Without Conscience




3 Contents Author's Note ix Preface and Acknowledgments xi Introduction: The Problem 1 1. "Experiencing" the Psychopath 6 2. Focusing the Picture 16 26 3. The Profile: Feelings and Relationships 4. The Profile: Lifestyle 46 5. Internal Controls: The Missing Piece 58 6. Crime: The Logical Choice 67 7. White-Collar Psychopaths 83 8. Words from an Overcoat Pocket 101 9. Flies in the Web 118 127 10. The Roots of the Problem vii

4 CONTENTS 11. The Ethics of Labeling 148 158 12. Can Anything Be Done? 13. A Survival Guide 170 Epilogue 181 Chapter Notes 182 viii

5 Chapter 1 "Experiencing" the Psychopath I could see the dark blood from Halmea's mouth trickling down the sheet toward the part of her that was under Hud. I didn't move or hlink, but then Hud was standing up grinning at me; he was buckling his ruby belt buckle. "Ain't she a sweet patootie?" he said. He whistled and began to tuck his pant legs into the tops of his red suede boots. Halmea had curled toward the wall... --Larry McMurtry, Horseman, Pass By Over the years I've become accustomed to the following experi- ence. In response to a courteous question by a dinner acquaintance about my work, I briefly sketch the distinguishing characteristics of a psychopath. Invariably, someone at the table suddenly looks thoughtful and then exclaims, "Good lord--I th ink So-and-So must have been..." or, "You know, I never realized it before, but the person you're de- scribing is my brother-in-law." These thoughtful, troubled responses aren't limited to the social realm. Routinely, people who have read of my work call my laboratory employer, or an acquaintance whose to describe a husband, a child, an inexplicable behavior has been causing them grief and pain for years. Nothing is more convincing of the need for clarity and reflection on psychopathy than these real-life stor ies of disappointment and despair. The three that make up this chapter provide a way of easing into this strange and fascinating subject by c onveying that characteristic sense that "something's wrong here but I can't quite put my finger on it." One of the accounts is drawn from a prison population, where most of the studies of psychopathy take place (for the practical reasons that there are a lot of psychopaths in prisons and the information needed to diagnose them is readily available). The two other accounts are drawn fr om everyday life, for psycho- paths are found not only in prison populations. Parents, children, spouses, lovers, co-workers, and unlucky victims everywhere are at this moment attempting to cope with the personal chaos and confusion psy- chopaths cause and to understand what drives them. Many of you will 6

6 "Experiencing" the Psychopath find an uneasy resemblance between the individuals in these examples and people who have made you think you were living in hell. Ray After I received my master's degree in psychology in the early 1960s, I looked for a job to help support my wife and infant daughter and to pay for the next stage of my education. Without having been inside a prison before, I found myself employed as the sole psycholo- gist at the British Columbia Penitentiary. I had no practical work experien ce as a psychologist and no par- ticular interest in clinical psychology or criminological issues. The maximum-security penitentiary near Vancouver was a formidable in- stitution housing the kinds of criminals I had only heard about through the media. To say I was on unfamiliar ground is an understatement. I started work completely cold--with no training program or sage mentor to hint at how one went about being a prison psychologist. On the first day I met the warden and his administrative staff, all of whom wore uniforms and some of whom wore sidearms. The prison was run along military lines, and accordingl y I was expected to wear a "uni- form" consisting of a blue blazer, gray flannel trousers, and black shoes. I convinced the warden that the outfit was unnecessary, but he never- theless insisted that one at least be made for me by the prison shop, and I was sent down to be measured. The result was an early sign that all was not as orderly as the place too short, the trousers legs were appeared: The jacket sleeves were far of hilariously discrepant length, an d the shoes differed from each other by two sizes. I found the latter particularly perplexing, because the in- mate who had measured my feet had been extremely meticulous in tracing them out on a sheet of brown paper. How he could have pro- duced two entirely different-sized shoe s, even after several complaints on my part, was difficult to imagine. I could only assume that he was giving me a message of some sort. My first workday was quite eventful . I was shown to my office, an immense area on the top floor of the prison, far different from the inti- mate, trust-inspiring burrow I had hoped for. I was isolated from the rest of the institution and had to pass through several sets of locked doors to reach my office. On the wall above my desk was a highly con- spicuous red button. A guard who had no idea what a psychologist was supposed to do in a prison--an i gnorance I shared--told me that the button was for an emergency, but that if I ever need to press it, I should not expect help to arrive immediately. 7

7 WITHOUT CONSCIENCE The psychologist who was my predec essor had left a small library in the office. It consisted mainly of books on psychological tests, such as the Rorschach Ink Blot Test and the Thematic Apperception Test. I knew something about such tests but had never used them, so the books--among the few objects in the prison that seemed familiar--only reinforced my sense that I was in for a difficult time. I wasn't in my office for more than an hour when my first "client" arrived. He was a tall, slim, dark-haired man in his thirties. The air around him seemed to buzz, and the eye contact he made with me was so direct and intense th at I wondered if I had ever really looked any- body in the eye before. That stare was unrelenting--he didn't indulge in the brief glances away that most peopl e use to soften th e force of their gaze. Without waiting for an introduction, the inmate--I'll call him Ray-- opened the conversation: "Hey, Doc, how's it going? Look, I've got a problem. I need your help. I'd really like to talk to you about this." Eager to begin work as a genuine psychotherapist, I asked him to tell me about it. In response, he pulled out a knife and waved it in front of my nose, all the while smiling and maintaining that intense eye con- tact. My first thought was to push the red button behind me, which was in Ray's plain view and the purpose of which was unmistakable. Per- ly testing me, or perhaps because I haps because I sensed that he was on knew that pushing the button would do no good if he really intended to harm me, I refrained. Once he determined that I wasn't going to push the button, he ex- plained that he intended to use the knife not on me but on another in- mate who had been making overtures to his "protégé," a prison term for the more passive member of a homosexual pairing. Just why he was telling me this was not immediately clear, but I soon suspected that he was checking me out, trying to dete rmine what sort of a prison em- ployee I was. If I said nothing about the incident to the administration, I would be violating a strict prison rule that required staff to report pos- session of a weapon of any sort. On the other hand, I knew that if I did report him, word would get around that I was not an inmate-oriented psychologist, and my job would be even more difficult than it was promising to be. Following our session, in which he described his "problem" not once or twice but many times, I kept quiet about the knife. To my relief, he didn't stab the other inmate, but it soon became evident that Ray had caught me in his trap: I had shown myself to be a soft touch who would overlook clear violations of fundamental prison rules in order to develop "professional" rapport with the inmates. 8

8 "Experiencing" the Psychopath From that first meeting on, Ray managed to make my eight-month stint at the prison miserable. His constant demands on my time and his attempts to manipulate me into doing things for him were unending. On one occasion, he convinced me that he would make a good cook--he felt he had a natural bent for cooking, he thought he would become a chef when he was released, this was a gr eat opportunity to try out some of his ideas to make institutional food preparation more efficient, and I supported his request for a transfer from the machine shop (where he had apparently made the knife). What I didn't consider was that the kitchen was a source of sugar, potatoes, fruit, and other ingredients that could be turned into alcohol. Several months after I had recommended the transfer, there was a mighty erup tion below the floorboards directly under the warden's table. When the commotion died down, we found an elaborate system for distilling alcohol below the floor. Something had gone wrong and one of the pots had exploded. There was nothing un- usual about the presence of a still in a maximum-security prison, but the audacity of placing one under the warden's seat shook up a lot of peo- ple. When it was discovered that Ray was brains behind the bootleg operation, he spent some time in solitary confinement. Once out of "the hole," Ray appeared in my office as if nothing had happened and asked for a transfer from the kitchen to the auto shop--he really felt he had a knack, he saw the need to prepare himself for the outside world, if he only had the time to practice he could have his own body shop on the outside... I was s till feeling the sting of having ar- ranged the first transfer, but eventually he wore me down. Soon afterward I decided to leave the prison to pursue a Ph.D. in psychology, and about a month before I left Ray almost persuaded me to ask my father, a roofing contractor, to offer him a job as part of an application for parole. When I mentioned this to some of the prison staff, they found it hard to stop laughing. They knew Ray well, they'd all been taken in by his schemes and plans for reform, and one by one they had resolved to adopt a skeptical approach to him. Jaded? I thought so at the time. But the fact was that their picture of Ray was clearer than mine--despite my job description. Theirs had been brought into focus by years of experience with people like him. Ray had an incredible ability to con not just me but everybody. He could talk, and lie, with a smoothness and a directness that sometimes momentarily disarmed even the most experienced and cynical of the prison staff. When I met him he had a long criminal record behind him (and, as it turned out, ahead of him); about half his adult life had been spent in prison, and many of his crimes had been violent. Yet he con- 9

9 WITHOUT CONSCIENCE vinced me, and others more experienced than I, of his readiness to re- form, that his interest in crime had been completely overshadowed by a driving passion in--well, cooking, mechanics, you name it. He lied endlessly, lazily, about everything, and it disturbed him not a whit whenever I pointed out something in his file that contradicted one of his lies. He would simply change the subj ect and spin off in a different di- rection. Finally convinced that he might not make the perfect job candi- date in my father's firm, I turned down Ray's request--and was shaken by his nastiness at my refusal. Before I left the prison for the university, I was still making pay- ments on a 1958 Ford that I could not really afford. One of the officers there, later to become warden, offe red to trade his 1950 Morris Minor for my Ford and to take over my payments. I agreed, and because the Morris wasn't in very good shape I took advantage of the prison policy of letting staff have their cars repaired in the institution's auto shop-- where Ray still worked, thanks (he would have said no thanks) to me. The car received a beautiful paint job and the motor and drivetrain were reconditioned. With all our possessions on top of the car and our baby in a ply- wood bed in the backseat, my wife and I headed for Ontario. The first problems appeared soon after we left Vancouver, when the motor seemed a bit rough. Later, when we encountered some moderate in- clines, the radiator boiled over. A garage mechanic discovered ball bearings in the carburetor's float ch amber; he also pointed out where one of the hoses to the radiator ha d clearly been tampered with. These problems were repaired easily enough, but the next one, which arose while we were going down a long hill, was more serious. The brake pedal became very spongy and then simply dropped to the floor--no brakes, and it was a long hill. Fortunately, we made it to a service sta- tion, where we found that the brake line had been cut so that a slow leak would occur. Perhaps it was a coincidence that Ray was working in the auto shop when the car was being tuned up, but I had no doubt that the prison "telegraph" had informed him of the new owner of the car. At the university, I prepared to write my dissertation on the effects of punishment on human learning and performance. In my research for the project I encountered for the first time the literature on psychopathy. I'm not sure I thought of Ray at the time, but circumstances conspired to bring him to mind. My first job after receiving my Ph.D . was at the University of Brit- ish Columbia, not far from the penitentiary where I had worked several years before. During registration week in that precomputer age, I sat 10


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