the paint from dripping or how to ideas of what is possible, for example, “ I wonder what things. balance bricks so that they will not fall down. ”. would happen if... • Uses various construction materials. Introduce children to a wide range of music, painting • • Support children in thinking about what they want to make, Beginning to construct, stacking blocks vertically and • and sculpture. the processes that may be involved and the materials horizontally, making enclosures and creating spaces. and resources they might need, such as a photograph to • Encourage children to take time to think about painting • Joins construction pieces together to build and balance. remind them what the climbing frame is like. or sculpture that is unfamiliar to them before they talk Realises tools can be used for a purpose. • about it or express an opinion. Provide resources for mixing colours, joining things • Begins to build a repertoire of songs and dances. • • Talk to children about ways of finding out what they can together and combining materials, demonstrating do with different media and what happens when they put • Explores the different sounds of instruments. where appropriate. different things together such as sand, paint and sawdust. Explores what happens when they mix colours. • • Provide children with opportunities to use their Encourage children to notice changes in properties of • • Experiments to create different textures. skills and explore concepts and ideas through their media as they are transformed through becoming wet, Understands that different media can be combined to create • representations. dry, flaky or fixed. Talk about what is happening, helping new effects. them to think about cause and effect. 40-60+ • Have a ‘holding bay’ where models and works can be • Manipulates materials to achieve a planned effect. months retained for a period for children to enjoy, develop, or • Constructs with a purpose in mind, using a variety of refer to. resources. • Plan imaginative, active experiences, such as ‘Going on • Uses simple tools and techniques competently and a bear hunt’. Help them remember the actions of the appropriately. story (We’re Going on a Bear Hunt by Michael Rosen Selects appropriate resources and adapts work where • and Helen Oxenbury) and think about the different ways necessary. of moving. Selects tools and techniques needed to shape, assemble and • join materials they are using. Early Learning Goal Children sing songs, make music and dance, and experiment with ways of changing them. They safely use and explore a variety of materials, tools and techniques, experimenting with colour, design, texture, form and function. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 44 Expressive arts and design: media and materials They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

45 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Expressive Arts and Design: Being imaginative Enabling Environments: A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: observing what a child is learning what adults could provide what adults could do ee S Characteristics of Effective Learning; Communication S Characteristics of Effective Learning; Communication ee Babies and toddlers need to explore the world and develop a Birth - 11 and Language; Physical Development; Personal, Social and and Language; Physical Development; Personal, Social range of ways to communicate before they can express their months Emotional Development and Emotional Development own ideas through arts and design. See Characteristics of Effective Learning; Communication and Language; Physical Development; Personal, Social and Emotional Development Expressive arts and design: Being imaginative 8-20 months Provide a variety of familiar resources reflecting • • Expresses self through physical action and sound. Show genuine interest and be willing to play along with a • young child who is beginning to pretend. everyday life, such as magazines, real kitchen items, • Pretends that one object represents another, especially when telephones or washing materials. objects have characteristics in common. 16-26 months • • Provide story boxes filled with interesting items to spark • Beginning to use representation to communicate, e.g. drawing Observe and encourage children’s make-believe play in a line and saying ‘That’s me.’ order to gain an understanding of their interests. children’s storytelling ideas. • Beginning to make-believe by pretending. • Offer additional resources reflecting interests such as • Sometimes speak quietly, slowly or gruffly for fun in tunics, cloaks and bags. pretend scenarios with children. Be interested in the children’s creative processes and talk • to them about what they mean to them. 22-36 months Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development. 45

46 Playing and Exploring, Active Learning, and Creating and Thinking Critically support children’s learning across all areas Expressive arts and design: Being imaginative A Unique Child: Positive Relationships: Enabling Environments: observing what a child is learning what adults could do what adults could provide • Support children’s excursions into imaginary worlds by • Tell stories based on children’s experiences and the • Developing preferences for forms of expression. encouraging inventiveness, offering support and advice on people and places they know well. Uses movement to express feelings. • occasions and ensuring that they have experiences that Offer a story stimulus by suggesting an imaginary event • • Creates movement in response to music. stimulate their interest. “This bear has arrived in or set of circumstances, e.g., Sings to self and makes up simple songs. • the post. He has a letter pinned to his jacket. It says Makes up rhythms. • ‘Please look after this bear.’ We should look after him in Notices what adults do, imitating what is observed and then • our room. How can we do that?.” doing it spontaneously when the adult is not there. 30-50 months Engages in imaginative role-play based on own first-hand • experiences. Builds stories around toys, e.g. farm animals needing rescue • from an armchair ‘cliff’. • Uses available resources to create props to support role-play. Captures experiences and responses with a range of media, • such as music, dance and paint and other materials or words. • Extend children’s experience and expand their Help children to gain confidence in their own way of • • Create simple representations of events, people and objects. imagination through the provision of pictures, paintings, representing ideas. • Initiates new combinations of movement and gesture in order poems, music, dance and story. Be aware of the link between imaginative play and • to express and respond to feelings, ideas and experiences. Provide a stimulus for imagination by introducing • children’s ability to handle narrative. Chooses particular colours to use for a purpose. • atmospheric features in the role play area, such as the • Create imaginary words to describe, for example, Introduces a storyline or narrative into their play. • sounds of rain beating on a roof, or placing a spotlight monsters or other strong characters in stories and poems. Plays alongside other children who are engaged in the same • to suggest a stage set. Provide curtains and place 40-60+ Carefully support children who are less confident. • theme. dressing-up materials and instruments close by. months • Help children communicate through their bodies by Plays cooperatively as part of a group to develop and act out • • Make materials accessible so that children are able to encouraging expressive movement linked to their a narrative. imagine and develop their projects and ideas while they imaginative ideas. are still fresh in their minds and important to them. • Introduce descriptive language to support children, for Provide children with opportunities to use their • Early Learning Goal shuffle ’. example, ‘ rustle ’ and ‘ skills and explore concepts and ideas through their Children use what they have learnt about media and representations. materials in original ways, thinking about uses and • Provide opportunities indoors and outdoors and purposes. They represent their own ideas, thoughts support the different interests of children, e.g.in role- and feelings through design and technology, art, music, play of a builder’s yard, encourage narratives to do with dance, role play and stories. building and mending. Children develop at their own rates, and in their own ways. The development statements and their order should not be taken as necessary steps for individual children. 46 Expressive arts and design: Being imaginative They should not be used as checklists. The age/stage bands overlap because these are not fixed age boundaries but suggest a typical range of development.

47 Early Education would like to acknowledge Helen Moylett and Nancy Stewart, Associates of Early Education for their work in producing this document and is grateful to all the early years practitioners, Early Education academics and organisations who generously gave 136 Cavell Street them such helpful support, challenge, advice and London feedback during the process. E1 2JA © Crown copyright 2012 www.early-education.org.uk You may re-use this information (excluding logos Tel: + 44 (0) 20 7539 5400 and photographs) free of charge in any format or Fax: +44 (0) 20 7539 5409 medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open- Supported by government-licence or e-mail: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. Early Education is a registered charity in England and Any enquiries regarding this publication should be Wales (no. 313082) and in Scotland (no. SC039472) and sent to us at Early Education, 136 Cavell Street, a company limited by guarantee. London, E1 2JA or [email protected] This document is also available from our website at www.early-education.org.uk ISBN 978-0-904-187-57-1 EAN 9780904187571

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