Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development.


1 DOCUMENT RESUME 033 941 SO ED 466 413 Richard Deasy, Ed. J., AUTHOR in the Arts Learning Links: Critical and Student Academic TITLE and Social Development. Partnership, Washington, DC. Arts Education INSTITUTION DC.; of Education, Washington, Department National Endowment SPONS AGENCY DC. for the Arts (NFAH), Washington, ISBN-1-884037-78-X ISBN 2002-00-00 PUB DATE Contains small print and light print. Color 171p.; some NOTE print on color backgrounds may not reproduce adequately. DCA-97-16 CONTRACT One Massachusetts Partnership, Ave., Arts Education NW, FROM AVAILABLE Suite 700, Washington, DC 20001-1431. Web site: PUB TYPE (020) - General Collected Works MFOl/PC07 Plus Postage. EDRS PRICE Activities; Academic Achievement; *Art *Art Education; DESCRIPTORS Classroom Techniques; *Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; *Fine Arts; Foreign Countries; *Social Development *Academic Development Summaries; South Plans; *Research IDENTIFIERS ) (Seoul Korea ABSTRACT to recommend to (1) are: compendium Two purposes of this and researchers of research promising lines funders of inquiry and study by recent, strong studies of the academic and social effects of suggested (2) to provide designers of arts education arts; learning in the and instruction with insights found in the research that suggest curriculum and the arts and are required to strategies for deepening learning experiences the academic into is divided achieve six and social effects. The compendium (1) "Danceu1 (Summaries: Teaching Cognitive Skill through Dance; The sections: of of Creative Dance Instruction on Creative and Critical Thinking Effects Seventh Grade Female Students Effects of a Movement Poetry in Seoul, Korea; of with Behavioral Disorders; Assessment of Children Program on Creativity Students' Skills; The School Impact of Whirlwind's High Creative Thinking through Programs on First Grade Students' Basic Reading Basic Reading Dance Art and Community; Motor Imagery and Athletic Expertise; Skills; Essay: (2) "Drama" Education Research (K. Bradley)); Informing and Dance Reforming Reforming of Education Research; The Effects (Summaries: Informing and Dance Drama on and Oral Language Skills Creative of Children with the Social Learning Effectiveness of Creative Drama as an Disabilities; The Instructional Strategy To Enhance the Reading Comprehension Skills of Fifth-Grade Remedial Role of Imaginative Play in Cognitive Readers; A Naturalistic of the Relationship between Literacy Study Development; Exploration An in in Five-Year-Old Children; and Dramatic Development Play of Original Scripts by Inner-City the Writing School Drama Students; A High Poetic/Dramatic Approach To Facilitate Oral Communication; Children's Story Impact Story Dramatization; The Storytelling and of Result as a Comprehension Drama on 4th Grade of Whirlwind's Reading Comprehension through Program Students' Reading and Standardized Test Scores; The Effects of Skills Thematic-Fantasy Play Training on the Development of Children's Story that Reproductions supplied EDRS are the best by can be made fiom the original document.

2 Comprehension; Symbolic Functioning and Children's Writing; Identifying Early in the Thematic-Fantasy Play Effect of Dramatic Casual Elements Paradigm; The Generation Play Strengthening Verbal Skills of Cohesive on Children's Text; 'Stand Monograph through Drama; the Use of Classroom and Unfold Yourself' A Drama, 1, No. Study; Nadie Papers on the Shakespeare and Company Research Language and Learning. Reports of the Drama and Language Research Project, Center, Education Department Speech The Effects of and Drama of Tasmania; on Written 'You Can't Be Grandma: You're a Boy'; The Role Playing Persuasion; (J. Essay: Research and Theater in of Reading; Education Flight on Drama ) (3) l'Multi-Arts'l (Summaries: Using Art Processes To Enhance Catterall) ; Self-Regulation; Learning in and through the Arts; Involvement in Academic and Success in Secondary School; Involvement in the Arts and Human the Arts Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education The Role of the Development; (CAPE); School Arts Education in in High Fine and Performing Arts Dropout Prevention; Living the Arts through Language and Learning; Do Secondary Schools; Extracurricular Activities Protect against Early School Dropout?; Does Studying the Arts Engender Creative Thinking?; The Arts and Education Reform; A+ in a National Context; The A+ Schools Program; The Arts in the Placing Basic Curriculum Project; Claims; Why the Arts Matter in Education Mute Those What Learn When They Create an Opera?; SAT Scores of Or Just Do Children Who Study the Arts; Essay: Promising Signs of Positive Effects: Students J. Webb-Dempsey)); (4) the Multi-Arts Studies Lessons from (R. Horowitz; "Music" of an Integrated Reading and Music Instructional (Summaries: Effects Approach on Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Achievement, Reading Attitude, Music Achievement, Attitude; The Effect of Early Music Training on and Music To Teach Reading?; The Effects Cognitive Be Used Development; Can Child Music on Children's Cognitive Development; of Piano Instruction of Three Years Math through Music Training and Enhanced Learning of Proportional of Background Music on Studying; The Effects Spatial-Temporal Training; To Make Music Enhances Spatial Reasoning; Listening to Music Learning Investigation of the Effects of Music An Spatial-Temporal Reasoning; Enhances Students' Writing on Two Emotionally Disturbed Writing Motivations and Effects of Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Skills; The on the Self-Efficacy of Juvenile Vicarious Experience and Self-Esteem and Disadvantaged Children; The Effect of the Incorporation Delinquents of Music Learning into the Second-Language Classroom on the Mutual Reinforcement of Music and Language; Music Training Causes Long-Term Enhancement of Preschool Children's Reasoning; Classroom Keyboard Spatial-Temporal Children's Spatial-Temporal A Performance; Instruction Improves Kindergarten Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Music as Reinforcement for Education/Therapy An Overview on Music of Research Essay: Music and Objectives; Mathematics; Arts" (Summaries: "Visual Instruction in (5) and Learning (L. Scripp)); Art; The Arts, Language, and Knowing; Investigating the Educational Visual Impact and Potential of the Museum of Modern Art's Visual Thinking Curriculum; Reading Essay: Reflections on Visual Arts Education Is Seeing; (6) "Overview" (Essay: The Arts and the Transfer (T. L. Baker)); Studies and of Learning (J. S. Catterall)) . (BT) best Reproductions supplied EDRS are the by that can be made from the original document.

3 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 01 Improvement Oflice Educalional Research and EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) has This document reproduced as been received from the Derson or organization originating it. 0 Minor changes have been made lo improve reproduction quality. of view or opinions stated in this Points document do not necessarily represent official OERl position or policy. .- 2

4 Arts Education Partnership Copyright Arts Education Partnership 0 2002 government business, a national coalition of arts, education, organizations philanthropic and is Partnership The Arts Education and promotes demonstrates essential role of the that the in the learning and development of every child and arts in the improve- ment of America's schools. Partnership includes over The organizations are national in scope and impact. It also includes 100 that and local partnerships focused state education policies and practices to promote quality on influencing arts education. The Partnership is administered by the Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, through a with the National Endowment for the Arts and the agreement Department of Education. The Arts cooperative U.S. Partnership can be contacted at: Education Education Partnership Arts Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 700 One Washington, DC 20001 -1 431 is granted as long as appropriate acknowl- information from this document Permission to copy, disseminate, or to otherwise use edgment given. is This document is published in electronic format on the World Wide Web at For information on ordering print- ed copies, please call 202.336.7016 or visit ISBN 1-884037-78-X

5 00 n the Arts Learning in and Development Academic and Social Student by Richard J. Deasy Edited s. Studies were summaries of the studies prepared. by James selected for inclusion in this Compendium, and Imagination CatteraII, University of California at Los Angeles; Lois Hetland, Project Zero, Harvard Graduate Group, School Education; and Ellen Winner, Project Zero, Harvard of of Education and Psychology Graduate School Department, Boston College. The preparation and contents of this Compendium were financed by funds provided by the National Endowment 97-16. However, these con- DCA Department of Education under Cooperative Agreement Arts for and the U.S. the U.S. Department of necessarily represent the policies of the National Endowment for the Arts or the tents do not Education, and the reader should not assume endorsement by the federal government. 4

6 Contributing Researchers* L. Baker, Education Development Inc./Center for Children and Technology (T.B.) Terry Center, Maryland. Bradley, of Dance, University of Department College Park (K.B.) K. Graduate Studies Karen Catterall, Imagination Group, University of California at James Angeles (J.C.) S. 10s Corbett. Educational Researcher (D.C.) Dick Independent Cynthia Gerstl-Pepin, I. of Educational Policy Studies, Georgia State University (C.G.-I?) Department Lois Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education (L.H.) Hetland, Robert Education Research, Teachers College, Columbia University (R.H.) Horowitz, Center for Arts Carolina W. of Education, University of North School at Chapel Hill (G.N.) George Noblit, Scripp, Music-in-Education and the Larry Center for learning Through Music, New England Conservatory (1,s.) Research Michael A. Seaman, University of South Carolina (M.S.) Betty Jane Wagner, College of Education, Roosevelt University (B.J. W) Jaci Webb-Dempsey, Advanced Educational West Virginia University Studies, W.-D.) (J. Educational Researcher Bruce Wilson, Independent W.) (B. Department, Boston College of Ellen Winner, Project and Psychology Zero, (E. W.) Harvard Graduate School Education Advisors Compendium 6. Clark, Ann Educational Research and Policies Board and Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools National Peter Gerber, EdDesigns H. Group Peter McWalters, Rhode Island Commissioner of Education Ann VFX Producer, ESC Entertainment Podlozny, Gerald Sroufe, American Educational Research Association Michael Tirnpane, RAND Corporation National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools Betty Lou Whitford, Teaching, Teachers College, Columbia University and * Each of these researchers contributed to the summaries of studies included in this Compendium. Each summary their includes from two researchers. The researchers' initials (shown in thc list above after commciits name and affilia- of a summary they authored. tion) appear after each section

7 Foreword In 1997 report, Priorities for Arts Education Research, the Arts Education Partnership's Task Force on Research its creation of Compendium. The Task Force applauded the National Endowment for the Arts recommended the this (NEA), collaboration with Department of Education (USED), for commissioning an earlier compendium the in US. research in 1995) and urged that periodic surveys of recent be reg- and published the (Schools, Communities Arts, a service as ularly produced the and Both to and policy-makers. USED respond- practitioners, researchers, the NEA to the Task Force recommendation and awarded funding to the Arts Education Partnership (AEP) ed positively to and the next compendium. Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and commission publish is the Development Social result. process, AEP commissioned James S. Catterall of the Imagination Group at the University Through a competitive the California Angeles, Lois Hetland of Project Zero at Los Harvard Graduate School of Education, and Ellen of at of Project Zero at the Harvard Graduate School of Education Winner the Psychology Department at Boston and College assist in the preparation of the document. Their primary tasks were to establish the criteria for the to of studies; and select recent research in five art form areas: dance, drama, music, visual arts, inclusion examine field and summaries of the studies, multi-arts; on the contribution of each to the prepare and including comments arts and its implications for education research and/or practice. of future of available resources, a decision had to be made about the focus of the studies to In light screened for inclu- be sion this Compendium, namely, to include either studies of the academic and social effects of arts learning in or themselves. specifically on the arts learning experiences experiences The decision, made with studies focused in the i), was to do former, p. part to identify strong arts educa- (listed of advice the Compendium the Advisors tion research that would make a contribution to the debate over such issues as how to enable all stu- national to reach levels of academic achievement, how to improve overall school performance, and how to cre- dents high contexts are climates in schools that the most conducive to learning. ate and Winner heard Compendium. As Catterall, Hetland, and voices are began their work of summariz- Multiple in this the studies they had selected, the decision was made to engage other reviewers in reading the ing and studies adding comments. The field of education research admits of multiple methods and perspectives. It was felt their the to with a variety of viewpoints on the Compendium significance of the included studies. important enrich each study summary includes comments by two reviewers. Initials Consequently, the commentators on identify each study were to completion of the summaries, Subsequent the commissioned to examine the group of sum- essayists maries in each art form and to give their views on the implications of that collective body of work. These essays appear at the of each art form section. Because of the centrality to the Compendium of the issue of transfer end learning, Technology Catterall, with assistance from Terry Baker of the Center for Children and of of the James Development was invited Education Center, address the topic in an additional essay in the Compendium. to to a period in work being done at capture the best time. We believe this volume has done attempt Compendia so. We believe it offers a rich look backward and valuable guidance on future directions for arts education research. And important insights into curriculum designs and instructional practices that will enhance it provides quality and impact of student learning in the arts. the The Arts Education Partnership urges education decision makers to to these lessons. And we urge private attend and public funding agencies to make substantial investments in further research that builds on the studies and essays included in this volume.

8 Introduction Themes Future Directions for Arts Education Research and Practice and Variations: Deasy Richard J. Compendium is to recommend to researchers and funders of research promising lines of inquiry A purpose this of by and strong studies of the academic suggested social effects of learning in the arts. A parallel and study recent, is purpose with arts education curriculum and instruction designers insights found in the research that provide of to the arts learning experiences that are required to achieve those effects. suggest strategies for deepening Horowitz and Webb-Dempsey in their overview essay on multi-arts studies make a comment that is true Rob Jaci of volume "The selection . . . is diverse, both in terms a whole: the arts learning experiences the studies the as of the particularities of the research they report." so their advice describe the readers of their essay is good and to to treat the Compendium as a body of work to all: explored and mined for commonalities as well as guidance be themes and variations. The insights are layered. particularities, are Particularities each of the 62 studies and in probed by the summaries and commentaries written by the lie contributing reviewers. Five essays then trace common threads found in the group of studies within dance, do the same. A reader will want to or drama, multi-arts. music, visual arts, A reader also will want to argument. the essays themselves side by side to search for patterns of analysis and set For instance, all of the essayists urge that future research define with greater depth, richness, and specificity the that the nature learning experience itself and its companion, the arts teaching experience. They agree arts of the Compendium that well-crafted arts experiences studies suggest positive academic and social effects, but produce they long for more research that reveals the unique and precise aspects of the arts teaching and learning that do so. Curriculum, instruction, and professional development would benefit greatly from such clarifications. "transfer," on the approach to a more complete for in arguing colleagues his Catterall echoes James In his essay question contexts. social and academic other in learning and behavior to arts "transfers" in the learning how of learning While "transfer" to be a one-way effect in which construed in one domain (e.g., music) causes is often an effect in another (e.g., spatial reasoning), Catterall reflects the sentiment shared by other essayists in urging and researchers adopt and pursue the more plausible to educationally useful view that transfer involves recipro- disciplines. cal processes involving multiple interactions among domains and the He also embraces perspective of these interactions perhaps can be the Schwartz that by effects recently John Bransford and Daniel espoused known only over time.' Longitudinal studies are more likely to reveal the effects of learning across domains and empirical situations are single snapshots, however than and controlled these latter may be. form research one but is essayists should makers decision knowledge" that "usable of The that also share the view that on as part of a repertoire prac- includes information drawn from direct experience validated by successful call Horowitz tice. pro- arts in supporting secure be can policy-makers and "Administrators say: and Webb-Dempsey to might add: "and use the studies (in the grams Others the based on evidence presented multi-arts studies)." work their daily through developed they views the confirm have schools and in classrooms." examine, challenge, or the from emerge decisions Good reflection. and practice, research, among interactions Branlord and 1 Dnniel .John Schwnirz (2000) Rethinking Tr;mIer 111 Rcv~ow 01 ChnplPr support in find individual studies on and in the work the body of The essayists the commentators Compendium Rnwnrch 111 Erlucnrinn UC. Vol~ime 24 Washington and basic advanced litera- for the role of arts learning in assisting in the development of critical academic skills, )can Amei Educnimnal and cy and numeracy among them. They also offer suggestions, based on the studies, for restructuring curricula Resoarch inn Assncinl instructional practices. For instance, and other commentators powerfully detail the use of drama in the Catterall to develop higher-order lan- a technique for teaching and motivating children preschool and grades as early essay and skills. Intriguingly, Larry Scripp in his guage and in several commentaries on music studies literacy explores how the skills of learning music relate to comparable skills in language use, both in English and, in a spe- linking writing cific And Karen Bradley, Catterall, and Scripp each discuss studies where study, French. exercises and arts experiences yields deeper and more complex understandings and articulations by students. 7

9 The interrelationships between in certain forms of music instruction and the development of cognitive learning such as incontrovertible in light of a number of studies in the Compendium. But skills spatial reasoning appear Scripp once urges researchers and practitioners in his again essay into the of these probe to deeply particularities instruction the of strongly for forms of music development that he feels will advance argues and relationships new the same time both music and related learning. at one and line of inquiry would be to build on the studies and the suggestions of commentators and Another fruitful future essayists dispositions of mind, social competencies. and personal habits that are inherent to arts learn- to clarify the to explore the application of ing in other realms of learning and life. Horowitz and Webb- and these qualities most address this issue in their multi-arts essay, but variations on the theme can be found in all Dempsey directly In part is a matter, they say, of continuing this layers of the Compendium. creative "better and more develop to probe the complexity of the arts learning experience, and also take into account the contexts research designs" that which the occurs. More richly textured qualitative studies-comparable to many of those in this learning in and necessary to clarifying the questions prelude directions for subsequent inquiry, includ- the Compendium-are controlled experimental studies. ing at well, as But and well illustrated in the Compendium commentaries and issue is the need lexicon of descriptive terms that authentically capture the arts learning experience while at essays, for a time suggesting an that same array realms blunt learning and life-a lexicon that may with other of of interactions "instrumental" arts learning. For instance, individual studies invoke terms such and the debate between "intrinsic" (developing theories as "theorizing" consequences "persistence actions); predict the and resilience" (the to of sustain focused authen- and to surmount distractions, setbacks, or frustration), and "respect for to capacity attention Terms to aspects of arts learning and art making. us such as these prompt describe fundamental achievement" tic explore the interrelationships between these to as they are brought into play or produced in abilities and attitudes the of arts learning and in other academic, personal, and social contexts and situations. so the term "theo- context cultivated may of mental processes that are a "constellation" and strengthened by application in rizing" comprise including the arts. The essays urge us to explore that possibility. disparate contexts Catterall, in Baker Bradley, their separate essays on dance, drama, and visual arts, also have language on their and in the of consistency of usage within the art forms. Bradley minds, specifically her essay on the studies of dance lack argues, "a common language from dance theory is critical to the future rigor and robustness of dance research.. .The but be dance style and technique," in verbal expressions of this grammar need to grammar is inherent of movement and used to both instructional practice and research. Her candidate for a useful model is Laban codified undergird drama and theater Catterall urges practitioners engaged with and to agree Analysis. Similarly, Movement researchers set of terms: he offers some potential definitions. Baker tackles the vexing question of how "art" itself on a basic defined and be researchers to at least adopt and articulate an operational definition in their studies. urges should learning-is learning arts-and its relationship to other in the complex and interac- that Given their perspective the essayists also argue strongly, even passionately, for the development and acceptance tive, forms of assess- of ing learning that respect and reveal that complexity. They repeatedly make the point that knowing teaching and that full range of arts learning requires assessment instruments effects can validly and reliably identify and the of the outcomes of arts instruction. Discerning the impact of that learning in other domains requires instru- measure other the ments currently available tests of reading and math achievement. The argument is notjust that than that tests are sensitive these the effects of arts learning, but not they also are not adequate to assess the com- to . essayists of mathematical learning themselves, which, the and contend, are interwoven with the plexity language affective processes of other domains, including the arts. They urge the development of new forms cognitive and assessment in all domains. Current forms, which only a limited range of content and skill, may divert cur- of assess away from authentic and enriching learning. and instruction riculum more assessment that technology of achievement related argument current in education, large- makes a Catterall the reading and mathematics, also defines the on research agenda and studies that are pub- educational ly centered the effects, he argues, is a concentration of Among the arts and other domains-on young lished. studies-in in the elementary grades where data from standardized tests are most readily available. A corollary is that children have to use these instruments and data, which profession- and of the arts feel researchers compelled evaluators to determine impact of the arts-a severe limitation on arts education research of the kind advo- al standing, the by the cated essayists. themselves-and views perspectives, the these place and the arts-firmly within current discus- With essayists and debates about the education policies and practices that sions bring about school reform and will best arts learning. achievement for students. They make high case for the importance of a strong improvement and these they urge And arts research and education to strengthen their contributions to their colleagues discus- in sions by following leads and implications found in this Compendium.

10 Learning in the Arts and 19 DRAMA and Student Academic Social Development on the Social and Creative The Effects of Drama 20 Language with Children of Skills Oral Learning RESEARCHERS CONTRIBUTING Disabilities i ADVISORS AND The Effectiveness as an of Creative Drama 22 FOREWORD ii Enhance to Instructional Strategy Reading the comprehension Skills Fifth-Grade Remedial of iii INTRODUCTION Readers in Cognitive Development Role of Imaginative Play 24 Summaries: A Naturalistic Study of the Relationship Between 26 Five- in and Development Literacy Play Dramatic Teaching Through Evidence Dance: Skill Cognitive 2 Year-Old Children Transfer Far for Near but Not the into Writing Exploration of An Scripts Original 28 4 The Effects of Creative Dance Instruction on School Drama Students by Inner-City High Creative and Critical Thinking of Seventh Grade in Female Seoul, Korea Students A PoetidDramatic Approach to Facilitate Oral 30 Communication Poetry a Movement of on Effects Program 6 Creativity Children of with Behavioral Disorders Drama Drawing for in Writing and Narrative 32 Grades Primary School Students' Creative of High Assessment 8 of A comparison of the Skills: Thinking Effects Story Children's comprehension as a Result of 34 Dance Non-dance Classes and of A Study Storytelling and Story Dramatization: Participant Spectator Child the as and as The Impact of Whirlwinds Basic Through Reading 10 Dance Program on First Grade Students' Basic Comprehension Reading Whirlwind's of Impact The 36 I1 Study Skills: Reading through Drama Program on 4th Grade Students' Reading Standardized scores Skills and Test Art and Community: Creating Knowledge Through 12 Dance in Service the on The Effects of Training Thematic-Fantasy Play 38 .. Comprehension Development of Children's Story Motor Imagery and Athletic Expertise: Exploring 14 Kinesthetic Intelligence the Role of Imagery In Functioning Children's Early Writing: and Symbolic 40 Kindergarteners' Play and Relations Between Essay: Writing Fluency Isolated Word Informing Reforming Dance Education and 16 42 Research Causal Elements Identifying in the Thematic- Fantasy Play Paradigm on Effect of Dramatic Play The Children's 44 Generation of Cohesive Text 9

11 Role 14 The of the Fine and Performing Arts in High Use of Verbal the Strengthening Through Skills 46 Prevention Dropout School Classroom Drama: A Clear Link Secondary Schools: Effects 76 and Arts Education in "Stand and Unfold Monograph on the Yourself" A 48 Effectiveness Shakespeare Study Research Company & A Arts the Learning: and Through Language Living 18 Papers No. Language and Drama, 1, Nadie 50 Community-Based Organizations Report on Youth Learning. Reports of the Drama Language and Project, Drama Center, Research and Speech 80 Extracurricular Do Activities Protect Against Early Education Department Tasmania of Dropout? School Effects The Persuasion: Written Role Playing of on 52 Does the Arts Engender Creative Studying 82 Age and Channel Comparison and of An Fourth Far Not but Transfer for Near Thinking? Evidence Eighth Graders and Arts The from Lessons Reform: Education a 84 Grandma; Be Can't "You Events Boy": You're a 54 of Four-Year Evaluation Schools Program, A+ the Thematic Context that Play Within the Fantasy 1995-1999 Story Comprehension to Contribute A Comparison in a National Context: A+ Placing 86 The of in Shifts Reading: Flight Instruction, 56 School to for Comprehensive Practices Promising and Orchestration, Attitudes through Classroom Reform Theatre Program: School, Community, A+ The Schools 88 Essay: and Student Teacher, Effects Education on and Theater Research in Drama 58 in the The Arts Looking Project: Curriculum Basic 90 Preparing for at Future the Past and the I MULTI-ARTS I63 No a Causal Those Claims: Mute for (vet) Evidence 92 Summaries: Arts Study and Academic Link between Achievement Self- Academic Using Art Processes to Enhance 64 Regulation Matter in Education Or Just What Why the Arts 94 They Create An Do Children Learn When Opera? Learning Through the Arts: In and Question of The 66 Transfer SAT Scores Study Who Students of Arts: the 96 Cannot Conclude We Can and about the What Involvement in the Arts and Success in Secondary 68 Association School Essay: Arts the Involvement in Human Development: and 70 and an Analysis of General Associations Extending Promising from Positive Effects: Lessons of Signs 98 the Introducing Special Cases Intensive of the Studies Multi-Arts in Theatre Arts and in Music Involvement Chicago Arts Partnerships Education (CAPE): in 12 Summary Evaluation PO

12 A Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Music as 128 I-MUSlC 1101 I Reinforcement Objectives Education/Therapy for Summaries: for the and Music Mathematics: Modest support 130 Oft-Claimed Relationship Effects and Music an Integrated Reading of 102 Students' Fifth-Grade on Approach Instructional Essay: Attitude, Achievement, Reading Music Reading Achievement. Attitude Music and An Learning Overview of on Music and Research 132 Training Early The Music Effect of on Child 104 I I137 ARTS VISUAL I Development Cognitive Summaries: Reading? to Used Be Music Can Teach 106 in Visual Art: Can It Children Instruction Learn Help 138 The Effects of Three Years Piano Instruction of on 108 to Read? Children's Cognitive Development and Language, Arts, An 141 Knowing: The of Proportional Math Through Enhanced Learning 110 Potential the of Experimental Study Visual of the and Training Spatial-Temporal Music Training by Learning Academic Assessing for Arts Language Students Minority on Studying Background Music of Effects The 112 Investigating Impact Potential the Educational and 142 Learning Music Enhances Spatial Make to 114 the Museum of Modern Arts Thinking Visual of Reasoning Report Curriculum: Final 116 Spatial-Temporal Enhances Music to Listening 144 to Seeing: Using Is Reading Visual Response Evidence for the "Mozart Reasoning: Effect" of Reading the Readers Reluctant Improve Literary on An Investigation of Two the Music of Effects 118 Essay: Students' Writing Emotionally Disturbed Motivations and Writing Skills Education Arts Reflections on Visual Studies 145 119 Musical of Effects The Performance, Rational the Emotive Vicarious Experience on and Therapy I OVERVIEW 1151 I Self-Efficacy and of Self-Esteem Juvenile Essay: Disadvantaged Children and Delinquents and Arts The the Learning of Transfer 151 of The Effect of the Incorporation Music Learning 121 the into the Second-Language Classroom on Language and Music of Reinforcement Mutual Music Training Long-term Enhancement of Causes 124 Preschool Children's Spatial-Temporal Reasoning Keyboard Instruction Improves Classroom 126 Kindergarten Children's Spatial-Temporal Performance: A Field Experiment

13 12

14 STUDY NAME: Skill Through Dance: Evidence for Near but Not Far Transfer Teaching Cognitive Keinanen, Ellen Winner Lois Hetland, Mia and AUTHORS: Aesthetic Education, Journal (3-4): 295-306 PUBLISHED: Fall of 2000, 34, Questions Research improve dance instruction Can reading? Can dance instruction improve nonverbal reasoning? METHODS exhaustive search of computer databases. references in literature, recommendations from primary researchers, and The authors claim an potentially relevant studies. From these, the authors selected seven studies that 3,714 in through identified journals resulted searches of Those quantified outcomes in the area examined using their meta-analytical technique. dance and cognition, be could selected had groups. and were conducted on non-impaired populations. All of the used were control selected studies were unpublished. Eliminated deemed articles of advocacy, those articles that were teacher testimonies, studies in which stuclents those studies that were primarily to be co-relational. and those studies whose outcomes were affective dance. that were deemed studies or physiological. for any self-selected and second coder read the seven studies, with a resulting 12 percent rate of disagreement on 100 coding A Any cod- first decisions. disagreements were subsequently resolved and as to: Year of Publication/Outlet. Outcome. Sarnple Size. Design, were coclecl of ing Type Instruction, Type of Control Instruction. Duration, Intensity, Participant Age. and Participant Characteristics. The studies were ana- Dance within the two categories of Reading Abilities and Non-Verbal Reasoning. One study (Von Rossburg-Gempton, 1998) tested two lyzed so effects were calculated for each population tested. The meta-analysis conflated (senior young children). and citizens populations and the the factors four across studies in each category, with of statistics that are array hut ultimately uninformative.-K.B. resulting a extensive RESULTS of the four studies reporting reading outcomes found a small The (doubled) when weight- meta-analysis average effect, which increased of 130th effect sizes and the varied tests However, the sample by size. Larger sample sizes produced more positive correlations. ed range _] were on such significance (there for two) number of sample sizes provided the authors with the argument for a weak effect over- a small reliability heterogeneity weakens the validity and the studies of the meta-analysis. The all. of of the cohort of three studies reporting nonverbal reasoning effects found The meta-analysis clearer much a positive correlation The studies reporting nonverbal effects were more homogeneous than the between dance experiences and nonverbal reasoning skills. studies greater degree significance). of reliability and validity (r =.17. three more a required to bring results to They reading studies. yielded of the results includes the authors' understanding that future dance studies Discussion part which cognitive outcomes are of the in be more rigorous, should be desired effect should set preclude expectancy effects, should separate out teacher motivational fac- to up a sufficient sarnple size.-K.B. tors, and should be of CONTRIBUTIONS THE FIELD TO COMMENTARY meta-analysis four this in included studies seven the of The study is a meta-analysis of seven research projects in of on dance instruction reading skills examined effect the years 26 of period a studies span vary and The dance. nonverbal num- small the However, and three on reasoning. and greatly in sample size, measurement techniques, of in dance in instruction variation the studies, each ber activities applied as variables. dance 6 and the study, later studies and early between gap (1 large on a mere seven studies, and The use of meta-analysis make it difficult to any significant conclu- draw 18 years) to found that fact the in what is described these studies were of light in is especially worrisome gap temporal sions. This bibli- databases, eight of journals, search an exhaustive as two the results for the read- more recent studies in positive the indicates researchers, to that requests and ographies, effects ing these Rose 1999); and (Seharn 1997 positive its in is dance education in authors that research believe results disappear infancy. Research meta-analysis discussion. that utilized anecdotal reports or in the studies students of which in eliminated. size self-selected for dance were to determine the Statistical analysis were used are Recommendations empir- studies, more for made more the effect as well as whether the effect was positive, null, or more a mere than negative. Meta-analysis can be useful use of quantitative ical studies, and a more uniform (i.e.. simply counting electoral approach number the of up all studies methodology research across future. the in or a negative effect, null a studies with a positive effect, dance education field. of the first meta-analysis This is the effect) because sample to the field is that it highlights In in deter- for accounted be can size that, its main contribution limits the mining size.-K.B. such a small on meta-analysis of sample the probability level for a particular effect. The prob-

15 lem that conflation of numbers is meta-analysis with the over- about conclusions drawing and experiences of types useful of when types comparing be to ceases different scores.-K.B. reading on all effects of experiences and variables, especially in small numbers we only know studies. that any numbers And, in the end, FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS educators for are dance and highly questionable. Guidance such a meta-analysis. researchers is difficult to elicit from and The of this work is its careful value comprehensive criticize studies where authors meta-analysis, the Within the research Field (including published and the of review entire there has been an overt facilitation of transferability by a studies investi- that unpublished 3,714 uncovering work), The authors ascribe teacher. the to if teachers that belief dance of effects the gated in student on non- learning to trying are know they skills through improve reading dance areas. teachers may causality cannot be proven since the dance, meta- The research used a widely accepted technique, results desired Yet good the be to the "signaling" students. the authors allowing analysis. assess the to aggregate con- the about the teaching is often of clearly signaling direction studies of that employed stu- multiple of tribution a range such a cited expectations. Just was phenomenon in the as dent reading and reasoning sta- varied well as measures, results positive a reason why as meta-analysis discussion tistical techniques. in the were suspicious Rose study (1 999). ". . .[T]he teachers The most beyond the contribution, fact important that hypothesis that of of the the dance group aware were all this is the first systematic research the review across on teachers may those dance should improve reading. Thus, the met studies of a handful only that is simply topic, this a more enthusiastic and engaging taught reading in have researchers' for acceptable standards scientific rigor. The control the group." (Keinanen manner than those teaching the field needs more research.-B.W clear message is that al.. et 300) p. But a more major concern with the meta-analysis, as with COMMENTARY this in studies other is the of a number fail- Compendium. variable the of distinguish the to ure content The researchers found meeting four studies "dance strict their only met the instruction." In the seven studies that authors' test research acceptable that investigated of the rela- standards defined instruction of for inclusion, the was type under one and tionship dance instruction between and reading skills three dance instrumental (1) instruction categories: (mak- of former studies assessed reasoning skills. three The that ing letter dance creative (2) etc.), body, one's with shapes a total 527 of four studies included group sample of only instruction (problem-solving, divergent-thinking experi- studies involved latter the three while students group of ences), and (3) traditional dance instruction (technique in So, students. 188 only only research of years 50 almost to But that categorization is not meaningful dance class). carefully to exposed been have students 715 designed the education researchers because often instrumental use experimental treatments the learning effects of dance. on from dance creative is indistinguishable activities dance of decry the of One controlled obvious response lack is to instruction. Studies are needed that examine effects of the argue to unreasonable this field. in research not It is also dance each of the experiences (technique, inherent in such small sample hardly qualifies for such a sophisti- that and composition) and improvisation, performance, the also quantitative analysis. cated selection of The stud- effects. their among interrelationship is, point more appropriate The the med- that perhaps, not provide a complete pic- for the meta-analysis does ies for ical/agricultural model upon which these standards best derived is not necessarily the one meta-analysis are experiences, instruction dance and of the range of ture 'I the aca- to to draw which from conclusions about would needed be which dance. of demic and social effects understand "...a meta- more major concern with the Dance among differentiate researchers education expe- complex the riences performance, in and improvisation, composition, of endeavor failure the .is analysis., to distinguish the In one technique. the at students (Seham 1997), cited study education or specifi- National more school) D'Amboise's (Jacques Institute Dance dance instruction."' 'dance variable the cally of content all cognitive learning for scores on improved significantly against group that received no special program, a control education. but it is unclear whether the dance affected overall classes The varied focus and as opposed concentration contexts in which instruction is delivered, even from class- affecting reading to in the classroom to it make building, to difficult same The positive scores. influence of dance technique classes room in controlled experimental meaningfully successes transfer on across the board leads the authors to criticize learning into the look the research a closer rather than encouraging to messy classrooms. settings the value that dance dance technique program. a of instrumental aspects it is important to understand While the might dance of discipline skills, in Intensive study important (if students' cognitive to it isjust as can add to lead how and dance contributes why the know to so) concentration, and and that be high- increased focus more not would the author of the to ly instrumental. The error belongs both as as well to learning, instructional and organizational the original the content because (Seham 1997), study conditions of the that allow arts learning to help students become of the data should studies 3,714 the Thus, students. successful more defined, and not was classes to clearly the use because et Keinanen by study the within the original al. also studies mined to learn what the many qualitative be is meta-analysis different be may what vastly comparing can add to these important questions-€3. W.

16 STUDY NAME: Effects of Creative Dance Instruction on Creative and Critical Thinking of Seventh The Female Students in Grade Seoul, Korea AUTHOR: Juja Kim PUBLISHED: 1998, University, NY Unpublished Doctoral New Dissertation, York Research Question on a program of effect or tra- creative creative and critical thinking abilities does What seventh-grade girls? on have ditional dance instruction METHODS previous dance experience took 45-minute Seventy-eight in either creative (n = 38) or traditional (n = seventh-grade girls without classes twice for eight weeks (total of 15 sessions). a week classes from one neighborhood middle school (hetero- dance 38) Groups were intact in SES) Korea. Seoul. geneous are described in detail The programs in and The traditional program was taught appendices. three five-week blocks of the text in in Korean traditional dance, by teachers who selected the style, and who designed and taught the segments modern. ballet. and consecu- creative was designed and taught by the researcher for all 15 sessions. tively The program of Creative The control group design. pre- Torrance Test a quasi-experimental. and post-test, nonequivalent The study employed (TTCT) Figural Forms A and B (counterbalanced by group and test administration) were used as Thinking post-tests for creative pre- and high pre- and post-tests for critical as The tests were selected for their thinking. thinking. Standard Progressive Matrices were used Raven's long histories, nonverbal forms (to match the rionverbal dance medium). Tests were administered by trained proctors blind reliabilities. and hypothesis scored by a psychologist. group and to and students responded to a pre-course interview and in three written In addition, analyzed by procedures last class sessions. Qualitative data were and 10"'. outlined by Miles and Huberman. the reflections after fifth, and Romey, and Yin. including creating data arrays, constructing categorical matrices, making flow charts of Welter con- relationships. structing distributions. and ordering data chronologically. frequency gain on employed independent t tests and scores (post-test - pretest) and of results checked assumptions Analysis quantitative pretest scores). Bonferroni adjustments were made to control Type ANCOVAs (covarying errors (i.e.. erroneously finding a positive I and level was set at effect). alpha c .01, Clear tables p descriptive and inferential data. and text reports exact ps and ps for some report from different finding not for non-significant ones (which are important, since p = .02. a high probability, is a very although comparisons, = .49. is a probability essentially equivalent to chance).-L.H. p which RESULTS traditional by the quantitative analysis: (1) subjects in supported dance instruction did not make signifi- Of four hypotheses. three were in creative or critical thinking, cant gains dance in make significant gains subjects In creative creative and critical thinking, and (3) (2) did traditional dance. creative in significantly greater gains in creative thinking than subjects in dance The fourth hypothesis was subjects had supported: not subjects in creative dance did not gain significantly more in critical thinking (4) subjects in traditional dance instruc- than tion. the trend However, 2.02; critical toward the creative group (Creative Mean gain = was Traditional Mean gain = .97. equiv- in thinking alent a moderate effect size of r = .21. equivalent to d = .42). to while the hypothesis was not supported. the creative dance pro- Thus, gram did enhance think critically to a rnoclerate degree. to subjects' abilities on the type of dance instruction about dance changed. depending qualitative analysis The assumptions demonstrated that students' they experienced. This suggests the importance of program type and quality, because these factors affect learning. Thus, decisions about intended to carefully to support the made aims of the program-L.H. be need program goals FIELD skills. thinking in critical not thinking and creative THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO into insight provided analysis Qualitative per- students' of Students combines rigorous quantitative and qualitative ceptions study their dance experiences. This in the creative dance as requiring thought, intelli- instruction dance saw and important unstudied a relatively explore to methods life, everyday to gence, related as problem-solving and and about instruction transfer from dance question to higher- while those traditional instruction made none of these in skills. order thinking saw as a means to dance body components four on gains showed analysis Quantitative connections and a beautiful health.-L.H. and creative thinking (originality, elaboration, flexibility, and of fluency) These for subjects in creative dance instruction. COMMENTARY thinking from critical in improve not did pre- same students who to see Results section). A control post-test (but group This creative as is taught when dance that study suggests and Korean tra- studied traditional dance (modern, ballet, improve. problem-solving, students' creative thinking skills only gains component ditional) of "fluency" the in made

17 When COMMENTARY as a series of steps to be replicated, cre- it is taught skills the not develop. In other words, thinking type ative do yield- classes dance creative that the unreasonable It is not to instruction appears dance both what is learned of affect was shot long The skills. thinking in creative increase an ed in dance and what transfers to higher-level thinking. creative dance creative of should compare programs research Future that classes would improve critical thinking literature skills. on Kim does not explore the body of While dance in which one group receives a program focused on similar problem-solving, modality creative from learning of transference one she to another, to the program described by seduced was here, another employs creative problem-solving with and scholars and theorists early that claims the the addition critical the to bridging deliberate of thinking for made about the potential dance to influence or devel- did subject. in a target used op critical thinking skills. These early scholars not do model This study would be an excellent rich wrote and to but their claims, of investigation rigorous replicate on rigor, focus its of because and higher-order thinking, descriptions what it appeared broad was happening of children and cognitive As creatively. moved science when clear reporting (numerous descriptions and appendices scholarship of teaching and learning data). the offer details about programs, methods, and have uncovered informative, connections, the more about the brain, mind, Replicating within the United States would be and body Kim (gifted theorists abilities thesis based her especially with subjects of various ages and on naive. and appear quaint the a dichotomy within into fell also Kim dance of field behaviorally disor- gifted in dance, in academics, at risk, or socio-economic dered). Varying subjects' ethnicity and to move beyond. The notion that the field needs education classes backgrounds, matching traditional dance forms that traditional, teacher-centered dance and will not yield to sub- or critical thinking skill development, while creative creative jects' infor- useful provide also would cultural backgrounds, good mation.-LH. (which is "student-centered") will bring all dance the things is a trap. In this study, traditional dance group did FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS one of of creative increase thinking the four categories in skills: fluency are indications in this of of that thinking. There complete The study is vastly comprehensive, including a fairly skills to creative and other studies relating dance thinking the early theorists in dance educa- the review literature of of dance alone fluency. enhance may that movement or Mettler Russell to to Fleming to to tion from to Laban Murray and processes thinking critical creative of conflation The Anne Green Gilbert. But the author recognize does not would experiences the to expect that creative dance leads her would enhance relationships of some of enhance both and dance technique classes the theorists to Laban-particularly and weakest part of the study occurs early in the neither. The Russell, Boorman, Preston-Dunlop. The author does not account that take these approaches are based on Laban's into always "thinking because that infers she dissertation, when creative theories and critical processes," these func- and both the that Laban's theories permeate many of involves of as other in test- However, together. work always must therefore tions well. Therefore, while approaches the review the uti- to for it is not is broad, literature ing into meta-theory of organized any compelled she was thinking, of kinds two the far so that suggesting post-tests; and different pre- two lize not The author does creative dance. discuss how these theo- functions work two the how exactly figured haven't we own informed ries her creative dance classes (described later do. they even if or together, does study), in the nor she distinguish between teacher-cen- It is dichotomous thinking the eliminate to important to creative dance. She tered and child-centered approaches assumes about the content what determine and classes dance of that all creative dance approaches are child-cen- dance technique, dance improvisation, dance composi- the which tered, is not necessarily case. cre- to regard in influence do dance performance and tion, and Both quantitative qualitative analyses of data provide was can imagine view a complete accomplished over the 15 ses- One skills. of thinking critical what that com- ative and forms. The traditional dance in creative sions movement and performing and it, it a dance piece, refining posing might classes dance creative results revealed fos- indeed could that explo- foster more closed-ended cognitive activity than necessarily critical but not thinking skills. the creative had rative and open-ended improvisation. Kim ter thinking, creative permutations the The quantitative analysis are impressive, of dance students compose a dance in the last week of the actually reveals more much but the qualitative analysis it, but there was no time to refine or perform specific classes, work over what information and didn't about what worked less test for effect. influenced The age and culture of the students clearly of both the eight of classes is weeks. The content sets The her paper. in explore does the results, something Kim documented, providing opportunity to the scrupulously therefore ten- seventh-graders were shy and withdrawn and other than the with different replicate study in places Korea, would process. creative Seventh-graders the tative about of utilizing different age groups and traditional dance. forms process, any a to bring self-consciousness particular no in participants The author reports the responses of the respect value for origin. The of matter what their culture of honest detail, including the remarks the participants made ingrained Korean culture may have in is more that authority dance creative the by bored and being about embarrassed felt comfortable girls the though research. Even aided the demon- responses to aggregate the classes. She goes on teacher- the feelings to share their negative with enough strating dance group had ultimately, that the creative a willing. and cooperative they were researcher, might One and the of appreciation subjective and positive more dance different ninth-grade a population from of results imagine and objective group traditional dance detached a more view of dance.-K.B. boys or second-grade mixed-gender groups.-K.B.

18 STUDY NAME: of a Movement Poetry Program on Creativity of Children with Behavioral Disorders Effects Martha C. and Boni B. Boswell AUTHORS: Mentzer 1995, PUBLISHED: 3, Impulse, 183-199 Questions Research poetry-making with creative movement enhance creativity a program that integrates Can children with behavioral disorders? in and flexibility) (originality, fluency, unexpected outcomes What a program that integrates poetry-making with cre- are the of for with behavioral disorders? ative movement children METHODS participated, aged Two boys 10 years. The boys were selected from a pool of five children living at a 7 and residential treatment home. 90 percent participation in the program. The boys' individual diagnoses and behavioral disorders were on their was Selection based (e.g.. no to the cultural contexts of their Families made race, ethnicity, references were but described, SES). creative movement and poetry stimuli, and the boys participated in 16, 50-minute The over a period of program integrated sessions weeks. Sessions a consistent, three-part structure, each part of which was had (1) an introduction and warm-up. (2) 10 described clearly: to a poem ("the heart of the lesson"), and movement closure. The movement and poetry segment involved reading the poem aloud (3) twice while the boys read along, the boys creating individual movement lines they each selected, and then sharing their sequences for By the session, the boys begari writing and creating movement for original poetry they "spontaneously movement sequences. fourth child. a booklet for each A behavior management reward system (tokens) later cassettes. which compiled into recorded on spoke'' and was used throughout the residential program was that was into incorporated also the program. reported. was and it was well conducted. design and qualitative. The study analyzed. collected and analyzecl from four sources: Data were Anecdotal Recordings by two observers. trained prior to data collection. The observers alternated which child they observed for each (1) recorded session. They sessions to capture program information (progression of content) and the chil- observations chronologically within behaviors and verbalizations. Observations were summarized collaboratively by the principal investigator and observers after each dren's then coded for (a) creative behavior (operationalized as and fluency, and flexibility, after Torrance), (b) unexpected Out- session originality, = number of movements unique to the individual. Fluency number of movements. Flexibility = comes, and (c) external factors. Originality number definite changes in movement quality (force, direction, level. or shape). = of Observational Checklists. Sessions (2) videotaped. and two observers were trained prior to viewing by clarifying definitions and were concepts and completing the creativity checklist (which tracked originality, fluency, and flexibility, as defined above) for a child the froin who was one of the two subjects. Each observer's agreement with the principal investigator was r 2.85. Then the observers com- home not child. for percent) raridornly selected and ordered sessions of one (50 which they viewed independently until Sat- checklists pleted eight isfied about accuracy. Open-ended staff were conducted with four Questionnaires/lnterviews. members and the two observers. one week (3) questionnaires success, study. The general areas: (a) program four (b) learning. (c) behavior changes. and (d) needed after the questiorlnaires examined Open-ended interviews program changes. the subjects. conducted and audiotaped by the principal investigator one week after the with an additional same general areas as the questionnaire (through the question: What does poetry mean to you?) and study. the included area, supplementary feelings: how feelings about poetry had changed from beginning to end Of the program. (b) how the boys felt (a) moved moving with other children, and what feelings arose when the boys (c) to their favorite poem. Data from both sources were about com- for Category "miscellaneous comments" a investigators into the by and summarized coded. transcribed. the four categories plus did not ments that otherwise fit. "spoke" Original From the fourth Children's on. children created and spontaneously Poems. their poems into an audiocas- (4) session The poems were transcribed into booklets for each child. They were analyzed as sette. and described accord- "unexpected outcomes" ing creativity variables, representative topics, and overall characteristics. to contributed other through triangulation, which affords verification also reinforced each Data sources and clarification of uniquely and Anecdotal records were most helpful in understanding program outcomes.--1.H. results. RESULTS variables three creativity all demonstrated the boys (a) these two behaviorally disordered children: for were general result? Three reported varying degrees, (b) was both shared and individual: both boys gained interest to growth poetry, one gained social behavior in the skills. other gained motor coordination skills, and (c) both boys enjoyed the program. research this of further study question. for four dimensions) (along generated the foundation for testable hypotheses study The body and (a) awareness, (d) verbal and physical (1) Areas of Learning: independent thinking skills, (b) motor spatial coordination. (c) (e) dance elements: (f) knowledge. body of and feelings. thoughts of awareness expression

19 (2) Behavior Changes: to participate in new activities. (b) positive group participation, (c) appropriate participation. (d) over- (a) willingness expression: coming inhibited token (a) extend (3) longer time. (b) increase importance of Program system, (c) increase time for poetry writing per ses- Changcs: over sion. focus more on reflection of feelings in both movement and poetry: (d) empha- Study (a) interview more frequently during the program (at least three times) to develop trust earlier, (b) continue to Design: (4) detailed records.-1.H. size anecdotal CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD and boys two the by the poems written in images affective and identifying on attention greater that speculate applying feelings cre- qualitative its in exemplary is This study methods and the process of writing poetry might extend to reporting. stud- the program and study article describes The ative output. More program both offers modifications it and clearly, ies that address the and when that, study suggests "The affective of inclusion hypotheses research. in future to test in cognitive variables The study suggests that, when combined, poetry and poetry and movement development skill are combined, contribute may movement engagement, development to motor and creativity, of and/or social learning children in in especially needed, with behavioral disorders.--1.H. the cogni- where dance, engagement, to contribute may affective, and psy- tive, COMMENTARY domains are chomotor development of creativity, and synthesized. The so well study of is a model The work. It affords a fine- qualitative authors on learning in motor and/or social con- to 90 grained two children analysis four triangulating by of one clude that since sources validity: anecdotal records, observation- for data of children boy with behavioral improved more disorders." in from social the sessions, videotaped and checklists al behavior and questionnaires interviews; in other sub- the by produced (poetry motor coordi- student and work multiple in findings their report authors The jects). nation, of creative movement and poetry writing the union formats (text, graphs, of hypotheses for future qualitative or lists fabric" a "stronger especially for provided development, for research), quantitative challenging learning different and of children that results their apply styles. specify and The questions. data useful the most that state also authors for only to these two boys and to future research outcomes the understanding authors from boys achieved came the The are also careful to ensure and assess reliability measurable in to recognize that by ways, bias and terms the anecdotal defining reduce records. The field needs by and training selection randomizing by observers, session analysis may offer the clearest movement depiction of what and by cognitive behavioral changes occur is observed child alternating or coding, for order through involvement which in dance.-K.B. by which observers for each session. categories should explore Future research the defined as and outcomes by this study methods its careful replicate reporting.--1.H. and judicious CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD This case study of two boys is quite complete and revealing about creative the particularities of the two thinking and styles. is well doc- Qualitative data collection boys' learning umented and supported with citations from previous stud- to devel- techniques. Both boys were able using ies similar a portfolio poems written from movement, indicating op of improvisational dance from that a linguistic stimulus can generate original thoughts with a degree of fluency.-K.B. COMMENTARY The study adds to the growing body of literature about cre- ative thinking and characterizes it. There are specific what of creative think- with the descriptions behaviors associated attributes of ing flexibility, and originality with both fluency, movement and writing examples. A statement in the Discussion section of the study raises an for further exploration in the field of dance educa- area or research. The authors reflect on the lack of emotional tion

20 STUDY NAME: of High School Students' Creative Thinking Skills: A Comparison of the Assessment of Dance Non-dance Classes and Effects Sandra Minton AUTHOR: 2000, Unpublished Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO Manuscript, University PUBLISHED: of Research Question thinking? dancing and creative there a Is between relationship METHODS high school students (1 5 years old. on average) who were enrolled in dance (experimental group) and non-dance hundred Two eighty-six a wide for courses advanced beginning and in teachers dance studied under Students participated. courses control group) (untreated six and forms. Dancers for about dance to eight hours a week. in participated out of school, for a semester. Controls attended of five range business psychology. English, health. interpersonal coinrnunications. and in classes accounting, Creative Coritrol pre- ancl post-tested in groups on the three parts of and Torrance Test of subjects were Thinking Experimental the of A: picture construction, picture completion. and creation reliable: inter-rater recognizable objects. The test is fairly Form (TTCT). Figural reliability (r = .66 - r = .99): retest reliability (r = .60 - r' = .70). TTCT is norm-referenced on five factors: fluency (number of original- ideas). ity (novelty abstractness of titles (imaginative titling that captures the essence of a drawing). elaboration (detail identification). ideas). of Because subjects to closure (completing figures in non-simplistic ways). premature were assigned random identification resistance and by instructors, responses were scored blind by the investigator, which is a strength of the study. Group equivalence at pre-test numbers determined a by was test. Repeated measures of ANOVA on change scores were computed for experirnentals vs. corltrols for all sub- t of commitment and each of the six schools. Finally, pre- and post-test scores were correlated with four indices jects and by school for dance experience. experience of school, total dance: previous dance training, current dance instruction outside and hours dancing with per week.4.H. 8 RESULTS dance of titles correlated with higher levels of abstractness experience (results are presented in bar graphs, Elaboration, originality, and specific values). It is puzzling that patterns of effect across without factors of TTCT are inconsistent. with different schools demon- the The < (p from .05) for different creativity factors. may result author reasonably suggests that the variation differences strating significant compromised by results are Although in school cultures-variables that should be assessed in future studies. teachers or differences in generalized potential selection bias be (ancl can only choose students there is evidence against an school high to dance who classes), those who took creative: dancers scored lower. creativity out more dance started because resulted scores interpretation that higher on is not likely average. the creativity gains resulted from a more creative group in the on pre-tests for all five creativity factors. Thus, it that dance instruction itself.-l..H but. rather. from the dance treatment three the by the type measured by assessed factors CONTRIBUTIONS THE TO FIELD Torrance Test study The Creativity, of thus supplies empirical for a belief that dance teaches divergent thinking. support study suggests This a possible danc- between relationship does The study not like- how assert, however, or assess ability and improved ing perspectives. to consider multiple use these thinking skills in. to for be ly the dancers would of disciplines. a range in is useful flexible thinking Such classes. science or example, history is possible, That but a school students who studied The study finds that high cognitive is difficult subjects across transfer since likely, not better than of styles of dance for a semester scored variety [1989]. Rocky to achieve (see Salomon, G. & Perkins, D. N. originality, the elaboration, on and abstractness non-dancers roads to Rethinking mechanisms of a neglected transfer: titles factors of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking. of phenomenon. Educational Psychologist. 3-142). 24[2], 11 that study also models an experimental design This Generally, skills employed to those in contexts are similar drawn. allows reliable conclusions about transfer to be tests were the case, this In learned. are which they in the in Experimental designs establish direction of effect, class, administered at have the which start a dance of may this from dance instruction case, the outcome measure to learned had they what helped subjects use dance in more of thinking.-L.H. creative sub- in other would they readily in the testing context than or classes. jects COMMENTARY in Future creativity should research investigate whether fostered be history) can (e.9.. science. specific disciplines did Dancers in this study are more likely than students who teacher behaviors through dance programs, explore how receive dance instruction thinking of creative employ to not

21 affect the (what makes a quality creativity factors enhanced or dance employ multiple, situ- experience?), teacher and creativity, just than of paper-and-pen- ated measures rather tests.-L.H. cil TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS dance is a valid way The study indicates students to that for creative skills, especially in the categories develop thinking and are thinking. The data originality well of abstract and study is a model for quantitative analysis decoded, the the field.-K.B. in COMMENTARY "This study suggests a possible relationship of dance styles and The students studied an array dance to whether tease needs research approaches. Further out choreography improvisation movement affect cre- and/or dancing between and improved ability to consid- ativity a dance technique to a greater or lesser degree than much clearer class, teach- the and where are expectations multiple perspectives. er " ers directly model outcomes. Whether dancers can utilize their original and abstract- of thinking area an disciplines is in other skills additional the as such Studies researchers. exploration for future dance a correlation a variety study show Minton between of activities and some creative thinking skills, but we to need as correlation as well order transferability demonstrate to in demonstrate that activities. Studies dance of value the full skills in also test for skill development of creative thinking problem-solving writing and other creative disciplines would be useful, especially if such studies demonstrate more either deeper and for pervasive dance that allows activities transferable more are learning some dance that or than others.-K.B.

22 STUDY NAME: of Whirlwind's Basic Reading Through Dance Program on First Grade Students' The Impact Skills: Basic Reading Study II Dale Rose AUTHOR: 1999, 3-D Group, Berkeley, California Unpublished Evaluation PUBLISHED: February Study, Question Research in which dance program be chil- Can reading abilities improved through a first-graders' use their bodies to physically represent letters? to learn dren METHODS Basic Reading through Dance (BRD) program was 1998-1999. in three Chicago public elementary schools. The goal of In a implemented was to improve first-graders' reading ability through dance. The program lasted over 20 sessions. Each session was led by the program physically represent sounds each consisted of teaching students to session by making shapes with of specialists. The three dance heart to their schools served represent letters and letter combinations. bodies Nine 12 served predominantly as control schools. All schools 174 BRD of 198 control children were pre- and post-tested in reading using children and A total African-American poverty-level children. America's Phono-Graphix Test. The test assesses the to recognize sounds for letters as well as phoneme segmentation Read the ability and control children over three months.-E.W BRD The scores in the ability. study compared gain RESULTS significantly in reading, those in the BRD group improved While more than those in the control group both groups improved significantly all measures assessed by the reading test. They improved more in their ability to relate written consonants and vowels to their SOUndS, on control to from saoken words, includincl nonserise words, compared to the Dhonemes children.-E.W. seament and I ., in young children. Whether or not this activity is reading skills CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE TO could dancers conclude "dance" debate), can we (a matter and enactive way of helping this activity that is an innovative three-month shows This is a well-designed study that that a relationships.-E.W. sound-symbol children master program in which children learn physically represent let- to skills works ters basic improve to reading bodies with their CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD W in these children.-E. in this study can used The be easily method replicated for COMMENTARY I different skills-and advanced more and age groups be. study is rigorous the results should The in design, and teach basic an reading study offers This innovative way to have it demonstrates Clearly, that movement can validity. should examine Future children. at-risk to skills research reinforce early case, development-in this skill cognitive help children improve can methods of whether the same kind skills. reading With a sample size of experimen- in the 174 reading skills beyond basic decoding. It is in higher-level and group tal 198 evaluators have the control group, in the that helped children important to recognize that the activities research that quality by demonstrating service a great done to learn to to read were ones closely tied reading: putting to be can the actu- done easily and with direct application allow not This letters of shape study does body in one's the al classroom. the conclusion that dance leads but to reading, rather that disseminated widely.-K.6. be results should The basic improves of IetterS the shape one's body in putting COMMENTARY to way innovative an offers study "This teach study the of aspects the is One of the most compelling use to skills reading Future at-risk basic children. movement of improvisational exploration to discover how The words. development of lin- into sounds can combine the same kind research should examine whether guistic abilities mirrors the development of dance phrase that, more reveals study the than mere- making. Therefore, in improve children help can methods of higher- recognition, dance can help chil- ly reinforcing letter-shape dren discover of the "music" language. Both auditory and basic decoding." beyond skills reading level to cue the kinesthetic. Students visual stimuli were used

23 learned the of letters as well as the sounds of letters shape and were blend both sounds to letters into mean- and able words. The use of a divergent approach, where chil- ingful have multiple choice of dren correct solutions, as a to a simple imi- convergent approach such as opposed the the of tation example of shape, kind of active learning is an that will improve young children's skills. In the study, the experimental group lower on the pre-test, and scored came further the using dance movement as therefore along skills.-K.B. modality for reading of the most "One aspects of the study compelling is the use of improvisational movement explo- combine ration how sounds can discover into to of linguistic abilities mir- words. The development rors the development of dance phrase making." 22

24 STUDY NAME: and Community: Creating Knowledge Through Service in Dance Art Ross Janice AUTHOR: presented Paper of the American Educational Research Association, April 2000, at PUBLISHED: the meeting Orleans, New LA Questions Research incarcer- affect social development HOW at-risk and self-perception and does dance instruction for adolescents? ated research by undergraduates in a dance-centered service-learning How does participantlobsewation project affect perceptions of arts generally and dance specifically In the the of purposes undergrad- the lives of others? and uates' METHODS to 17- year-old at-risk and incarcerated adolescents participated in 45-tninutejazz sixty dance classes twice weekly for 10 13- and hip-hop Eleven students. all with dance experience but only one dance major, engaged in participant/observation research. They weeks. college the observed, teens danced. and interviewed and produced (one meta-portrait" is an appen- "collective a students contributed portrait researcher gathered data weekly from three sources produced by student dix). The reflection journals, in-class dis- principal researchers: and written building toward Students' final portrait. The principal syntheses summarized and gave examples from cussions, researcher not are conclusions clicl not produce a portrait of the college students. Thus the relationship between the data and but these data sources clear.-L.H. unequivocally RESULTS particularly why dance may be a medium about well suited to fostering positive self-perception and first study hypotheses produced The social development iriclude influence of teachers and the styles generally for disenfranchised adolescents. Hypotheses teaching employed (charismatic. physically powerful instructors, inclividualized instruction): the synergy of certain dance forms (jazz. hip- in dance with culturally valued leisure activities; release of physical and psychological stress in which "expression. not conquest" is the the hop) expression. of on practicing non-linguistic bodily instruction which is a primary vehi- to team sports): the focus goal (in activity's contrast in dance to express individuality within a rrlaladaptive social behaviors are conveyed; and the need and opportunity cle through which adaptability. which provides practice with to developing positive social identity and central group. issues to prison administration about the dance program's The dance. service (providing data second study suggests that the congruence of effectiveness), and research (which placed college dance students in a social/therapeutic context and required reflection about impact ancl uses is an tool for advancing college students' understanding about how dance can be used ancl how reflec- discipline) the of effective portraiture of tion necessary in the method fosters learning.-L.H. FIELD their CONTRIBUTIONS TO a way that college teachers THE might expand stu- models I Bl dents' views the purposes of their disciplines to include of U social potential impact. (portraiture) methodology a qualitative This study used to the should investigate Future research gen- hypotheses under-researched relationship explore a provocative and Its between arts (dance) and social and community service. about dance as erated by this study intervention for an poten- generate framework and a conceptual goal was to juvenile and other disenfranchised adolescents. offenders testable tially research. Studies quantitative. or hypotheses for future Such research could qualitative be sports with jazz compare the social effects of team might non- study found that incarcerated and low-income, The and dance of styles different of or instruction, hip-hop English-proficient reported school students middle gains in dance the along analyzed treatment each with instruction, to dance confidence, tolerance, persistence related and instruction. why explain that hypotheses in It resulted may group-research dimensions hypothesized by this study. The teachers promoting to suited is particularly well dance of groups to gains. in action- such extended be could model found that college student researchers The H. research projects.-L. study also of a tool as dance for fostering view reported an expanded THE FIELD TO CONTRIBUTIONS solely as a medium for per- social values instead of serving recreation.-L.H. or as formance study: Three major contributions to the field arise from this incarcerated COMMENTARY The methodology used (portraiture of the (1) students by the student-researchers from self-reflective inter- contextualized journaling, observations, framed and dance of on focuses The study non-traditional outcomes stu- social activists and positions instruction. It posits artists views and presentations with feedback from the other as the dance as a tool for social interventions, in this case, for at- of process dent researchers) is brilliant, rich, and allows learning to be revealed in its multifaceted components. incarcerated adolescents.. Its two-level structure and risk

25 (2) The secondary level the study (the self-reflectivejour- of by the student a tool for naling researchers) reveals understanding expanding value and range of students' the of and beyond technical proficiency field per- of the dance began Student formance. researchers to understand how be a tool for progressive social and psychoso- dance could cia1 growth. by the author are profound and clearly (3) The conclusions case dance why the works make for disadvan- well with so Because she taged had so much rich informa- youth. (Ross) to draw from, there tion several stunning insights, are including statement, "Patience, and sometimes even her can by-products of aesthetic be compassion, social Come has writer approach this best .the ' what) body human the new regard for (is engagement, and dance can introduce."-K.6. understanding and unpacking to across COMMENTARY in what happens class." a dance has the best approach this writer has come Ross defined to understanding and unpacking what happens in across a dance By using self-reflective observations, journal- class. rich discussion, interviews, and a consensus-building ing, approach to drawing conclusions, the author fosters under- the value of and the constraints on dance- both standing of learning. The model for dance educa- informed study is a Field researchers. of tion observation requires a selection stances, which, if their techniques embrace elements from value system of the event or culture being studied, can the portray truly and details of the event. the breadth the dance value of While classes for incar- longitudinal may be difficult to deduce, requiring large cerated youth expenditures of energy and time, the fact that several of the student researchers continuing their involvement with are arts underserved populations means there will be a the and cadre of "anthropologists" who small continue to can observe, reflect, suggest, and develop projects critique, such this one in the future. as For the future, dance education researchers need to this look of dance (in forms case, jazz and hip-hop at other I the delivery system for dance technique) and to other were dance experiences such as choreography, improvisation, and performing.-K.B. 24

26 STUDY NAME: Imagery end Athletic Expertise: Exploring the Role of imagery In Motor Intelligence Kinesthetic Margaret Skotko AUTHOR: Anna Bachelor's PUBLISHED: March 23, 2000, Harvard University, Honors Unpublished Thesis, Massachusetts Cambridge, Questions Research of intelligence? motor kinesthetic operation Is imagery a core Does with dance expertise? motor imagery ability increase visual-spatial intelligences rely on Do or distinct cognitive processes? kinesthetic and similar METHODS speaking, right-handed females with normal English vision. Thirteen were novice dancers Participants were healthy, or corrected-to-normal 12-year-olds with two years or less of ballet training). 12 (9- non-athletes (9- to 12-year-olds with no history of routine athletic to young 18 with at least 10 years of 25 training). and 16 adult non-athletes (aged routine ballet 18 to 16 (aged training). professional-level dancers of with history of 25 athletic training). All subjects were recruitecl by posters and did not know the purpose no the study. Dancers to routine and non-dancers in each age group were matched on socio-economic status. completed Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (as an index of general intelligence) and Subjects experimental tasks: four (1) deci- about biotnechanical (e.g.. "If your right palm is put sions constraints right 011 is on the left side of your knee.") ancl knee, your your thumb cube (2) (3) feet. and (I) hands. figures.-LH. rotation inental of RESULTS made significantly fewer errors on Young biotnechanical constraints tasks than their age-mate non-athletes. No other com- dancers tlie different parisons were significantly statistically the .05). was that = performed although the trend biomechanical tasks and tasks (p dancers rotation of hands and requiring faster and more accurately than non-athletes. interestingly, the opposite (though still non-significant) feet trend with mental rotation of ot,jects (cube figures): non-dancers tended occurred perform tasks faster and more accurately than to these Because these tasks may index two different skills (kinesthetic versus visual-spatial intelligence). and because dancers. standard intel- the results cog- specialized and on the imagery tasks, the discrete support the idea of (Raven's) performance level predict did not ligence test nitive abilities (multiple intelligence theory).-L.H. tion in subject characteristics that may obscure any experi- FIELD TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS mental effect, experimental tasks should be redesigned to (3) look feet of videos or color photographs (i.e.. realistic more the This study demonstrates complexity about questions of hands), and and be (4) task difficulty should equivalent made (e.g., arts (e.g., from dance) to non-arts domains transfer for or body parts. using objects tasks mental rotation). Finally, author suggests reframing the research ques- the significant differences The study found no statistically from tions as "Does one imagery ability generalize motor motor imagery abil- between dancers and non-athletes on motor be ability imagery to "Can or another?" domain not signifi- professional-level dancers were addition, ity. In improved with athletic cognitive training?"-L.H. or novice dancers. cantly better at motor imagery than moderate of and positive However, the effect sizes were CONTRIBUTIONS THE TO FIELD be size. However, a considerably larger sample would required significance.--1.H. statistical achieve to is under- kinesthetic intelligence of area entire the Since terms COMMENTARY especially in explored, of the relationship of kines- by study an thetic intelligence to cognition, this impressive undergraduate initiates a dialogue that should continue. a complex under- and This was a rigorous, of initial study of motor discussion an with begins The author excellent dance training on studied research domain-the effect of the imagery of role the in and practice and planning devel- to ability the of pictures objects and/or rotate mentally kinesthesia. interviews includes She with elite opment of body parts (hands and feet). how athletes discussing a significant differ- makes imagery use should research future (1) that suggests The author subjectively, performance. in Since ballet uses she ence, larger samples, (2) area of kinesthetic ".. .the entire dancers as her subjects for the elite athlete group, the longitudinal experi- of the expanding research case for in the area study makes mental, rather than dancers. Ultimately, include to kinesthetic intelligence intelligence is ." correlational, designs under-explored.. case kinesthetic of when and if the the role is made for varia- would control c.

27 intelligence in the "whole child," how dance developing the process be included.-K.B. facilitates should COMMENTARY author, discussion, divides the tasks (there were in her The categories: egocentric motor imagery (tasks two four) into translating written and visual one-three, which involved body-part of to the core of the depictions relationships visual-spatial which tasks (task four, and body) imagery depiction a paired a series of cubes in various involved of of rotation). There was no states real significant difference among the groups; athletes experimental not do did better The author several wonderfully reflec- non-athletes. than has tive insights the results were not differentiated, but into why the most obvious: that the athletes were misses performing these at a computer and were disengaged from their tasks while would the tasks. It kinesthesis be a worthy performing study replicate everything about the study but allow the to groups to move before responding. Therefore, the time on task may vary somewhat (and was a variable mea- speed this study), results may be more accurate. sured for but with coaching for visually, Ballet dancers learn some auditory musicality, and phrasing but also learn by "marking" they movement-doing a kind of scaled-down-and-back ver- the of the sion in their hands and legs. patterns addition, dancers, particularly modern modern In Laban to Movement exposure had who dancers have or Analysis notation, or who have studied Laban- Laban based dance techniques, would make an intriguing subject group for kinesthetic tasks. Laban's approach to move- such develops awareness and spatial acuity ment body-part and such analytic skills may directly, differently from test elite ballet dancers who, the author points out, are highly specialized and "domain-specific." Since Laban's theories of movement permeate move- elementary-level creative in United States and Canada, such a the curricula ment population may provide more useful data for understand- plays ing the that kinesthetic intelligence role in overall cognitive abilities-K.B. 26

28 Essay: Informing Research and Reforming Dance Education Kohn Bradley Karen of purpose research The to in learning environment, learning processes, and teaching improve is education the classrooms. and in schools practices areas, might help in these examples the dance studies col- of As dance how and in the their effects. field into best practices initial insights important offer compendium this lected in the more, better, on the longer journey to developing step these useful will find Educational researchers studies a and more useful research dance demonstrate the need for a common language education. These studies also on analyze dance and its effects. and describe to Dance Education and Transfer General Learning to studies seven The suggest what researchers should pursue. They also pro- this directions dance in compendium indications of exactly vide young people learn in dance that relates important positive what and attitudes skills to academic settings. Implications for curriculum and instruction are apparent applicable well. in other as consistent across the seven studies The most indication the finding is effective as a means of devel- dance that is & Boswell, Minton, and Kim originality, and abstractness. Mentzer three aspects of creative oping fluency, thinking: had positive correlations with at least one of these three areas of creative thinking. The results all that, at suggest the least, physical activities specific dance support development of by actively engaging students. This to fluency is of mind considers that fluency of thinking is essentially a facility and mobility one and surprising not when ability of the student the involves ideas around and look at them from different angles. In dance, the body to turn same the does reflection on that process is a valuable aspect of dance-making. Originality and abstract- and thing modes of dance where improvisation especially likewise, are valued and composition are taught. ness, education, a range that provide a means for developing may of the creative The studies thus suggest dance instruction aspects of critical thinking skills. More study thinking programs where creative thinking is valued by the school of and in regular classroom settings will reveal further insights into how dance activities support such assessed development. of and Mentzer & Boswell also Ross how students engaged in dance devel- provide indications by The studies and are able to express new insights and interpretations. The two studies probe how op and reflecting moving, on movement through writing and drawing, can lead that shifts experiences how students view dance to and in Both students themselves through dance experiences. how studies are qualitative analyses. Nevertheless, view the new insights are observable as behavioral changes and offer a rich direction for future research. Ross’s study the process of journaling as a means of tracking changes in attitude of college demonstrated students toward education. Her findings showed that journaling and rich discussion can broaden dance dance college understanding attitude toward, dance as a means of social change. The and and deepen students’ of, reflected upon a dance program held and students observed prison facility. Mentzer & Boswell’s in a juvenile the effects of a creative movement program study demonstrated writing and of two learning-dis- the drawing on Specifically, one wonders whether abled general effects of dance itself, the process of moving, the boys. the upon moving, or the writing/drawing/dance-making products are all equally necessary in order thinkingheflection to the kind of rich shifts in perception these two studies suggest. Dance, as is suggested about other art effect the in the Compendium, is in need of research that explains in this interrelation of its specific dimen- forms essays as an arts experience and cognitive processes. sions look at a dance program that strives Rose a deep and rigorous a quantitative The study that provides study is in use to improve the reading skills of students dance three Chicago public elementary schools. The findings to showed that the experimental group of first-graders improved significantly in the three areas of reading skills measured: consonant vowel sounds, and phoneme seg- sounds, carry ~~co-mmo,-- dance mentation abilities As difficult as empirical studies can be to -from- langL,gge j”Ttle-uG on a public school PoPulation and across two disciplines out I established has Rose reading, this in ground- and (dance case), ro”ust”ess r’gor fL’tUr-e the to crlt’ca’ Is ;theory and work for additional studies area has provided a basic in and this how a great reveal a that approach to experiments deal about I ’ . dance of ” research.. -. dance program can affect cognitive development. typical Proving causalyty between variables is difficult enough when those variables confined are desire a sterile environment dish. While we a petri predictability in education, to in are complex and children learners. slippery In research, we are trying education understand the underlying to processes of learning. Our goal is not replicability in the laboratory but improvement in the classroom, a differ- ent kind of Roses larger sample size replicability. 198 in (174 group and the in the control group), experimental timely pre- and post-testing, and rigorous analysis of test scores provide an integrity of process that makes the bw ‘7

29 impressive positive outcomes experimental group started out lower in reading skills and finished higher) (the and provocative. exciting & and provide important guidance on the future of dance education research and Rose, Ross Boswell, Mentzer dance experiences as more than view studies instruction. All three learning about dance. Dance is .-. ~ -~ __ simply learning to dance or with the as a full and powerful modality for interacting defined studiea ('-f?kKatiOflal researchers Will find these ideas. the for in these studies, teachers' goals of world In addition, useful longer to Journey the on Step developing1 learning student directions for clear supplying students were overt, may not provide , and While such transference. practices facilitating on dance sterility of context that is required by some research methods. more, better, the more useful research and are j under- a fuller to lead they and teaching good of part can .- . education."._ i ~ - __ standing of how real children learn in real schools. . -.- .- - of Most in their instructive are included studies the procedural under do clearly define but specific dance activity not study. Future research needs to delineate assumptions the the dance variable is (technique, improvisation, performance, or choreography), what the intended out- what of specific comes dance experience are (improved critical thinking skills, increased fluency or abstractness of that better thinking, choreography, etc.), and how the movements are assessed in relation to technique, more original of on informed, specific, and rich data impact classroom practice and student the intended such outcomes. The powerful. be learning would The Need for a Common Language teachers to improve and disseminate their best methods and content, even more research and In order for dance qualitative effective needed. Both quantitative and practice are studies should incorpo- classroom on reflection a way of noting and analyzing instructional content and practice and student learning. Dance rate dance theory as to an important gap visible in this collection theory will studies, the lack of a common language by which fill of discuss and the changes that take place during the course of learning dance. dance rigor use language from dance theory is critical to the future a common and robustness of dance of The in it is empirical or descriptive. Getting'at the details of movement change, describing shifts whether research, and expression, facilitating the expansion of movement vocabulary, and accurate measurement of such attitude of are essence of a sound and useful body growth research. The grammar of movement is inherent in dance the style and technique, and various methods of analysis have been developed, one of which is Laban Movement to document elements of movement Analysis (LMA). has been used LMA of movement analysis that is a system in athletes, politicians, and in various cultures, as well as with dancers. change actors, the movement of noting or eliciting specific components of studies, might have allowed for several the In of the learning. The potential of the level of detail more detailed provides could be demonstrated analysis LMA studies Rose) where children made letter shapes with (e.g., bodies and moved to the sounds of letters in in their to develop early reading skills. By providing language that orients children in space, allows them to articu- order (nonverbally) specific and of pathway late line, delineates qualities of movement and sound, and configurations whether to could provide data not only on LMA the children learned their letters and could relates parts wholes, words from them but also on the individual approach each child took. Learning styles and the preferred form of be child can modalities noted through the movement observation. each addition for delineating specific approaches to learning and providing a means In perceiving the details to toward of of LMA adopt a particular stance users analysis of the movement components of an event. change, The trained observer notes no more than what has changed in the mover's configurations. Therefore, the analy- sis subsequent interpretation the data reveal what the mover does, not what he/she does not do. LMA and of way of individual child's learning style as well as a a map of documenting the evolving content of provides the child's learning. the creative via growth thinking & Boswell. in which two boys were studied for creative Mentzer The case of study movement could enriched by observation experiences, specific be changes, in addition to the movement of analysis of the poetry they wrote and drawings they made. Skotko could have observed the movement study's to organize for the motor planning she studied went through changes both the "dancers" and "non-athletes" tasks she Dale Rose could have recorded the specific aspects of movement that best reinforce language analyzed. acquisition and reading skills. And early college students Ross' have written more descriptively and critical- could changes. attitude track to providing more richer data they were observing, classes dance ly about the informed and with Curriculum Instruction in Dance Aligning Research: Implications for Future Research and Beyond the need for a common language to discuss the changes that take place through dance, and more and in public schools to a need Compendium illustrate research, for dance curricula better the dance studies in this 28

30 reflect current research that educators and researchers can conduct informative assessments. In order for so to be and applicable to real classrooms, teachers and researchers need to share the common useful research of goal reflecting and insight. Teachers need to know on processes of inquiry and practice with integrity various to capturing specific information field of dance and need to field-test approaches terms of discourse in the how about students are utilizing dance for cognitive development. Researchers need to know the breadth well depth dance content and open and of to the methods of observation embraced within the discipline itself. up to other areas of learning of cognitive development from dance also suggests research The for transfer that and application to be more powerful, teachers should explicitly support transference so that it is more strongly incorporated into activities, especially activities such as mapping and other such theoretical con- meta-cognitive drawing, Lots evaluative and reflective activities-writing, rich discussion, applied projects, product- structions. of the field (dance-making, performance building) and thoughtful, making within not rote, indi- practice-are also as reinforcements. cated productive Conclusions defined, discipline-embedded studies in Clearly need to be encouraged, supported, and disseminated. dance With good statistics and in-depth studies of the specifics of particular processes, educators will be able to repli- can amend, the best practices cate, and develop offer. Educators, parents, and administrators dance education will learn just how potent and effective dance can be with children, intrinsically and instrumentally. And finally, in mind. with the needs rich, effective dance experiences can of real children educators design 29

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32 STUDY NAME: Effects of Creative Drama on the Social and Oral Language Skills of Children The Learning Disabilities with E. de la Cruz AUTHOR: Rey Dissertation, PUBLISHED: Doctoral Specialized Educational Development, 1995, of Department IL Bloomington, University, Illinois State Research Question Can program with an emphasis on specific social and oral language a creative drama skills increases social and oral language skills in the children with learning disabilities? lead to of METHODS pointed to two developinents important to the success of children with learning disabilities. One was the centrality of Existing research variations in which account for most placements of children into special-needs status. The second was consensus in linguistic skills, children with learning disabilities typically social skills necessary for effective peer-to-peer and student-teacher interac- that lack research generally to success in school. While the use of drama to promote linguistic and social development in tions-relations that contribute a concrete test. no one had put the idea to history scholarly advocacy. of had a special educatiori was developed with the assistance of The study special and regular education teachers who helped define the most important and 70 skills for children with learning disabilities. What essentially amounted to a factor analysis identified four clusters of problematic social skills behaviors and success in the classroom: (1) courtesy to others-apologizing when actions have injured or infringed on as critical for self-control-finding acceptable focus-ignoring distractions from peers of using free time when work is completed. (3) (2) another. ways classroom and doing when work, compliance-following written directions. (4) social They urban to schools with speech centers. 5 ranged in age from two were Thirty-five students with learning disabilities selected from ancl had diverse ethnic ancl cultural backgrounds. There were 21 students in the experimental 11 and 14 in the control group, appar- group ently by school. The main design was a pre- and post-test model with two groups. divided the 12 sessions aimed at each of four skill treatment in 12 weekly 40-minute creative drama The activities. three of the group engaged 20 drama programs with cornmon goals designed and run in parallel for the students with learriing disabilities receiv- clusters. Separate were respectively. The dramatic activities were designed with ing social skill clusters primary- and intermediate-level instruction the four critical mind-e.g.. one three-week segment emphasized mutual courtesy and recognizing when one's actions hurt another child. The dramatic in action in this segment reinforced apologizing. Comparison-group children received their normal routine of weekly language therapy. Student language skills assessed before were after the intervention using the Test Language Development (TOLD). The Walker- and of Test of was used to gauge social skills, along with the Competence Social Scale McConnell School Specific Oral and Language and of Adjustment Skills within these social skills assessments were matched to the (SLS). primary social behavior clusters outlined Scales four measures in the two weeks following ttie program and also were taken weeks later to test for sustained effects. above. Post-test eight In to pre- and post-test measures, addition probed ttie experiences and conclusions of students in the drama group-J.C. interviews RESULTS and used variance for testing group differences on various post-test measures of pre- to post-test gains. The chil- The researchers analyses who participated in the creative drama program increased their social skills dren in all of social behaviors more than students four clusters language significantly also group. improved in their oral expressive when compared with the control skills They in the control group. Receptive language skills (acts of interpreting oral speech of others) were not comparatively affected by the drama program. While these results provide indicators of the helpful effects of dramatic activities the social skills of students with learning disabilities, on and language In comparison to so many studies that halt design. the research might be test considered to be follow-up of the the most critical element at operation post-assessment, this study tests for sustained effects two months later. All post-measures of language and social skills the for drama group held up over lime. the about When asked the experiment, children most frequently mentioned aspects of courtesy and general peer- what they learned in bet- speak listen and them helped lessons also reported that the drama Students classmates. along relations-getting to-peer with their ter.-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD studies focusing research Historically, learning disabilities. deficits linguistic on children with learning disabilities used as this children in of characteristic distinguishing main the is study that this contribution of main The it is the first sizable con- drama experimental test of creative reported according agree, studies numerous group. In addition, to development cerning academic and social children with of the authors, that students with learning disabilities need 39

33 adaptive of interact with others more effective- teachers view their students who have learning disabili- social skills to and work effectively facilitating in them to they relate ways the the ties, to and peers, accepted by their be to ly, revealing. The be might social skills, their of school improvement heterogeneous, mainstreamed within classrooms. teachers This of challenges the understand students with more experiment contributes relatively “hard” quantita- know and learning disabilities social linguistic skills increased ways effective tive evidence that both and facilitate to through a program of creative drama.-J.C. social W. development the better.-B.J. language and COMMENTARY “This relatively contributes experiment importance study, of research The this of and generally that quantitative evidence ‘hard‘ that both arts to developments of special- relates learning in the is underscored the that about fact needs populations, by social skills and increased linguistic eight percent of all elementary and secondary education programs. students are enrolled in special education a creative drama.“ of program through learning designated has a majority children, these Among disabilities education of out million (2.2 million 4.3 special students). The enlisted 70 regular and special education research teachers help identify important and difficult social skill to learning disabilities, which ground- needs of students with ed the main questions and instruments used in this study. experimental groups and control The study used assessed and with standard, scaled tests of social language develop- work also enlisted systematic interviews to gauge ment; the the and conclusions that subjects drew from meanings the experiment. The study includes detailed appendices describing the various dramatic activities and the inclusion of supplemen- tal interviews. These appendices are helpful windows into this study.-J.C. FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE makes a unique contribution in its focus on the study This on of drama and the expressive effect receptive oral-Ian- guage abilities of students with learning disabilities. It is claims appropriately grounded in the rich body of and on the effects of drama as a stimulus for growth in research the of oral language for all students, notjust development with learning disabilities. those the compare to great lengths to views went De la Cruz special education of of general education teachers in and terms of the social skills they considered both important and difficult for students with learning disabilities, and focused on only those skills that both groups of teachers agreed on. Thus, her findings pertain to the interest of both of teachers.-B.J.W groups COMMENTARY that De finding drama training can improve the la Cruz’s students with learning disabilities is a signifi- of social skills finding about the for a society concerned cant escalation of pressures violence in balance and the need schools for to to the accountability effective approaches and realistic with development of students. social interesting aspect An of this study, though not its main social skills special between the purpose, is the comparison and regular teachers consider important and dif- education ethnographic study of the ways these two groups ficult. An t. 32

34 STUDY NAME: of Creative Drama as an Instructional Strategy to Enhance the The Effectiveness Readers Fifth-Grade Remedial of Skills Reading Comprehension DuPont AUTHOR: Sherry and Instruction, 1992, PUBLISHED: Research Reading (3): -52 31 41 Question Research to integrated with children's literature contribute of creative the a program drama Does students? skills of fifth-grade remedial reading comprehension of reading growth METHODS looked at three groups of fifth-grade students in remedial reading The that demonstrated comparable skill levels in both study classes Test and the Reading Diagnostic section the California Achievement the Metropolitan Achievement of (MAT6). Each group had 17 Test students. Groups and Two received a structured remedial reading program for six weeks using SIX selected children's stories. Group One used creative drama com- support story comprehension. Group Two used "traditional." non-remedial methods to support story One to reacl Group same stories as prehension-they the followed discussions. vocabulary exercises and teacher-led One. Group Three was by control group and continued the ongoing remedial program. the Group Otie was taught by the researcher; Groups Two and Three were taught by their regular teachers. The study acknowledges the worked of provide the creative drama intervention. The researcher researcher closely with the other two teachers to having the challenge This that the similar and detailed lesson plans and common learning outcomes. used helped to validate inferences about teachers ensure observed instructional outcomes. used also Two and a weekly of reading comprehension. Groups One and post-study assessments used the MAT6 for study The pre- (CRT) assess story comprehension. since these two groups focused criterion-referenced test to children's literature as part of on their instructional designs. CRT (A factual or inferential questions. which have asks and wrong answers. and sometimes better and worse right 1 A team of three reading teacherskpecialists and the researcher Higher a story). answers. indicate higher comprehension of scores independent CRT the stories used in this research: an to panel also reviewed this test.-J.C. designed the linked RESULTS study finds that "...when children have been involved in the process of integrating creative drama with reacling they are not The able only to comprehend what they've read and acted out, but they are also better able to comprehend what they have better but do not act read out, such as the written scenarios they encounter on standarclized tests.'' This is an important finding that warrants scrutiny and addition- al research-that drama only contributes to the immediate subject of a dramatic enactment but not associates with comprehension also in one of skills arena to skills useful more generally, albeit drama activity. the This is an instance of transfer stories unrelated of to written transfer. The observation suggests a closely some sort of disposition in a child's approach to reading may be influenced by related that reading. across the connection between dramatic enactment and Comparisons show three groups the group using creative drama all that also on the CRT than the traditional group (Group Two); the creative drama outscored Groups group scores achieved significantly higher and Three Two is the only Analyses that Group on of variance show group showing a significant the MAT6 reading achievement test. One from pre- to post-test scores. Group Two actually displays a significant decrease in the MAT6 test scores-perhaps because the increase shows soon on the heels of a first test. Group Three also a decrease in retests following too test-retest can turn children off to protocol mean from pre- to post-tests. scores this decrease is riot significant. but The research has some design limitations and interpretation puzzles linked to factors such as the use of intact classes rather than ran- (17 students in each). and the use of the researcher as dom assignment groups, the rather small size of the respective groups studied to The between the however, is designed to minimize these impacts through careful pre-testing and coordination a teacher. researcher study, other teachers. and participating remains the possibility that children in the researcher-led class using creative drama knew that something important was up and There This post-test effort gave the did the other two groups. more raises the possibility that an unknown combination of at least two con- than ditions propelled the positive results-the positive impact of creative drama linked to reading. and the positive impact on motivation in the by bringing something new to reading lessons teacher classroom.-J.C. brought a guest drama hension than students in a discussion-based program and a THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD control student group. An important contribution of this This study finds that fifth-grade remedial reading students work is that it involved fifth-graders, in comparison with a in a six-week course of literature-based "creative engaging of literacy-related drama studies, which experi- majority drama" show significantly greater gains in story compre- ment with preschool or early-primary-grade children. 33

35 Another the population suf- is that contribution entire study of skills for their grade level and shortfalls fered reading have been involved in the process ". ..when children thus all were at high risk of subsequent difficulties across school curriculum. Moreover, this study found skills the they integrating are reading with creative drama of to skills in comprehend- gained through drama transferred of part as program, the ing literature not a claim presented what they've comprehend better to not only able taken seriously and must scrutinized carefully.-J.C. that be to able better also are they but out, acted and read COMMENTARY not do out, act comprehend have read but what they the DuPont indicate to "creative drama" term the uses followed text, story non-illustrated reading by practice of such scenarios written the as they encounter on stan- children's invented created) scenes prepared for enact- (or ment, along with "oral and pantomimed" extensions of dardized tests." anchors their stories. She in a the label term defined 1975 to by the Children's Theatre Association of America mean COMMENTARY " . . .an improvisational. non-exhibitional, process-centered ...( where children) ... imagine, enact, and drama of form human experience." upon reflect power combining of the while illustrating research, The to. study thoughtful This is a worth attending results with with literature as a reading technique, still suffers from drama that author suggests " . . .merely reading and discussing The of the fact that the researcher was the experi- teacher that children's literature an is enhancing for means effective not ensure to taken steps were there While mental condition. reading the fidelity during of reading lessons, instruction comprehension as measured by standardized specified tests," at least for remedial readers. This is a strong claim, the research is qualitative without unresolved remains what the the of rest during the differential instruction of influence are discussing and reading since of butter and bread the upper-elementary- at instruction traditional reading school teachers were nothing about who We know day. the the main work within this school level. An extension of during remainder of the day or their pedagogical style. the study leads to that creative drama can improve suggestions skills during Students don't learn read- comprehension just children's reading associating by reading attitudes toward How much of an impact did that other instruction ing class. with a fun activity; such as theory should hold, engagement, have students' on reading comprehension? encourages enhance may also and more reading mental interesting some important and to points research The Such imaging skills imagery and dispo- of written material. First, it remains unknown why stu- unresolved questions. with associate to comprehension been found have sitions better, performed creative drama with dents instruction written text. of on to transferability on a stan- both and the criterion test findings suggest additional where areas The study's Second. of the author test comprehension. dardized asks pay might research including extending to study off, the compre- for a as dramatic acting of power the whether tool might be used in other areas of learning such as levels of reading skills and assessing students with higher hension content the effectiveness of creative drama substantive in most mathematics poor or science. readers And, finally, are such as social studies and science. That is, research areas What inclined toward kinesthetic-tactile learning styles? can one that idea the could test science (or more learn might that have for teachers in carefully implications assess- within a science course) about or a particular theme unit in tailoring that styles students' learning ing instruction and other modes through than creative drama through of styles between match optimal learning ensures and an instruction.-J.C. instructional practices?-B.W. THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO carefully and executed, with This research was planned studied make the three groups of to attempt made every (each children eight group involved two classes of to nine possible. remedial students) as comparable as reading In addition, instructional strategies during the specified read- lends more ing lessons were strictly adhered cre- to. This dence integrating creative drama with the finding that to children's literature produces better reading comprehen- just using the Same literature without creative sion than or basic skills drama instruction. The study also calls attention to the intriguing, yet untested that creative drama assists students in possibility helps images" of stories, which in turn developing "mental comprehension.-B. with W.

36 STUDY NAME: of Imaginative Play in Cognitive Development Role Robert AUTHOR: S. Fink 1976, 39: 895-906 Psychological PUBLISHED: Reports, Questions Research subsequent unstructured the imaginativeness of play free training influence Does in imaginative play among kindergartners? of adult-led training in imaginative play on specific cognitive developments is the impact What (1) supervised but unguided free play to alternative conditions: two kindergartners in contrast of attendance in a kindergarten class? routine (2) and METHODS addresses This potential roles of imaginative play (or creative role-playing) on two foundational cognitive abilities of children- stuciy the of as an individual's understanding that attributes to persons or referred "conservation" and "perspectivism." Conservation refers to a father who becomes a attributes: additional on persons or things take remain constant when may in their environment objects these examined. be Two types still "perspectivisrnr are also a father. "Physical perspectivism" refers to an understanding that doctor would of per- vantage points. "Social among different moves one even same the remains the environtnent of the physical arrangement though to an ability spectivism" refers sustain understariciing kinship relations or social relations within a group: is this father also a brother, to of this? The kindergartners examined in this relatively weak in both conservation and perspectivism at work were arid how would youjustify study. the of the start The study involved to of kindergarten children randomly assigned three groups: (1) adult-structured group training in imagi- 36 one processes. native play a control group. the experimenter. and (3) (2) Each child was of free-play activity in the non-directive presence before, during, and after the experiment by each of five observed trained observers. For experiment. one group was assigned to a training conclitiori in which groups of four children met twice weekly the four weeks for of create props using therne. encouraged the children a ini- to provided. and materials investigator introduced imaginative play coachecl The group was also divided into groups of four children who tiated irnaginative play The second with the investigator met on same sched- the no structured training. The control group continued regu- with the as training group. Their intervention consisted of ule period a free-play perspectivism.-J.C. again tested for conservation and one month. all children in the three groups were kindergarten activities. After lar RESULTS pre observation-of-play results provide evidence that higher levels of imaginative play can be taught to young children and The post of these are retained after the completion behaviors the training. The study modeling. through teacher-initiated activities and Moreover, "...the children in the (imaginative play) training group demonstrated found improvement in play imaginativeness dur- that a significant the ing post-training observation." in imaginative play also linked to developrnental gains associated with social roles. While all three groups improved training was The tasks over on the training group, coached in imaginative play, consistently improved on both conservation and perspective-taking time, more than the two comparison groups. measures results suggest that coached imaginative play contributes to impor- These social developments of children. Piaget described. the passage of chil- tarit As young ageS-"pre-OperatiOnal" very dren between to 3 years) to a more (2 ,coached imaginative play contributes to l'. , tnature period in the chil- marked by significant differences (7 to 8 years)-is way stage. the child dren understand the world around them. At the pre-operational important developments 'I cl,ildren, of events, people, making her. or him "assimilates" events and conditions around places fit his and her preconceived views of the world. This egocentric stance or shows evi- gradually gives way to a more accommodating stance by the child toward hidher own environment-one in which the child child begins stage in which the understand the world around him to on the world. This is a plastic take dence of a more generative ancl both in his or her own terms, as before. but also terms the stage. It is in this transition that children grow in of players on in the the other imaginative permitting skills their skills at conservation-of social roles particularly in the of in perspectivisrn-a set and play, accu- of case social situations through different vantage points.-J.C. of consistent comprehensiori and rate CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD than more holistic skills such as reading comprehension or story sequence recall, which in many are assessed early This study differs from (1976) in the dramalacademic skills studies. The author finds that kinder- others Compendium mainly because it examines very specific gartners who engage in imaginative play training sessions significant improvement in cognitive functioning by imaginative play, rather show impacted two important Piagetian .. ' 35

37 developmental measures-conservation perspec- and Conservation and building tivism. perspectivism are critical children blocks allowing and social sense to make physical them.-J.C. of the world around COMMENTARY mod- The study provides evidence that given appropriate resources, and imaginative play of young children the eling developmental gains in contrast in important can result to under a mock training experience (meeting play the with investigator merely supervised free play) or in the typ- who routines the kindergarten classroom. This study ical of useful guidance for classroom activities, and supports offers dra- existing the the ability of imaginative or research on matic play to enhance psychological and intellectual devel- opment.-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD This study the importance of imaginative play in highlights child's cognitive development. the a young In particular, for calls of Piaget's theory, which sug- study a modification that imaginative play experiences gests do not aid in cog- development. that, the research suggests nitive Instead, to Piagetj assertions, imaginative play can contradictory help a child develop cognitive abilities.-C.G.-F! COMMENTARY This suggests that more research is needed that pays study attention This has a child's playtime is structured. to how implications for practice, in that it suggests that teachers can the development of imaginative play by sug- facilitate to possible themes and using appropriate props gesting support play.-C.G.-F! 36

38 ___-- STUDY NAME: Naturalistic Study the Relationship Between Literacy Development and A of Dramatic Play in Five-Year-Old Children Jennifer AUTHOR: Goodman Ross 1990, College for Teachers, Peabody George Ed.D. Dissertation, Unpublished PUBLISHED: University, Nashville, Vanderbilt TN Research Questions and why? play used within dramatic is literacy How literacy What factors influencing how important? is used within dramatic play are METHODS campus. Subjects were out in a school serving was college carried children of college employees representing a wide range study This a and education levels. The research was carried out of income an intact preschool with 17 children (one African-American, one in classroom age). The white: ranging between just under 5 to 6 years of girls. five boys: class used dramatic play on a nearly daily basis 15 12 Asian, play episodes were observed. Themes within dramatic play ranged from the over five common (house. family, riionths. Ninety-seven very to occasional unique subject (farin. fishing, concert). school, stories) the to explore the literacy aCtiV- children's drarna of the methods arid used traditional ethnographic to researcher themes The categorize of children during dramatic enactment. The researcher worked to minimize the ities of the research intrusiveness on classroom behavior five on of assistant teacher over the entire routine role months. Data collection included participant observation, informal inter- a by taking analysis. As views, tape recording and videotaping were introduced the study progressed. and document The analyses. to support researcher focused of literacy-related phenomena: functional uses of literacy: the ability of children to translate familiar on a variety StO- into texts: use of play to establish physical setting and to present play the use of personal themes: and modes and degrees ries stories: social interaction.-1.C. of RESULTS was the "Literacy" focus of this research-the use of reading skills, decoding written trriaterials and drawing inferences. and trans- primary lating and sequence into dramatic text. The study finds that one common form of literacy served to organize children's play- narrative in composing their that often become the basis for inany play scripts. Children also used literacy riatnely skills favorite stories children's Both teacherktudent and interactions play scripts. influenced children's choices about the importance and student/student of use litera- within their plays. The settings of cy appeared literary texts in varying degrees in their dramatizations. Through play, the children exhibit important facets of their literacy-their ability to read texts and materials (even artifacts) related to their play, their use written artifacts within their play and their efforts at cornposing scenes and plays. Within the "risk-free'' atmosphere of literacy creating able to expand their use of also skills. The researcher notes a positive relationship between dramatic are Iplay. of chilclreri translation includes establishing settings. characters, character relationships. into play texts. Such and plots. and translating stories stories in words the study's author: "This study the the use of dramatic play of literacy learning in that children are frequently Using In supports on their own as well as with teacher direction." The use of "opportunity bene- by children in drama suggests a significant literacy literacy namely supplariting non-learning. self-directed time the literacy-rich activities of drama. fit," with dramatic play examined The internal exposed in aspect of literacy this study to dramatic enactment apparently important for also an childten the motivation of gain literacy skills. Literacy ohJects to as giving power to the possessor (the child with the map were perceived texts to direct play). Moreover, literacy in the form of detailed understanding of Arid appeared to give power to playwrights. allowed was the ability to direct play also reflects the children's "storying" skills and appears to elevate their social status within the classroom.-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD and written objects within writing, dramatic activities. What is a refined portrait of critical cognitive develop- results ments occurring that through drama. The researcher finds of research body of this study to the The main contribution prac- both whereby children can a vehicle play is "dramatic learning on drama and of use the on focus is its singular the within artifacts reading, writing, and written dramatic develop to about learn and begin tice skills literacy and refers Literacy pre-kindergartners. of activities be might which skills 'storying' writing."-J.c. in story used reading to drama when children in skills. Literacy writing and is used COMMENTARY or written sym- for enactment, scripts or texts decode use a play, within a map) or (such as documents bolic or a ticket study provides analysis of how dramatic play This a thoughtful scripts. We include a number of studies of when they write of litera- fosters pre-kindergartners development among the story to understanding linked and reading comprehension of literacy activities and arti- cy skills how the specific use and in this Compendium, but only in this dramatic enactment facts within dramatic play can reinforce reading and writing study see inquiry an of we do using reading, effects into the 37

39 development. Because at fairly early stages of 5-year-olds are development, dramatic play may all the more "literacy" be children if the form provides a important for these dramatic literacy, about motivating context for learning using literacy new and abstract concepts. In the find- skills, and exploring study, this that context. ings of drama provides creating play and writing between The relationship texts not addressed in this study, abilities was be would but a for good with this sort of pro- extended work candidate mature readers and more gram-specially for somewhat fourth- and writers such as fifth-graders.-J.C. TO CONTRIBUTIONS THE FIELD makes a qualitative investigation distinct contribution This other studies from most of the Compendium in that this in naturalistic (a in a regular setting collected were data classroom) over an period of time kindergarten extended purpose not the was (five months). Furthermore, to test a to explore the effect of arts on pre-determined hypothesis the student learning. describes the rela- Rather, research between and literacy and then goes tionship dramatic play to explore some of the on that influence that critical factors relationship using richly textured qualitative data. by research powerful evidence that dramatic The provides is an important vehicle whereby children can both prac- play W. and tice literacy skills and knowledge.-8. about learn COMMENTARY The of this type of research is the lack biggest shortcoming of generalizability to other settings. To what degree are the the Caucasian, middle-class stu- to findings only applicable in the dents sample included a pre- study? In addition, the females of ponderance females and five males). While (12 were offered from the boys, most of some examples them from girls. Might the relationships look different the were in or balanced-gender context? The a predominantly male observations detailed the howev- from of richness findings generally outweighs such as these. er, concerns highlights three messages that transcend The research only not apply findings age and content. to is, the That evi- provides research "The powerful and learners young older ones but not only to literacy also but also other aspects of learning. These have important that dramatic play is an impor- First, the physical set- implications for classroom practice. it is important ting is critical: place takes in which learning chi'dren vehicle whereby can and to is if learning changing ever to rich both be it have be Second, the learning environment needs to maximized. practice and learn about literacy both of To interests. students' personal take advantage de-con- and under- textualize learning from what students know skills knowledge." and stand restricts potential. And, learning is learning finally, the highly oppor- requires extensive Quality learning relational. teacher-student interac- tunity for student-student and W. tion.43.

40 I____ NAME: STUDY by An into the Writing of Original Scripts Exploration Inner-Ci High School Drama Students Jeanette Horn AUTHOR: NV National Arts Education Research Center. National Endowment for the PUBLISHED: New York, of (ERIC: 1992 Department ED366 957) ArtsIUnited States Education, Research Question do an urban theater magnet high How work collabora- school in ethnically diverse students to of theater pieces regarding topics of interest and write original them? to tively conceive METHODS This study took place over a school year in the "theater institute" at a New York City high school-a magnet school within the school. While there is express audition to the school, all an process for admission a genufne interest are accepted. The students who teacher/researcher (T/R) conducted the double-period, daily theater class for the seniors in the school. As part of their theater magnet hour per with this back- Even and 11"'-graders. of theater an 10"- day as had various aspects studied school experience. the students for "not was feelings: traditional theater doubting common, with like people ground, the students entered the senior year theater class one "no looks like us on stage," and "no one writes about the dreams and problems we share." us." In the senior-year class, students were encouraged to write and perform an original play addressing something of relevance to them- to the students tell the students what not write. She led through var- but did selves. T/R The coached and facilitated the student work (e.9.. ious activities designed engender creativity (e.g.. visual awareness), sense of ensemble to listening skills), and playwriting skills to (e.g.. character sketches). The T/R used a variety strategies of document the class. Instruments included interviews. tape recordings of student and scene rehearsals, observations of audience reactions, and reports of other teachers and the school princi- discussions T/R The also administered pre- and post-qLiestionnaires: the pal. and students maintained logs. The students ultimately chose to T/R write and perform plays of their own. although as described below, the start-up phase proceeded with great hesitation. are Several left the researcher's program during the course of the school year. mainly at the semester break when students students full a set of observations and other data for 29 students.-J.C. the researcher obtained reviewed for overall progress in School. Thus RESULTS but began the program with little Sense of training aimed at student playwriting. the students The program established guidelines and showed that the students exercises Initial. exploratory writing proceed. to how just much about. write to what with even struggled less about how conceive of an issue or interest area that might become a play. But to challenge (and the teacher) kept a spark of inter- the est alive and students slowly became more pro-active. They looked less to the teacher and more to themselves for ideas and were more responsible for their ideas. collaborated in discussions of each other's evolving scripts. Attendance improved over the year. They could find nothing began using the school and local libraries regularly. And in contrast to the early weeks. when students to Students write about, they ended up writing far more than they could address in their dramatic productions. All students who began the pro- for 29 who remained the entire year, the impacts of the theater institute were unmistakable. far, but for the gram this get did not Students provicle eviclence of important growth in self-perception arid behavior over the year. Students increasingly saw themselves percent 25 to 85 percent of the class over the registration increased from as leaders and as important meinhers of the class. Library year; and the percentage put to how a (In percent. 57 to percent 25 went from play theater a on of students agreeing that they knew accomplishment; but important an a cap- responsibility for excessive an it seerns development seerns last magnet school program. this these stone course. What did students learn about theater in grades 10 and 1 I?) activities. is The resulting story sustained one in which incipient halting, nonproductive struggles with a problern give way to "unsequestered" problem-solving of informed through the notion evokes Bransford's outcome resources. This outside multiple of use on Unsequestered research the "transfer" of skills.1 (See the essay on transfer in this Compendium). of outlined in his recent review out and seeking identifying or perforrnance through product quality a acts (freed-up) problem-solving refers to of stretching toward do helpful to taking time and resources take risks of being wrong.-J.C. opposed to stopping so-as at ready solutions and refusing to dominate literature. the studys subjects the Second, FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS are Jnhn 1 Br:mclorrl anri of handful a seniors-only school high Compendium IZWO) Schwaru Daniel Rrlhinkinr] lmndei students beyond the elementary drama studies involve to This makes valuable more than contribution study one 01 in Chnpinr Rcview Third, level. school on focuses collaborative cre- this study of social and academic and theater/drama the domains m Educnlion. Wastiinyon Vnhma 24 ative processes program the making in art-the dramatic of scripts development. dramatic writing on focuses it First, DC American and became cooper- for spontaneous a laboratory guided and setting solely up productions by students-and not trlucnuonil Research Ascrtntion ative learning. which and re-enactment story dramatic on fantasy play, And finally, this study uses a teacher/ 39

41 researcher model the teacher serves two hours per in which year as instructor for the students. Researcher day, all the in studies in the teachers engagements other as low intensity, occasional, and Compendium are typically no more than a few days or weeks.-J.C. for . active COMMENTARY non-experimental Although is a year-long, a vari- This study. instruments used and specific data collected, of ety are the data from interviews and questionnaires take a most of minor supporting in the conclusions drawn by the fairly role most important findings of this study relate researcher. The the arc of the students' lives in this classroom over the to ~~ ...p rovides a comprehensive Case exam- year. as much from the school The portrayal comes researcher's sense things and how on went what of changed in over the year as it does from changes school be can research action how of to ple used from pre- to post-program questionnaires. answers student This is a study of playwriting and performance. But clear- " improve practice.. . of adult mentorship. ly it is also a story attention Individual or connection can sometimes turn academic indifferent an and a productive into career These experience. positive and students ultimately benefited from writing enacting welfare their plays; but a dogged coach interested in their a necessary catalyst.-J.C. as to seemed serve TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS makes a study to understand- significant This contribution with a collaborative the ing how dramatic arts-coupled pedagogical approach focused on continual improve- improve student learning as ment-can engagement in higher-order thinking skills. The teacherhesearcher well as provides a comprehensive in this case example of how case to improve practice and moti- action can be used research an of group vate inner-city high school ethnically diverse drama students.-C.G.-P COMMENTARY In this study, dramatic writing is used as a curricular vehicle to assist students in developing critical thinking and collab- oration skills. study documents that it is not just dra- The the also process through which students but matic writing taught that is important (e.g., dramatic writing requires are critical thinking skills). The researcher-teacher used a col- instruction requiring to laborative/democratic approach class to the a play together: thus, they were depen- write test upon each other. With the current push for higher dent scores nationally, this study points to the importance of valuing higher-order thinking skills.-C.G.-P

42 STUDY NAME: Approach to Facilitate Oral Communication A PoetidDramatic AUTHOR Larry Kassab PUBLISHED: 1984, of Speech Communication, Department Dissertation, Unpublished Doctoral August Pennsylvania PA State University, State College, Question Research of a six-week poetry/drama workshop What willingness of students is the effect on: the communicate communication skills: their feelings at the time orally; their oral oral to of their self-confidence and self-image? presentation: and METHODS rural This 27 sophomores in public high school in Pennsylvania. A workshop was implemented in an intact classroom with a study involved males). The intervention consisted one and four vocational students (1 5 females and 12 business, of 28 sessions over 22 a six- academic, week in relatively intense program researcher-a the by period led a twice-weekly drama where sessions or a few days of dra- domain class are the mode. The matic enactments was voluntary, but the entire inore agreed to participate and no one withdrew. workshop In the first segment form basic to the introduced were students study, the of to write poems and encouraged poetry of conceptions and completed. the provided oral presentation emphasizing personal feelings and thoughts. Once the poetry-writing segment was researcher skills and presentations. rehearsals final segment entailed The coached students toward oral interpretations of their poems. and instruction and Data were frorn seven sources: two assesstnents by the regular teacher (Pre-Workshop Student Assessments gathered Assessments of Final Presentations). four student self-reports and questionnaires (Profile Questionnaire, Initial Self-Report, Interim Reaction Report, Final Questionnair-e), and the researcherhstructor's log of Deify Observations and Interpretation. The questionnaires to designed capture student behaviors student learning from three different vantage points.-J.C. and were RESULTS the oral interpretation and dramatic presentation on workshop the that found study The skills, increas- improves oral poems personal of first es enhances self-esteem and self-image. The oral communication. and two results seem straightforward-speaking comfort with before advance- time cultivates speaking skills and increases Self-confidence. The likely causes of observed and reported classmates over supportive environment a poems alternative explanations presenting personal to open are in might ments in self-esteem and self-image effect: an have such collected data were No students' will- might so increased confidence the on in oral communication more generally. to ingness in speaking in. their other classes or in other settings-something the researcher might have engage in, or their effectiveness of do during the weeks and months after the program. The limitations part of the experiment or the study as not detract, however. done froin the apparent core effectiveness of this pedagogical design.--J.C. THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO of FIELD room success. The use reading poetry aloud to encour- age and support in is well established oral communication therapeutic the untested relatively community and holds of of behaviors unique is the this study set contribution One its drawn from differs experiment Kassab's lens. others into to exam- study begins use. This promise for school-based this link. ine ways. in the drama section of the Compendium in three too conclu- design study's The broad draw to limited is involves the core it at student-composed poetry One is that that sions, but it does provide evidence this approach brings of the commonly utilized stories not act, dramatic the and to for case good makes a students. This study the benefits The by other authors or student-created fictional narratives. of of promise poetic effectiveness the into research further second difference is that the emphasis is on the personal, presentation in sup- interpretation accompanied by oral poetry enactment play"-or " in of self-reflective, the nature academic this And the third difference is that the enactment bal- per- study growth. The social and case. both porting a classroom effective oral delivery with poetic composition the ances haps as best as a first step in establishing serves of a set also study program. The the of art which dramatic essential the around data collection protocols and program on designed. about the effects of drama contributes positive findings The study a more rigorous investigation could be where spillover transfer benefits and/or many areas offers social development-namely, academic both and as increased skills well oral communication increased as probed: whether there any are might be include these resid- below.-J.C. self-confidence noted whether the ual results from such an intervention over time, of (e.g., dramatic enactment writing undergirding types COMMENTARY poetry vs. expository prose) produce different results, and in other (or program of gained whether the skills type in this the programs aimed at same oral communication goals) and student skills comfort Improving oral communication impact academic achievement.-J.C. strong implications has oral communication with class- for 42

43 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD this study centers The suggestion that on importance of its oral presentation improve communi- and can writing poetry equal cation is that the study$ findings skills. Of importance upon the particular pedagogical are dependent approach by instructor, namely that the workshops served as used the case environment supportive learning 'I,. ,makes a good (free from criticism for the promise of a and for the students. The author suggests that a sup- judgment) environment portive learning a poeticldramat- further research into the effectiveness of coupled with improve a student's oral expression. Thus, ic approach can improving oral corn- poetic interpretation accompanied by oral Of study highlights one possible way the munication skills-C.G.-I? presentation in supporting both academic COMMENTARY growth." social and examining the This of highlights the importance study to students. Studies process by which the arts are taught to lead instruction will art that adding assume often improved student outcomes. these conceptualiza- What classroom environ- structure of the how is miss tions the In can ment student learning. impact arts the how influence this in case the author of the study created an environment con- and input their and in groups students worked which disentangle the So it is difficult to valued. cerns were poetry the noncom- use the of impact of from and drama petitive and learning environment created nonjudgmental by the also study instructorhesearcher. Additionally, the that the suggests of emphasis on public speaking in lack students oral high schools weak with commu- many leaves skills.-C.G.-I? nication 42

44 STUDY NAME: Drawing for Narrative Writing in Primary Grades Drama and Blaine H. Helen Caldwell AUTHORS: Moore and of PUBLISHED: NovembedDecernber Educational Journal Research, 10 87(2): 1993, 100-1 Research Questions thought-organizing narrative involving drama on of writ- What are activities the effects pre-writing-planning activities? traditional to ing in comparison of thought-organizing activities involving drawing What are the effects on narrative in to traditional pre-writing-planning activities? comparison writing METHODS students. The students by the standards of research was psychology, involving 63 reasoriably large-scale study were a This in educational the second- and third-grade classes iri from randornly chosen The study was a in a rural area. predominantly sirigle school. conducted lower-rnicldle-class The study took place ovet populated by Caucasians. mid-length among studies seen. weeks, 15 commonly and focused drawing activities, one group One group drama activities. on the third served Three groups were compared on con- a as on a traditional question-and-answer approach to developing narrative writing skills. The drama activities focusecl experiencing group trol for Students individuals' storics. ideas drama group ~isecl poetry, in movement. and improvisation to develop their the pantomime. games, writing. Students in ttie drawing group ~tsed figure. action. and setting drawings to develop their narratives. A riarrative used third group no intervention to promote narrative writing skills. The teachers had two 2-hour training sessions to learn how special lead and to facili- sessions. Teachers tate groups to ensure that teacher differences would not unevenly influence the quality of were these rotated among thoughtful and validating feature of the design. a the writing. This was 15-minute session discussing the a of narrative writing. This various aspects began each week All in three student groups together issues. characters, dialogue. endings. and other aspects of narrative settings. Then each experimental group broke included writing. off its own to contiriue a 45-rninute session ori either drawing or drama exercises followed by a 30-minute session of writing. The control of group a traditional lesson plan frorn followed with school text. a both holistic and analytic scoring scale developed the The were based on exercises rated every week. The researchers writing rating registered overall plans, They first arid then scored individuals on overall writing skills, ideas, organization. style. and context. irnpressions The assessors in this study attained tnultiple reliability an inter-rater of .96.--J.C. RESULTS This study found that when the curriculuin is designed to develop specific writing skills and the teachers are trained on the substance and implementation of drama and drawing can significantly improve the quality of riarrative writing for second- and the planned.exercises. consistent with This is third-graders. a of that have used drawing to enhance writing, and studies more abundant a other number limited that connect dramatic activities with verbal skills and writing proficiency. of array studies of Variance (ANOVAs) were used to test for significant differences in narrative three skills across the writing Analyses Repeat-measure p >.001 (i.e.. the chance differences at the control students were substantial and significant groups. between the program and In general. 1 1,000). The authors conclude that drama and in are an effective method to drawing the true differences were that less than zero was warm or rehearse students in ways that boost narrative writing performance.--J.C. up THE FIELD more than most researchers to explain the study's specific CONTRIBUTIONS TO drama and interactive activities.-J.C. significant under- our to contributions makes study This COMMENTARY of roles dramatic activities can play standing in the devel- skills. The signif- opment of results show writing statistically present of study. Their review The authors anchored a very overall narrative icant differences writing between the list comprehensive exceedingly of literature displays the an of scores both the compari- and in drawing groups drama Caldwell and Moore references. and resources working are son to the control group. Drama and drawing were equally with an understanding of existing knowledge and the- the writing was assessed weekly, the authors effective, but since ories in high is very study the of The design their field. in the drawing observe out started group that to able were are quality. The pre- and post-testing and analytic designs more slowly in effectiveness before its participants caught Although scale well conceived; strong. are tests reliability is up drama group. The design of the study itself the with the authors designed the tests and evaluation criteria, inde- also a contribution to this area of research, particularly its pendent assessors analyzed the results. What is being mea- 15 and weeks the attention dynamics of learning over the to applied sured is very clear. The study the of descriptions clear its authors activities. The tested do to second- and third- 43

45 graders, but to have implications for a wider group seems The overall clarity description would permit of students. of used this study for other programs-J.C. as to be model FIELD THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO pre-writing planning " , . .drama and drawing Thestudykresultssupport the ideas that can Significantly important for second- and third-graders and that are activities and drawing-contributes the multi-modal improve the quality of narrative writing for work-drama to in area-writing. It is development a third communication the recognized. of which should be work second- and third-graders." important results work with teachers in preparation for Staff development was extensive and, over time, seems to have been this study persuasive and effective. The primary conclusion that both time is needed the implementation of practices that such for activities important one for others and link disciplines is an this work to consider. who do for time development As staff and less available in our crowded school becomes less such a lesson should not schedules, forgotten.-TB. be COMMENTARY authors of this place their work in the context of The study growing of research by scholars in other fields who a body have the effects of "planning" or pre-writing documented on who have developed support student writing and for multi-modal approaches using drama and drawing that have the process of composition in common with a third communication system This multi-modal instruc- (writing). characteristic is others seeking to relate or tional one that integrate instruction from different domains should consid- The of the multi-modal approach cannot be er. strength the abbreviated presentation used judged from in this but the expanding number of such studies suggests paper, that the topic an important one to those engaged is in studying and teaching processes. writing fact that this is a large-scale one, conducted The study several of time and involving a varied group of over weeks school a real system, you would find in as teachers, just the important. The control group especially makes research is significantly arts group so few like a traditional language should question the results of the study. Every opportunity the to provided for all been groups to be suc- have seems cessful. Similar work of different ages would be with students The positive results need to be highlighted interesting. in more widely read than the Educational Researcher. journals linkages to studies in other areas-modalities-are The important to note and to point out to those in schools who question value of integrated work. Arts-in-education the personnel who use integration or infusion approaches should know that there are others doing work with similar concepts in other.disciplines are finding research that and in education A little transfer to arts supports their efforts. would be nice.-16. 44

46 -- STUDY Children's Story Comprehension as a Result of Storytelling and Story Dramatization: NAME: Study of Child as Spectator and as Participant A the Page AUTHOR: Anita 1983, Massachusetts, University Microfilms International University of Dissertation, Doctoral PUBLISHED: Question Research story enhance story comprehension among first-graders? Does dramatization METHODS effects on story uriderstariding brought through This versus listening to adults reading stories. study tests for differential drarnatizing stories such be raridom assigrirnent of subjects a question would two groups. exposing one to dramati- to A traditional experimental approach to one to listening, and comparing effects for the two conditions. This study takes an added step to boost zation validity of claims made and the so that any pre-existing advantage to either group in a paired compar- The study is carried out in two phases behalf on of eithcr treatment. nullified. Iri the by one of the two first-grade groups listens to a story read is essentially a teacher. The other group listens to ison first phase. of same story audiotape and Iproceeds to engage in an the is carried of story. The same routine dramatic enactment out for the two a the are tested for story understanding through second-/third-grade groups. Children 10-itern of a comprehension. a picture sequencing test instrument. and a story by each child to an interviewer. In the repeat phase. the same procedures and measures are carried Out. telling of the vice to the audiotape and proceed with an enactment-and hear versa. The author the groups who listened a teacher-read story now but attention to the vocabulary. structure, plot, and reports of the two stories involved in the respective phases of the study. careful complexity described. the equivalent in potentially important respects such stories were As vocabulary level. length. structure. and as to testing for several main effects across each pair. In adclition author examines effects at the first-grade level versus the second- the /third-grade The author attends to the basic reading levels of subjects by referencing student files.-J.C. level. RESULTS are significant results. One is that children several more engaged during dramatizations than when just listening. This study reports is that several key ingredients of story understanding are Another through drama: main idea, character identification. and better conveyed of story sequence. elements of comprehension. Both modes are motivation. in promoting recall character These are essential effective story details. and story vocabulary. Beyond the main treatment versus comparison group effects. drama had more effects on the younger (grade one) students than the older students (grades two and The author draws a reasonable inference that drama in this study was more beneficial for less developed read- three). within groups than rriore developed ers by the grade-level distinction. When outcomes are compared for students for readers. signified at first by reading level, this inference is reinforced. Story understanding effects are greatest for first-graders reading below grade leVel.-J.C. atten- much receive studies Such comprehension. reading FIELD THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO understanding through tion in this Compendium. Story the and written presentations was also featured in spoken of certain bene- evidence This study offers firmly grounded Podlozny an volume, this in summarized meta-analysis fits of enhance to classroom in the using drama children's class- studies of 109 examined of analysis effects the that story result, understanding. One in a finding seen commonly drama 1950. since published room drama the and generally, more in education arts that chil- is This study anchor an considered be could study in this than and engaged involved through drama" dren are "more One is reason domain. and strong very its appropriate from books. they are through storytelling by teachers reading its focus is that a second design: experimental on story Another result is an indication that drama is more effective in in the work the modal comprehension represents of area promoting understanding for very young children (first- story influence on the But learning. drama and academic liter- its it graders) than third-graders. second- for is corollary A and may been ature surrounding learning through drama have reading is that children with those reading lower skills, and limited because it is available doctoral as and dissertation a of beneficiaries potential the greatest are level, below grade book as a such outlet accessible more widely a through not enacting understand them.-J.C. to in order stories orjournal chapter article. are methods The study's research and value particular COMMENTARY of simple a worth comment up front. beyond went study The group hypotheses. test its to design treatment and control to Many studies link dramatizing enhanced under- text used The author randomization to establish two pairs of standing, and understanding particularly increased story 45

47 comparison (a and a secondhhird- groups first-grade pair and followed grade repeated a clever pair) design, which that so groups at each level received both intervention the treatment once as the drama part the of experiment.-J.C. THE TO FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS makes an This contribution to thinking study important “...children with and skills, lower reading Itsuggests beusedtoteachreading. abouthowdramacan arts that the (storytelling dramatic effect and dramatic with dramatization improve reading corn- can students) by story those the reading below grade level, are prehension. Additionally, it highlights how children are when participating more engaged and involved in learning beneficiaries potential greatest of enacting to storytelling by than listening dramatization rather in story being teacher. Rather than of passive receivers knowl- the stories them,” understand to in order students make dramatic presentations who edge, stories of may reach a deeper involvement stu- in a story, particularly level. who are reading below grade dents In current the basic of political importance the emphasizes climate, which this study con- literacy, dramatic arts can how the shows skills.-C.G.2 tribute basic and to improve COMMENTARY As author notes, one of the most common approaches the teaching is having a teacher read a story to reading stu- to could The that the dramatic arts dents. be a study suggests useful addition to reading programs and assist students with when students are comprehension, particularly story active participants in story dramatization. The deeper impli- of this, as the author suggests, is that while elemen- cation do supportive of creative dramatics, many tary teachers are not use classroom drama in their classrooms. This actually points to the need to understand why many teachers do not use dramatic arts to increase literacy.-C.G.-P

48 STUDY NAME: Impact of Whirlwind's Reading comprehension through Drama Program on 4th Grade The Skills Students' Reading Test Scores and Standardized Parks Michaela Rose and AUTHORS: Dale Unpublished PUBLISHED: Evaluation, CA, 25 30 Group, Berkeley, 1997, Questions Research is of a collaboratively developed reading comprehension/drama program on What the impact scores, and drama skills? skills, standardized test reading collaboration teachers, principals, artists, and among to develop the cur- does How researchers out? play reading program drama-skills and of a goals and tools, assessment riculum, the METHODS a development and evaluation project. After establishing the four project and control classrooms, the principals. teachers. This was what result- on assessment criteria. and train teachers and artists for implementing develop goals, agree evaluators tnet and artists, to ed this version a Whirlwind curriculum. (Since Whirlwind works with as to develop programs, it rnight be said the teachers and schools of in a process. It is not Whirlwind that is being evaluated or researched program development a given setting. but is Whirlwind Program design). implemented in that setting-a customized and of the collaboratiori product the rather specific an initial planning and design period. the teachers froin each participating class collaborated with After opera singer and an actor an one-hour from Whirlwind for sessions over 20 dramatic-presentation 20 each focused on 10 reading and sessions exercise weeks. The a in designed between the teachers and artists a dramatic exercises began simply-with solo short enactments-and collall)oration The more over time. The act es complex and irivolved rnore children the planners' collective sense of particular drama became grew from as well as skills. The assessment sessions were audio- and videotaped enhance particular reading wo~ild that exercises performance on a protocol with 23 agreed-upon criteria. The evaluation report contains information describing the drama activities and exer- scored exercises a description of the used for the performance assessments appendices include session. The that were used report cises in each the evaluation criteria and well as other statistical information. as mixes served by the Chicago student race/ethnicities and differing geographic areas Four elemeritary schools representing diverse of years for participation. All four schools had hosted Whirlwind programs in previous and thus had Public School System were chosen the sponsor. Within each established working relations with the four of all fourth-grade teachers were invited to participate and schools, all teachers accepted the invitation. Within each school, two classrooms were chosen randomly for inclusion in this study, and between each of classes, one was chosen randomly for participation and the other enlisted these pairs of a comparison classroom. receiving as program. no special was What resulted drama program, two hours per week, which engaged four classes of fourth-grade students in each a lo-week of one in each of the respective schools. Ninety-four fourth-graders partic- control which schools, were then coinparecl to four four classes, 10). and 21, 24, 24, and 25 students) and 85 students made LIP the control group (classes of Professional artists 28. 25, 22. of ipated (classes teachers. The three components worked together with the classrooin session included of Time" for physical and vocal warm- each "Game and getting focused, "Acting" for advancing acting skills and applying these to specific narratives, ancl up for "Observation/Conversing" writing and discussing the work of the session. At the in journals of the end 10 weeks there was a specific theater presentation exercise along with a performance assessment, In the spring prior to the program year and in the spring at the close of the program year students Basic a of the Iowa Test of section Skills designed to measure reading comprehension.-J.C. were given RESULTS Basic Iowa Test of on the Skills (ITBS) improved Participant students' reading comprehension scores study supports genera' three months more (in the standard grade-level metric) than the control group. with high statistical sig- 'IThis to student ability to identify factual information nificance. ITBS improved the most with respect scores assessment for drama from rationales text. On the formal performance including created by the collaborating team. the pro- written gram students improved significantly more than control students in reading comprehension. drama programs in the reading and nonverbal expression of information inferred from a written text. Participants also improved skills, and control group in nonverbal ability to express factual material. program Stu- three times more than the curricula for dentsdidriotirnproverelativetocontrolsinreadingabilitymeasuredthroughverbalexpression incon- communication written assessment. a to trasr The design of subject'devel- that the program did in fact promote this study supports contentions " elementary schools. opments reading skills in both and nonverbal communications skills. This study supports general ratio- nales for including drama programs in the reading ancl communication curricula for elementary SChOOlS.-J.C. 47

49 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD to control (no "The sample of low- assigned domly drama) and experimental con- of evaluation/ study This is a strong good illustration of income, urban students weekly (twice ditions instruc- reporting. design, execution, and There are many research was there weeks), 10 for tion attractive elements substantive from the apart study, in this color no aSSeSSment Of the general exposed to drama quality of rendition This experiences involved. reading instruction of student educational involved: program the Whirlwind numbers sub- of good (1) received and control the by gains impressive in plus four classrooms (four participant jects An classrooms. control class- experimental alternative hypothesis rooms-about students in all); (2) sensible, purposeful be may 180 of grade-equivalent terms impressive which to ran- Test Iowa the that Chicago selection of four diverse schools from domly choose classrooms; score of Basic Skills (ITBS) random selection (3) of both three months more than the increases were more a function participant teachers among and control classrooms differential instruction. of year expressing a desire to participate; (4) a full between control group." Second, of pre- and post-measures reading nationally recognized while it was impres- and skills; comprehension sive an outside (5) evaluation team. to see a performance component study design is the of strongest the Perhaps assessment that complement- had and program classroom teachers, all that alike, control ed standardized test score measures, the this results from in advance. of participation in favor self-selected more were ambiguous than test the authors portrayed. The multi-outcome performance model The study offers a useful assess- of assessment was divided into subscales. five evaluation, a program within ment for model a sound and subscales three fac- fluency, (verbal reading to The related design assessment program and the of creation the mul- by no difference verbal inference) revealed and recall, tual program The constituents. a general tiple to adds study between The classrooms. experimental and control two the connecting literature and factual recall out verbal of to body drama interventions nonverbal drama (acting subscales show did inferences) dramatizing differences. important and use, its design, in contributions novel skills and adds latter This finding should be assessments.-J.C. performance systematic of the surprising because results not drama control groups had no instruction. COMMENTARY who The of this for population positive findings students, may tests do poorly on standardized of achievement, often reduce offer to struggling schools for hope some the the teachers, artists, prin- process collaboration The among achievement poor schools and their between gap urban and researchers well program, designing the cipals, More needs research suburban counterparts. wealthy more report, study for in described can serve as a model the be to undertaken because the detail of program elements in this. play arts may the the role address to other programs of adequate information for provides research the While is a good pro- presented. example of reporting both This drama curriculum), the replication (with the exception of gram and operation and also the results of development the This is a high-quality work. amidst a field of pro- whether of question the important open research leaves study assessments if reading do even better on would students grams combining arts and education. There is enough (as instruction drama classroom they ongoing regular, had the the about information accessible various aspects of lo-week a special to environment in an treatment) opposed for process evaluation and implementation, design, most where drama instruction as information this use to core an important as regarded was educators, and researchers artists, subject rather than an extra, add-on the foundation for their own class.-B.W projects.-J.C. FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS adds study This the literature that documents the positive to drama of effects It is noteworthy Performance. reading on because effort careful to draw comparable control and of the classrooms, school both student and comparison matching characteristics. not only The findings made more robust by including are also more tailored performance standardized test scores but assessments. of The sample of low-income, urban students color drama gains to showed grade- in impressive exposed terms equivalent more of three months control than the W. group.-5. COMMENTARY There are notes of caution about interpreting these two generally positive findings. First, while classrooms were ran- 48

50 STUDY The of Thematic-Fantasy Play Training on the Development of NAME: Effects Comprehension Children's story Pellegrini D. Galda AUTHORS: and Anthony Lee Journal, Research 19(3): 443-452 Fall 1982, PUBLISHED: American Educational Research Question reconstruction training-thematic- of story of three modes What are the relative effects drawing-on the development and children's teacher-led discussion, play, fantasy of story comprehension? METHODS 108 children in grades K-2 from a rural school in northeast Georgia (18 boys and 18 girls in each of the three grades). This engaged study read three books adults, one each, on three separate occasions. After by reading the children were exposed to were The children each for processing and exploring what they heard: thematic-fantasy play, discussion. or one The first two story lis- of three conditions drawing. a formal test. Story comprehen- story reading was used for were sessions: the third tening and processing episodes considered training measured by a criterion-referenced test story recall and studentjudgments about the story or its characters. Story under- sion was gauging scaled measured the use of a also story-retelling task.--J.C. through was standing RESULTS in thematic-fantasy play scored significantly higher in story cornpreherision than their Kindergartners and first-graders who participated the There were in both no significant differences in story comprehension across training conditions peers discussion and drawing groups. groups recall and recall of sequence of events. The thematic-fantasy play story analyses for second- graders. Separate explored total the significantly higher number the events from the stories that they heard than both a discussion and drawing groups. The of recalled discussion or drawing groups. and either the also scored significantly better on sequence recall than did groups play thematic-fantasy of successful questions. Finally. for kindergartners, the centrality juclgtnental the role played in the thematic-fan- were in answering more event was positively linked to story recall (e.g.. tasy the wolf in "Little Red Riding Hood" was about twice play being effective in pro- as as playing the grandmother).--J.C ducirig story recall CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD broader information recall than those chil- this gives them discussion activities. drawing or to limited are who dren They also find that children engaging in fantasy play are or read is a cru- things understand to we come How we hear question cial There human development. and education in more (ques- answering in successful judgmental questions a critical characters the posed about tions requiring stance) strategies used for processing different are many and devel- new of understanding an oping graduate stu- to material. In "take on and questions require children situations. These of perspectives actor the and the simultaneously the role dent seminars, for example, lectures or readings are usually (i.e., character) ideal of this The findings portrayed role." followed a strategy for processing as discussions by infor- and furthering understanding. This study looks at mation study are consistent with other cited by the research various ways in which children in kindergarten through the authors, which holds fantasy play, in asking children to that own conserve their as well as take on a fantasy role, identity that second grade process information. The analysis finds facilitates stance a critical take to ability the toward the out play," or taking "thematic-fantasy a role and acting on story all or part of a story, contributes more to measured meaning its of identity the and of the story characters. in two familiar alternative "information than comprehension study extensive moderately designed and This is well three iterations of the experi- subjects scale (using 108 and processing" activities dis- adult-led namely school, in grade ment before taking final measurements). The work involved cussion and study concludes exercises. This drawing that of design including randomization a tight experimental effective and children become more active, interactive, and to facilitative to training groups and adults children when acting than when out explorers information a story researchers systematic roles. The used content assessment the discussions or when adult-led through reviewing story assess by told subjects stories to formal and tests guides illustrate a scene or theme from a story.-J.C. to drawing outcomes. measure to and than most, more criticized be COMMENTARY no might study, but This what for not does it consid- not for explore-particularly of play that could fantasy impact specific aspects ering and through Pellegrini that the- this study Galda suggest comprehension. For example, research story matic-fantasy play requires children the to accommodate the on play and that and to initiate sustain views of others in order importance of kinetic activity in language development, 49

51 especially for kindergartners, that purposeful suggests may play a in the effectiveness of fantasy movement part group. for this at how dif- play Future studies could look as play, such social thematic-fantasy of ferent aspects interaction the measured or kinetic play, may account for explore different modes impacts. Studies could also of "How we understand things to come we or levels different of skills of the adults discussion activities a variable that could prove leading discussions-certainly hear or read is a crucial question in educa- study. the to suggested generalizations important by this in this of summary described another As Compendium's tion and human developm&nt. 11 from the 1984). (Pellegrini both study draw Pellegrini studies experiment, but frame and measure different same out- comes for children and groups involved.-J.C. the TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD of The (108 children) study outline a very this results small children were read a story by intervention where brief young the classroom teacher. Students an experimenter other than story then engaged by drawing a picture, talking the either out story the adult, or acting with the story with about an peers and an three Students were then tested using adult. both and a test of recall. The a criterion-referenced test highlighted fact that higher comprehension results the when students can reconstruct a story through the- occurs than through discussion matic-fantasy play or draw- either This research illustrates of value ing. using dramatic play the enhance students' story comprehension.-B. bl! to COMMENTARY These results, while exploring the value of different reading recall interventions, are for several reasons. First, the limited criterion-referenced test is divided two factors: 10-item into judgmental story-related intelligence. and Inadequate validity the these two con- is provided about information of the structs. of the findings leaves out Second, presentation important statistics. For example, analyses of vari- many (a statistical technique used to assess the effect of dif- ance ferent variables) discussed for the two factors with were but by for the first factor level not for the sec- details grade Likewise, detailed results were presented by ond. for grade a separate of total recall and sequencing recall assessment outcome measured in this study). Yet. discus- (the second grade-level of the analyses of variance collapsed these sion distinctions. the authors incorporated student gen- Finally, into the but did not include that variable in der analysis published study of the same students with the another experimental intervention. Why not? same to explore some important issues research The begins points and questions to be addressed by future research: to What would be the effect of a more naturally occurring fan- tasy-play intervention in a regular classroom setting) (e.g., degree To what does regular, student on comprehension? routine play-as a central part of the curriculum- fantasy impact student comprehension? How significant is the role of adult as a catalyst to stimulate fantasy play? How an important is age or developmental readiness to the issue of comprehension for older students?-6.W

52 STUDY NAME: and Children's Early Writing: Relations Between Kindergarteners' Symbolic Functioning and Isolated Writing Fluency Play Word D. AUTHOR: Pellegrini Anthony Georgia, ED (1980): 1-15. Early Childhood Education, University of 407 201 PUBLISHED: EDRS Number Georgia Athens, Question Research between kindergartners' use of symbolic is the relationship expression (mainly What spoken words) in free play and their ability to generate isolated written of use the for success in writing)? implications with words an inquiry METHODS males and 28 females) took part in the study. All kindergartners in the rural school involved Sixty-five kindergartners invited to (37 were and gave permission joined the study. The investigators first administered Robinsons Test of Writing those whose parents participate, to to write isolated whole words-the student ability of central concern in the research Fluency assess development weeks following the writing fluency test. researchers observed all children during Beginning over four two their free-play periods minutes. play of descriptions recorded observers The 20 student oliservation lasting each times, with five observed was weeks. Each to a typology or hierarchy of play consiclered episodes according involve differing levels of "cognitive/ symbolic" functioning. These to include functional (exercising muscles/movement). constructive play (creating something). dramatic play (using language in the ser- play set a and games with rules (play subordinated to a pre-arranged role), of rules). The latter two types of play-drama and pretend vice of rules-are socially shared cognitively demanding because they involve using language for with symbols that allow children games more sustain play. to asso- four to test whether The researchers among the conducted categories were analyses of variance observed play-style differences of meas~ired writing fluency. ciated with different levels The researchers used several individual-level variables in a regression model to also the influences of gender. age. and socio-eco- test fluency.-J.C. well as otiserved as of play, on writing type nornic stat~is, RESULTS The of variance showed that among the play styles observed. dramatic play had the strongest effect on isolated word writing. analyses regression showed that The analysis the four factors examined (gender, age, SES. and play style), only differences in play style (to be of specific. play more using more symbolic functioning) had styles a on isolated word writing fluency. (Note: the author significant main effect USES the term "main effect. " a standard attribution to significant correlations (actually partial coefficients) in a regression model. "Association" would tie term more accurate in this study's regression analysis. since direction of influence cannot be than a "effect" from the data). inferred which these observations might be understood. theoretical framework children discover that The author provides a concise through As increase in their abilities and dispositions iridividual letters use symbol- bear meaning and that individual words represent things. they to developrnents would ic expression. Such show of isolated word writing. tests exploring play prior to this study took on up Researchers the levels interest symbolic functioning during children's play. Building in of that this study found that the more a child on tradition. to iplay. of play demanding symbolic functioning, the better that child tended type perform in writing words. an a in drarriatic engaged the use of symbolism.-J.C. action implying TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS variety of play styles including dramatic enactment) and FIELD word fluency. functioning refers Symbolic to using '* ..symbols, or academic per- Most research on the influence of drama on concepts." [to] represent other classes of objects or signs second A it is that study this of important contribution at or above the beginning addresses verbal skills formance types among differentiates the of play and assesses relative reading an is, levels typically shown by first-graders-that question within the The effects of each form study. simple very read to and simple words decode sen- to ability play, no nor dra- not play versus explored this study was by tences. This study broadens the literature through its activity. The research play versus matic "control" some Study "This adds to the body and sim- focus on very early effects are what of defined in investigates differences ple individual fluency word dramatic constructive play, functional as above play, play, of early on research focusing in writing. The research finds play of types rules. These with are considered games and involve sym- symbolic expression (or of levels different to positive relations between '' literacy. child hood of "symbolic function- level to are with bolic functioning) and thus associate expected different levels of that study finds The writing fluency. (witnessed ing" across a

53 into issues complex theoretical good model for translating among the forms the of play explored, dramatic play had the domain of classroom practice.-6. W. fluency.-J.C. writing strongest association with word COMMENTARY study the body of research focusing on early adds This to of research focuses existing Much on childhood literacy. the of at the higher end of the study the writing competency developing writers, i.e., children writing continuum for phrases or sentences. In this study, words organized into targets word writing fluency specifically Pellegrini isolated this is a crucial beginning com- with the understanding that of becoming literate. He then looks ponent in the process contributions that certain factors make at the possible to emerging literacy in order to suggest what might such be incorporated the curriculum into help augment to the literacy process young people. development of for fantasy very young children's abilities linking In play and through close observation, Pellegrini to write words the assumes processes used in dramatic play that symbolic to symbolic processes used to write individ- the are similar words. ual hints This a critical limitation of this study. All mea- at simultaneous, research ques- and the sures were essentially thus became-what sorts of play styles associate with tion what of word fluency? sorts firm be No made claims can about which. There is reason to.believe that which causes play styles would contribute to written word fluency; it is think that children with higher levels of to also reasonable fluency might in different styles.-J.C. written word play THE FIELD TO CONTRIBUTIONS adds to the literature on the contribution of free study This fluen- to writing artistic endeavor) (as of expression play an Sixty-five kindergarten students were each observed cy. five 20-minute play sessions over the course of during a four-week The findings suggest that more complex period. is strongly associated with play (i.e., dramatic play) higher in writing.-6.W. achievement COMMENTARY Through some process, each child's 100 minutes unspecific play were reduced of a single number: l=functional, to 2=constructive, 3=dramatic. It seems questionable that or to a single number. such accurately be reduced play can These scores were then included in a series regressions of test the between categories of play, other to relationship predictive factors (age, gender, and potentially important and the ability SES), write isolated words. The small sam- to ple pushes the limits of being size to meaningfully able apply multiple regression techniques. Assuming that the numbers can be meaningfully inter- preted, the author ends the with an important dis- report about findings for implications of the cussion teaching. the The significance viewing students as active, not passive, of learners cannot be underestimated. Furthermore. helpful suggestions how teachers might assist students actively of choose objects to be symbolically transformed serves as a 52

54 STUDY NAME: Causal Elements in the Thematic-Fantasy Play Paradigm Identifying Anthony AUTHOR: D. Pellegrini Research PUBLISHED: 1984, Journal, American Educational Fall -701 (3): 21 691 Research Questions story recall'? immediate and maintained Does thematic-fantasy play training facilitate children's play contribute to conflict-resolution skills? Does thematic-fantasy adult participation Does thematic-fan- the outcome of influence in thematic-fantasy play activities tasy play training? METHODS ninety-two and grade from a predominantly African-American, high-poverty school in rural One hundred children in kindergarten and first groups: of four adult-directed play peer-directed randomly assigned in this study. The to one children took part northeast Georgia were (facilitated discussion), or control. An play, read accommodation questioning adult story the children on three separate occasions. a to (no additional organized story control treatment or according the to their assigned "processed" story and after each reading the children Corresponding to other Pellegrini study designs, the first two sessions were essentially carried out for practice. processing) condition. The session for data collection and analysis. After the third story-reading session. the children carried out provided the opportunity their third were tested in three different then First, the children were given respective processing activities and ways. 10-item criterion-referenced a later scored the retelling audiotaped and of narrative details. They were then asked to retell the story to an experirnenter who recall for test of formal scoring Finally, the children were asked to lay out the a guide. the story by placing a set of pictures in sequence according to the later the CRT and on retelling task one week to their recall the story's plot. The children were given repeat testing of order according for sustained recall. Analyses of variance were conducted to test story score differences across the four groups.-J.C. assess to RESULTS study finds that the thematic-fantasy play condition generally (whether adult or peer directed) was more effective for immediate story This was assistance through accommodation questioning or recall than assistance at all thematic-fantasy play was no (the control group). But six one of sustained-recall tests (the CRT for kindergartners). other groups in effective than promoting more sustained story recall in only fact that an impact on sustained recall was seen only for kindergartners aligns with Pages study (summarized in this Compendium), The (K on were strongest for younger children story understanding as opposed to grades one or where the effects of dramatic enactment duration in raises some caution in leaping to grandiose conclusions readers. The observation that effects are limited two)-and for weaker sustaining effects. for test not of studies that do large majority very from the teasing out contribute to story recall, the authors find that verbal interaction among peers. In behaviors within dramatic enactment that construct narrative structures and thus varying degrees fantasy play, enables children to of to demonstrate bet- is characteristic to which story play were equally effective in facilitating children's peer-directed also found that both adult-directed and study recall. story ter This an important role in thematic-fantasy play training. did not play recall, indicating that adult assistance play fantasy play children in developing conflict-resolution skills. Fantasy may assist often results in This study further suggests that dis- plot development and the role each child is allowed to play. agreements regarding order to sustain play. children often resolve these In of an event by seeing through the eyes broaden their perspectives conflicts themselves. conflicthsolutiori cycle allows the children to This well their peers. of a story as process deepens their understanding as fosters a cooperative learning environment. This of was population study an Since reported interesting problem of generalization. the with does but implies I-'inally, this study not grapple to that its African- American and low-SES--can we say populations or results are confined honlogeneous-predominantly such to be very should they be considered more widely? There is no ready answer to this question, other than to find or generate replication studies with other populations. When examining studies with other populations, important questions should few Is the adult assistance be a explored: related Are culture? way the results phenomenon in some to tied to the base-line reading arid narrative-recall proficiencies of this of study the study are not described? And finally, are the observations about conflict resolution influenced by the homogeneity population, which this school's culture. and would things work differently in a school study by highly diverse cultures or horne languages?-J.C. of populated TO THE FIELD Does studies: in previous largely unaddressed question left CONTRIBUTIONS involvement influence play experi- of outcome the adult understanding the This study builds on previous work in part this of may interest ments? The results study the of positive roles that fantasy re-enactment can play in facilitat- teachers, and parent classroom volun- classroom aides, adults to need appear not do children 5, to language-related ing cognitive development, especially By age teers. example, summa- 1982, Galda, & Pellegrini sustain for skills. (See play and both peer-directed and adult-directed play an important study This rized Compendium). in this informs groups can be equally effective in facilitating story recall. 53

55 The was as one of few experiments mea- conducted was identified by the authors as "a pre- study also contributes status) socio-economic (lower LSES dominantly black immediate suring relatively to opposed as sustained for rural northeast the modestly influenced effects. (Drama in school sustained sample the It appears Georgia". recall study embraces a little- also The was youngest subjects only). not LSES representative Caucasian of students or mid- dle-class gener- its students. Thus, questions remain about effect of drama-the impact of story studied potential these groups.-C.G.-P alizability to enactment The verdict on this effect on conflict resolution. is yes.-J.C. COMMENTARY ". . .fantasy play may assist children in of to experiment the this add significantly The results research on the benefits of thematic-fantasy play as an developing skills. " conflict-resolution along with instructional practice. The study also illustrates, traditions others reviewed in this Compendium. the care- of by question generation and thoughtful design ful research Pellegrini early the during colleagues and 1980s. These works were published in top educational psychology jour- nals, in contrast to certainly not all) of what we are much (but drama and theater in education. to find in research on able A characteristic of this and the other Pellegrini studies is effects conditions within of that for the they formally test of dramatic enactment, and not only for the effect using to say, this research drama versus no drama. That is in to tease out conditions within the use of drama attempts the classroom, which may influence its success. The researcher the effects of particular factors on the explores of of the interventions examined (e.g., the effect outcome well adult involvement on the as children's as fantasy play), of multiple factors within the intervention (e.g., interaction grade the level and treatment). In between relationship in the addition, there are that results details related two are that the is largely One here. worth highlighting research sustaining effects of thematic-fantasy play on no found story recall, only one week later. Another is assessments in the sustaining effects that were observed were found that only for kindergartners and not for first-graders. This aligns with the Page, Pellegrini, and Wagner studies (summarized in this Compendium), which found story understanding present only effects through drama stronger or for their younger subjects-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD suggests that for this study is that it What is intriguing about peer-directed play can be as effective as kindergartners immediate adult-directed at facilitating a student's and play story recall. For kindergartners, not only is maintained the effective more a play thematic-fantasy of use dramatic story immediate for method than accommodation recall be questions, but the students themselves can important this effective facilitators method. This approach suggests of own their in that kindergartners can independently aid play.-C.G.-F! through learning fantasy COMMENTARY The study suggests children in kindergarten, regard- that less of whether they are middle class or of lower socio-eco- nomic do not need an adult status, to assist them in main- taining fantasy play. However, the school in which the study 54

56 STUDY NAME: Effect of Dramatic Play on Children's Generation of Cohesive Text The Anthony D. AUTHOR Pellegrini Processes, PUBLISHED: 57-67 1984, Discourse 7: Questions Research of a listener (whether familiar or not familiar with a what extent does the informational To status use oral language the story? (Do students retell effective and of use story) affect a student's to in appropriate the knowledge base of the listener?) language when told advance use oral language (retelling stories to non-familiar With what relative effectiveness can children's of through the use of alternative interventions, namely discussion. drawing, listeners) facilitated be play? and dramatic METHODS 108 students (54 girls and 54 boys) ranging in educational level from This to second grade. The students were study involves kindergarten same-age groups four (two boys and two girls) and then randoinly assigned divided into of of three condltions activ- one to describing the discussion, to a story to in prior adult: social dramatic play, retelling or drawing. There were two experi- would engage ities that they an and ranclornly groups different also conditions. assigned to were and one inale one menters, female, who After on separated were the children session. reading three separate occasions. each a children's adult group each to book An read their treatment conditions to process the story by the into assigned. lnclividual children were then asked to retell the story to an means experimenter. One-half the children retold the story to the experimenter who had read the story to them (1.e.. an "informed" listener). of a "na'ive" listener). Retelling retold not to have heard of the story (i.e.. the story the other experimenter. who claimed The other half to audiotaped. sequences responses were analyzed. The first two reading, processing. and retelling were were done sessions and student on the third rendition. collected for practice. Data were story retelling, analyze the students' ability to convey meaning In order the researchers looked for and marked elements of to during the students' narratives. noting particularly the level of cohesion generated by gestures and language that recognized the cohesion within comprehensive informational needs of unfamiliar listener.-J.C. the RESULTS the story they to think about, review, and otherwise process play hadjust heard were more that students using dramatic Pellegrini found use explicit language when retelling their stories than students in either the discussion or drawing groups. That is. they were bet- likely to did not sense a listener who to already know the story. Pellegrini makes a that would ter at coherent and make producing a retelling be critical that conveying meaning explicitly is an important skill and point, that is traditionally valued and rewarded. both in school and one in later-life instances of communication.-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD the mind-including in assessments effects differing more separate instruments of use compare differing outcomes to This aspects intriguing on focuses it as study is an important 1984 attained by treatment versus control groups. This conveys meaning, and the an individual of literacy: how on impact- alternative strategies of effects the reports study 1982 the while stories, to base knowledge retell told (as listener the the of study importance of student ability ing to children retell in how advance) in child stories. This the alternative of impact the reports story-processing strate- students' oral accord- that language varies study concludes and devel- the on play) dramatic drawing, (discussion, gies is an effective to listener status and that dramatic play ing comprehension. opment of children's story lan- preparation instrument for fostering the use of explicit target The the specific of this study is more subtle than guage who do (i.e., conveying stories effectively to those comprehension measures and language skills direct of It is crucial not know anything about the stories in advance). the of we include of in most assessed in this section studies Compendium. the oral-lan- reading, and Effective writing, to foster these language skills, particularly in school set- use to explicit language tings, expected where children are call might guage production what than more require we or sentences and words skills-decoding first-order crafting in most written and oral language activities.-J.C. or grammatically correct a high- At written declarations. oral COMMENTARY er understood are paragraphs and words, order, sentences, listeners in context, and and readers as well as speakers and proportion some in this realization. This to writers succeed should It that noted same this study is be on the based should a story of retelling effective that an study recognizes cluster and children of sample experiments reported two of earlier (also Galda summarized & Pellegrini about it and, in (1982) years account for what the listener may already know where account situations into should take specifically, more this Compendium). It is not uncommon in academia, as in here, or with mounted be to for experiments two is done an audience is uninitiated. Dramatic play appears to

57 increase tendencies children to be thorough and explicit of narratives in situations this is needed.-J.C. in their where CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD on listening to 108 students retell stories research, This based students in setting), experimental to makes an (as relayed an the understanding to important contribution of how students make meaning from what they learn by listening to adults. demonstrates that acting out a story produces This research than better talking about it or draw- understanding eitherjust what ing a picture This meaning-making, was of learned. hands-on learning through opportunities, is a significant puzzle piece literacy.-6. of the knowledge-base on W: COMMENTARY of research A .limit interpretation of couple shortcomings First, an incomplete explanation of the outcome this study. (i.e.. what students learned after listening to measures a story) difficult to interpret the findings. For exam- makes it defined endodor- was ple. students' meaning-making by phic and exodorphic elements (author's language). These were further subdivided into reference and two elements each categories, which was further differentiated ellipsis of 12 different out- Thus, by three different subcategories. measures were come the reader was given constructed. But no of how to interpret the quantitative score explanation any these. What does for of mean to produce a score of it for the exodorphic category in response to the 9.15 listener? Second, the one table of informed this results for of study presents means and standard deviations for each the 12 outcome measures, broken out by story reconstruc- tion training the adult listener. Yet most of and condition of of the statistical technique of effects, using analysis the collapses of these subcategories. of variance, analysis many This approach makes to follow and interpret the it difficult authors incorporated results. Finally, status of the the the the into but did not include that vari- adult listener analysis in another published study of the same students with able same the not? experimental intervention. Why helps conditions (i.e.. research identify important The students use more active learning environments where the to engage content) where students' literacy might be arts writing, Effective and oral-lan- reading, of it leaves enhanced. But unanswered the a more effect a regular in intervention (e.g., drama occurring naturally require more production guage than what students' oral language. To what classroom setting) on degree does regular of a central part play-acting-as the skills-decoding we might call first-order oral of language? The use students' curriculum-impact a real challenge for teachers because also poses research words sentences or crafting grammat- and implied, often permit typical classroom environments shared that naturally foster more exodorphic assumptions correct ically oral written I' or declarations. Because enhanced literacy relies heavily explanations. on meaning from explicit students' offering more what they take teachers might steps what specific to are learning, design better learning environments? It is more complex play.-6. fostering dramatic just than W. 56

58 A3

59 twofold: uses procedure that is properly it show larger students low-SES or plot involving structured a meta-analysis grouping a identifies and it studies, comparable on based so do studies using non-experimental research effects. studies while making rec- variety rich of weaknesses in the published studies designs as well as that were in academic and journals or books. ommendations for corrective steps future research drama could deepen research base the strategies that in an Podlozny reports element . . .the report important encourage of " will a lack of The of discussion weaknesses such as education. researchers, conversation of replication among rare the review- the studies she teachers, drama is that This ed, teaching artists, and and studies, an absence of consistence of measures, the of operational definitions set lack as labels such of influences shows not "creative and "drama," "socio-drama," does dramatics" include school to administrators on children's only renewed encourages but effort condemn the not understanding of research en- acted stories but on drama in their classroom practice." a stance care greater and with precision. conducted Such contribution can be viewed as a very positive of light in the understanding of sub- to practice interpret weaknesses as of many researchers sequently experienced contraindications.-TB. signs as failure of or or She texts (read describes this as an unrelated heard). instance transfer skills or knowledge.-J.C. of of COMMENTARY COMMENTARY places the often-questioned Podlozny's of work practice in the arts on much firmer ground. She care- meta-analysis of drama in education advanced in this The portrait Compendium the groups the 80 studies (she selected from among fully bears strong resemblance to that shown by possible reports) 200 types of seven in categories based on our selection Podlozny. Even though process (biased toward stud- recognizable drama outcomes and compares sets of group designs and adding more rigorous comparison recent within each across set total the examined than rather group (Podlozny ies studies to of 19 the field distilled works) results in specific rather studies. is interested She outcome lone similar. apparent The quite are report effects we the 80). than in "drama" as a singular field. This specificity estab- not identifying drama as a positive influ- our was departure reading focus on to studies claim readiness. Few on ence and work lishes in her makes confidence greater it easier for related language early to if they are even readiness, reading drama educators to to specific aspects make connections work. classroom own of their development. For of the 80 studies referenced by example, As A their titles. in readiness reading include up only Podlozny, of the context for part this she study, of her setting two separate, four reviews of meta-analyses drama previous close examination of the studies include shows influences we drama activities of and thereby establishes the need for the creation of language development by 5- studies very early on own always, as here, tone Her study. her the "finer sieve" of that could year-olds kindergartners and be considered developments in reading readiness. condescending. being without clear is strong and indications of trans- Compendium Five studies show mild Methodologically, calculations effect size and espe- her about Podlozny's conclusions with fer effects consistent read- when the cially the additional analysis of other variables on the to reading comprehension, thoughtful ing-namely effects sizes credence were heterogeneous, gives further report that teach- could help subtleties and helps identify social on and writing, of skills outside certain the purview a text ers. For example. the surprising result that enacting Podlozny's review. as makes a new text more comprehensible is interpreted evidence good found also are that We drama's effects to get out of direct, provide com- who larger for students role demonstration of the power of drama to develop text prehension that material. new to transfer skills on process. (Meta-play leadership, or otherwise reflect the not did contrast, Podlozny In nine The fact that eight of the hypotheses were sup- these actions). for term is one ported, connection, is remarkable, roles for students taking leader a substantial effect find but in the vocabulary all drama.-J.C. positive of the study of negative reports usually given the education studies transfer.-T:B. correlations in arts of FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS presenting of a synthesis meta-analysis is a powerful This The contribution to the field on research classroom drama. effects are shown in six areas relat- is unparalleled. Positive measures ed to language development: written and oral of reading oral story recall, reading achievement, readiness, language development, and writing. The author's for test on vocabulary influence. effects a very weak revealed specific character- of effects the Podlozny also examines and of types of participating stu- istics drama programs studies inde- of body the across cut These analyses dents. outcomes listed various the of pendent Programs above. 58

60 STUDY NAME: and Unfold Yourself" A Monograph on the Shakespeare 81 Company Research Study "Stand Steve AUTHOR: Seidel Project PUBLISHED; School of Education, Cambridge, MA, 1998; also in E. Fiske (Ed.), Harvard Zero, Graduate The Change: Champions of Impact on Learning, The Arts Education Partnership and of the Arts the Arts and Humanities, Washington, DC, 1999: 79-90 on Committee the President's the Research Questions How value Company program) identify the do of their partici- Shakespeare & participants (in the pation for themselves? elements What programs most critical to creating those benefits? the of seemed METHODS team of researchers studied two full seasons of the Shakespeare & Companys National Shakespeare Institute. A A consisted of a season one-month the summer and an associated Fall Festival of Shakespeare. teacher training experience in of trained artist-teach- where teams ers work over two months with over 400 students in 10 schools to study and perform Shakespeare plays. The research staff visited the school programs. observed attended student performances. interviewed teacher and student participants, reviewed written sessions. of the faculty and administrators. The design was to look closely and systematically at the elements materials. and talked with program program in order consider what made this program to transferring such successful consider the prospects for to a program to other so and The research staff and participants settings. team meetings throughout the year and retreat meetings each spring to focus intensively held on what they were seeing and learning. two-year slice a in the National Shakespeare years; this study captured participate Institute for three or four usually Students and staff t this cycle. of set of questions was developed around authenticity, academic rigor, applied learning, active exploration, adult relation- A to and quotes from students and teachers in response practices. Numerous these questions are included in this study ships. assessment evidence of the impacts and success of the program. The methods could as be described as lying in the regions of ethnography and best case most important methodological ingredients were up-close interactions and observations, and sustained involvement dur- study. The seasons of paired summer and fall sessions. ing two one- about fields-the language itself. acting, working in creative communities, and learning on learning in four focused scholars The and linking to social and intellectual development.-J.C. self that RESULTS these like in their assessments of the impact of to programs on their participants. The researchers found much engage in Shakespeare's plays in ways that respect (rather than short-circuit) the complexity of the plays: it is precisely this 1, Participants for complexity engages these learners. that respect Once engaged and support, guidance, and resources, participants do embrace 2. challenges that had with adequate and meet the or overwhelming (and that often steer readers and theater-goers alike away from Shakespeare). difficult seemed The Shakespeare & Company programs created caring and creative communities; caring and creativity 3. explicitly linked to each seem other and the development of deep understandings. to are Feelings and linked to achieving deep understandings of Shakespeares plays and are often a critical entry point to 4. emotions with the plays. engagement Teachers made transitions from didactic teaching styles to "teacher as player" and "teacher as facilitator 5. catalyst" during this pro- or as transformative and profound by both teachers and students. gram: transitions were experienced these and Participants information and skills: studying Shakespeare 6. his language. approaching dramatic action. acting. working with gained as learners. others. and seeing themselves 7. Playfulness and seriousness do not conflict with each other in the Institute and Fall Festival learning environments. 8. The highest professional training are wholly consistent with the principles. structures. and pedagogy of these programs. levels of in other locales: a program (a) a supportive local agency such as report replication of such also for The suggests ingredients desirable theater cotnpany or school. (b) an adequate pool of artists and educators inclined to do this work, (c) a community interested in the arts, a negotiate commitment to financial support, and conversations among the players to ongoing such a prograrn.-j.C. (d) (e) care, when is, skill interact to patience, and complexity (that TO CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE such to invite participants com- The complexity). engage plays promotes word- issues of in the emotions and plexity research showing This study supports a growing body of emotion-by-emotion, thought-by-thought investi- by-word, enactment that produce a rich can dramatic study and that learning environment. This work shows Shakespeare's gation of meaning. This step-by-step approach invites those who study Shakespeare to go deeply into their own of particularly effective be plays can their life-like because 59

61 experience, that to all types of learning. a process is linked does of just document the impacts study This not Company‘s summer teacher training and fall Shakespeare & on understanding and interpreta- student productions the and creativity seem explicitly ‘I., .caring direc- and stage tion of Shakespeare‘s plays, or on acting teach- a whole to The study illustrates approach skills. tion assumptions about including learning, and ing teachers to each other develop- the to and linked irnplica- has learning, and learners and teaching and that tions across a wide spectrum of educational situations. The understandings.” deep of ment concern implications not and only what is taught learned also who we are as teachers and learners-J.C. but COMMENTARY It This study is not standard issue from education journals. summer is a long-term study examining two seasons of fall production teacher development and play in 10 Company much more than offers & schools. Shakespeare research studies can get their arms around, overcom- many common of ing many challenges-including those time, creativity resources, or and clarity conceptual of rigors the like this. needed for a study and on all teachers program of sort this wish We should this work. It may seem to read- to engage students willing a dream ers that this teachers where world program in lies month can spend a full with summer the in a professional and work intensively engaged of groups company, with stu- prospects for repli- But the dents fall. following the during they may first cation a meaningful be level better than at of first-rate is the challenge training of crux The appear. the study provides a sense of what is required for teachers. This this.-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD how of This study provides arts organization an an example traditional can work with schools to extend the curriculum. a model of how arts-based, Specifically, the program provides learning can assist students in developing project-based skills.-C.G.-P higher-order thinking and problem-solving COMMENTARY them- “Unfolding” is used to open students how describe processes selves learning through the study of to and in creative communities, Shakespeare: acting, working intellectual develop- to social and linking self-knowledge ment.--C.G.-P i ;\ GO

62 STUDY NAME: Papers No. 1, Drama, language and Learning. Reports of the Drama and language Nadie Research Project, Drama Center, Education Department of Tasmania Speech and Schaffner, Graham and Heather Felton AUTHORS: Megan Little, of Tasmania, August 1984 Drama National Education Department PUBLISHED: Association for in Education, Questions Research effects of drama (defined in this study as What and doing within an imaginary situ- are the "being fifth- and sixth-graders' language development? on ation") What are the impacts on the development of informational language, expressive lan- of drama interactional and guage, language? the What drama on the development of moral values? effects are of METHODS suburban, and rural to represent city, this study areas. different socio-economic backgrounds. and The authors selected nine schools for in Tasmania). varied organizational contexts (public and private classes of fifth- and sixth-graders were iricluded in the study schools Eleven the of teacher interest. Even though some teachers basis no previous classroom drama experience. they still self-selected to par- on had study. The teachers had continuous access to speech and drama coaches, whom they worked with at the outset of the pro- ticipate in the in frorn time gram and called time. to a two-day initial workshop, the teachers were to engage children After invited of their design; there was no in dramatic activities own classrooms, or of frequency length clraina activities in the sessions. continuity of themes. The amount of data col- of standardization of lected implies that most or in the use of drama over the school year. The one restric- all participating teachers became actively involved teachers had was that they the to use "imaginary" drama. and and students tion placed on written texts. This model rein- work from not the project's interest in "expressive" language. forced opposed to decoding text. As the authors describe the design of the study. as "Within frame this reference the children and the teacher can attitudes and values in a vivid and immediate of explore relationships, relationships and significant moments ..attitudes, explored from 'the inside' rather than through discussion alone." way. are permitting teacher experimentation and trials during the first three months, After spent two school terms documenting researchers dramatic activities in all classrooms by audio taping every session in all of the classrooms. Teachers were instructed to gath- participating er samples of language and verbal exchanges from all of the children, with even attention to each child in the classroom over time. From all transcripts, a total of language samples post-improvisation reflection were 280 containing drama in action, planning discussion, and for each type obtained-representing of all classrooms evenly language sample. for use of lan- analyzed the resulting "worcl samples" using formal criteria classifying and describing the children's researchers The of guage. of the sampled language: expressive. interactional, or The main classifications interest concerned the predominant purpose language reflects the speaker's individual thoughts, feelings, ideas, and personal viewpoint. Interactional lan- informational. Expressive guage reflects a speakers the person(s) being addressed through attempts to persuade. control, or command. And informational on focus focus language involves the speaker's listener, but on giving information.-J.C. neither him/herself nor the is concerned with RESULTS author The that language use in irnaginary drama exercises not only differs from language use in regular classrooms but also claims encourages desirable types thinking and cognitive developmerit. The reasons are the observed characteristics of language in drama: of author considers the overriding difference between children's language in nor- speculation. reflection. explanation. and evaluation. The is overwhelmingly informational; in con- classroorn their clrarnatic work is that regular classroorri language mal activities and language in the language of trast, drarria is only half informational, and half expressive and interactional. (The author provides no confirm- irnaginary ing data the purposes on regular classroom language. of a predotninarice of informational purpose seeins plausible). but class- in occurs purposes than otherwise typically to use language for a wider variety of for children opportunities Drama provides Drama provides an to develop expressive language, which, as heard in the reflections segments, helps uncover feel- rooms. opportunity ings found develop opinions and thoughts. The authors as that drama encourages critical child-to-child exchanges and reflection as well social interactions. The reflection Iphase had tendericies to bring on issues related to rnoral values in the otherwise information-based up curriculum. the authors maintain, "Drama As back into what is predomiriantly a rnaterialistic curriculum." puts the human content sessions also The recorded reflection suggest that children in this study grew to recognize drama as a powerful learning mediuin- and language as a tool for learning and growth.-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD to according as language, informational to opposed which, classroom dominates regular author, the The study's life. study contributes one drama in other see not do we is the impact of understanding our to This language typology of through of drama on language and intuitive sense studies, although the scheme makes its that mainly findings: study included in one seems valuable. This only is also the expressive drama encourages and interactional language,

63 this Compendium that as a catalyst for identified drama of discussions moral values.-J.C. COMMENTARY study when children powerful This explores what happens regularly over one full school year. engage in dramatization hundred eighty students Two schools partic- in nine different "Drama provides opportunities for children to ipated. As an experiment in drama and language, the pro- drama and gram benefited from the participation of speech a of wider variety purposes use for language who classroom teachers specialists worked with the plan to drama activities. the otherwise than typically occurs in classrooms." be a weakness as seen might design the of feature One they activities strength. Dramatic were or improvisational; in- in volved involved places some the and script writing or no This lack in of teacher not. places in other role, standardiza- at unorthodox, but in fact plays well to the first seems tion the goals of research. The author wished capture to lan- the it many guage forms the across drama improvisational of assure might take; and she orchestrated enough settings to situations. dramatic of a considerable variety in follow-up The emergence of moral value discussions drama of the improvisational activities. unique to discussions may study among those included in the Compendium, this the subjects of this study were fifth- be related to the fact that learning studies and drama of majority A sixth-graders. and may who school children younger involve less be primary to engage in moral debates of any complexity. likely While this children of tendencies the study exposes to and moral engage in discussion about human interaction discussions, does not in during values it post-improvisation and discussion But in these domains. learning fact measure on learning as reflection in all likelihood represent a start learning.-J.C. well as a potentially powerful opportunity for FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE discovery The that this study can of significance is its drama experiential, which be taught in two distinct modes, focus- experi- an to live through aspect of some es on attempting ence, and communicating on focuses presentational, which an audience outside the classroom. By iden- to something to points study discrete approaches, two these tifying the or implications of the need for further research into benefits approach.-C.G.-P each COMMENTARY drama can positively The study suggests that contribute to language development. children's In particular, drama can infor- students have primarily been exposed to impact who on (lower-order thinking skills) language focused mational transmitting influence can Drama information. and facts by expressive language to language development using students with opportunities to speculate, imagine, provide own evaluate their and reason, predict, learning (higher- skills).-C.G.-P order thinking

64 STUDY NAME: The Effects Role Playing on Written Persuasion: An Age and Channel Comparison of of and Eighth Fourth Graders Wagner Betty Jane 1986, University of Illinois PUBLISHED: English Department, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, October Chicago at Questions Research writing on subsequent persuasive the among fourth- and eighth-graders? are effects What role-playing of role-playing are reflected in subsequent persuasive writing? specific What of elements persuasive language to written persuasive language? How does role-play compare referenced in the title). is the (This "channel" comparison METHODS 84 fourth-graders arid 70 eightti-graders in a The public school district, randomized into three study involved middle-class, suburban One at each grade level engaged in role-playing groups. group by facilitator, a second group received instruction in persua- guided as a third group received no specific instruction. The researcher facilitated the role-play sive writing, and the also provided the sessions and persuasive instruction. groups their writing writing The researcher had the role-play groups (one four and one at eight) enact three different situations in which they were grade at grade to persuade the school principal to: trying Iiave a regular school party; (2) let students (1) all of what they would study: and (3) make decide a change The students in the role-play groups paired in the school cafeteria. and took as persuader and listener over 35 minutes up turns for each time, All pairs in the grade-level experimental group role-played at the same three and each pairs conversation was of issues. the a role-play, each student wrote a letter intended had persuade the real school.principal about the issue the group to After audiotaped. enacted. instruction instruction groups received 35 parallel fashion, the students in the of two in persuasive writing before each In minutes the three writing exercises. All of intervention and writing episodes across the two grade levels took place over a span of five weeks. six A third group for the study came from the written letters and tape recordings of the student role-playing activities. from received Data also instruction.-J.C. no RESULTS core finding of this work is that role-playing in partners is more effective thari a The with examples when it comes to impacting lecture persuasive writing. Finer but interesting points in the results letter differed at the two grade levels. For fourth-graders, role-playing is sig- treatment no treatment at all. For eighth-graders, role-playing is more effective than no nificantly more effective than either instruction or scores higher than direct instruction for eighth-graders, but the difference is not statisti- also persuasive in inspiring writing. Role-playing this experiment actually worse than the students who significant. Fourth-graders who received direct instruction performed cally in irlstruction no received with student writing. both eighth- and especially fourth-graders produced more persuasive When cornparing the role-playing sessions and use their role-playing partners' persuasive form. And in an interesting twist, fourth-graders remember assertions orally than in written letters more than twice written assertions in their their own as made during role-playing.-J.C. as often persuasive assertions tening role-players fellow to in a dramatic situation. After CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD students tried role-playing assigned to persuasive be an to partner, they tended in to use their partner's arguments as value of provides evidence study This of the role-playing more argu- own their subsequent writing than frequently itself, finding to the this In addition a pre-writing activity. C. ments.--J. on writing skills as an focus study contributes through its topic little touched in outcome of dramatic activity, a this COMMENTARY Compendium. writing persuasive on role-playing of (as The effect value the This study presents important findings regarding opposed of to is treatment) no direct instruction or that role-playing of as a pre-writing activity and the in classroom found stronger for fourth-graders than for eighth- to be of the addressing to qualities addition that in suggests graders (where the effect is nonetheless positive). This con- teacher should take advantage of good directly, a writing pattern clusion fits Compendium. the in results of a larger verbal role-playing activities in building writing skills. greater for dramatic enactment of effects the where are This study lays the groundwork for further work on the age is tested as a fac- younger subjectsjust about wherever written The study skills. and relationship between oral looks tor. impact the at writing of type a specific on role-playing of out by Wagner's work might another And result teased only. Further research could examine whether extended little-researched subject stir some interest in yet another training in role-playing could help students to build writing lis- impacts the education-namely, and of drama within 63

65 skills are transferable to other types of that retained and the subject of this research. writing not of the value "This study provides evidence had in this study role-playing that The observation more a persuasive state- on impact observer (the receiver of the activity." as a pre-writing role-playing of during role-play) than ment direct actor (the student on the persuasive role-play) signals an statement during making a issue under-researched the of Compendium. Most this in the effects of dramatic action studies we discuss concern sort (particularly role-playing on another) directly or one of effects, main such in is interested actor. Wagner the be to effects on listeners evokes a sure, but the observation of relatively untapped vast area but potentially of formal researchers. This inquiry by educational or developmental dramatization on presentation is the impact of theatrical or audiences-J.C. CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE TO the arts by methods used by adapted be might author The careful studies of the effects researchers attempting to do student performance in on arts skills or instruction arts of chosen one by the author- the even area, another subject in reading how other persuasive writing. There is benefit across established are controls how studies, develop fields how student products complex and variables, might be education would ben- arts in analyzed. Studies coded and this efit from care of kind author same the that takes. However, the actual its results and research this of conduct are not the in the opera- directly to arts, related though same the is "role-playing" tional definition of the author, "drama."-TB. thing as COMMENTARY Role-playing is a tool communi- interpersonal from derived practice is closer to "simulation" than dramatic and cation that role-playing of The author describes those aspects art. verisimilitude-as are closest to art-pretense, lack of per- create to students' efforts in the variables detracting her communications, written suasive effort and remove is to At possible. as realistic as simulation the by making them as writing," time, "persuasive is used by the same the it to to rhetorical and political writing than author, is closer contrasts fact, in it with art. The as writing author, "expres- sive" writing.-J.6. 64

66 STUDY NAME: Can't Be a Boy": Events Within the Thematic Fantasy Play "You Grandma; You're to Context that Story Contribute Comprehension AUTHORS: Williamson B. Silvern A. Peter and Steven 1992, Research Quarterly, 7: 75-93 Childhood Early PUBLISHED: Research Question (playing out What behaviors and scenes in a story) con- within fantasy play activities roles children? story comprehension skills among kindergarten of the development tribute to METHODS As chosen children in six kindergarten classrooms. stratified for 120 balance. randomly part of the Selection This study enlisted gender assigned children were randomly process. groups of four. Thus each classroom provided five groups for to study. Each group heard. 30 the and two fatniliar tales on days discussed. re-enacted 2. 1 unfamiliar tale on day 3. The children were videotaped during their and and an dramatizations re-enactment. The categorize and analyze children's behaviors during could first two re-enactments so that the researchers to help build were measures done reliable children's actions fantasy play-such as "metaplay"-which could prove important to of within research. the story one The third test. After this day's day> activities re-enactment, the children were tested for three constituted experimental achievements: recall that day's story content using of a test: story recall, using storytelling: and story sequencing. using criterion-referenced picture arranging task. storytelling assessment instrument also provided a measure of oral language competence of the subjects. a The one that (Recall aim analysis was understanding the influences of factors within dramatic enactment on story comprehension; thus of the used on day subjects dramatic enactment all 3). was estal,lished on the fourth clay, Another comparison were read an unfamiliar story that they did not condition when the children were tested using the subsequently re-enact. They measures as applied on the third day. In addition, six days following the final story same dramatizations, the were tested aqain for story recall, story sequencing, and the use of productive language-both for their enact- children 1 of and for their "heard" story (day 4). (A small bias favoring recall 3) the "heard" story seemed present in this design. since ed story (day was measured after five instead of six days). The analysis its recall data from these measures to assess if types of play within story used enactment to sustained recall, first regarding the enacted story and second, contributed recall of the "heard" story. The researchers to focused particularly on irlstances of children5 stepping out of role to ask questions or to direct other players. They refer to this as "meta- play,'' which concern about the progress of the re-enactment fueled by higher-order thinking about what's going generally indicates active The analysis observed additional characteristics of behavior during the fantasy play sessions (such as the use of nonverbal skills on. also prohlern-solving). social and used regression analyses to test for significant contributions of within-dramatization factors to story comprehension skills. The authors This is important of the study, because regression allows for assessment of feature independent contributions of different factors an the specific outcomes. The study explored differentiating aspects of child behavior during dramatization that might contribute relatively to more or less story comprehension. The authors included measures of productive (oral) language ability obtained when children re-told to These measures provided stories. irldicators important ability among the subjects existing verbal an differences con- of and thus comprise variable.--J.C. trol RESULTS study shows that acts of directing by young This metaplay) during re-enactment and productive language capacity of children players (or make independent contributions to story cornprehension independent of substantial in verbal ability. This result holds for both differences the irninecliate-recall tasks and for the delayed-recall tasks. In comparison, play or itself (in contrast to the no-dramatization dramatization of day condition relatively four to story comprehension. Children's play direction behavior contributed 4) times the pre- little contributed for reading comprehension of enactrnent versus power dictive enactment. It thus appears that the meta-behaviors of stepping out of no about, and role, thinking or attempting to direct players are associated with higher levels of story understanding. questioning of verbal the authors observe that metaplay is not simply evidence Through controlling for verbal achievement-in addition to ability, their dispositions to "direct," cflildren in metaplay show more social skills and social problem-solving ability than children not engaging in metaplay.-J.C. a key "metaplay," that finds and play fantasy examines cally CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE TO to especially have an of element strong fantasy play, seems impact and positive makes a study This on to the understand- children's story comprehension. contribution strong dramatic activities can engagement in of how ing improve to title, as suggested by study's the refers "Metaplay," instances where children go beyond simply acting out a study specifi- The kindergartners. comprehension for story 65

67 as fantasy of a role to act out the play's direc- play and step Younger ages, these out "...stepping of role, thinking findings provide an raise about the play. This study finds that questions to tor or of dramati- than effect of metaplay is stronger act the the and questioning or about, Per- the to antidote attempting dramatization.-J.C. zation versus no vasive and misguided emphasis teacher- On to with associated are players direct COMMENTARY drill directed on lower-level of skills understanding." story of levels higher reading a component study Jennifer of accentuate to serves preschool in This and kindergarten literacy and play fantasy study 1990 of Goodman's Ross development summarized (also in this Both Compendium). emphasis an Such very studies present among the strongest rigorous designs, on standardized decoding tests, may result in better scores reported in in the drama research summarized in this the of victims be well may children the run long the but Compendium. slump third-grade so-called Both look within dramatic play to in reading comprehension find spe- that too rather influence verbal-related that elements cific engage who Children children. many skills, characterizes far in thematic-fantasy play including stories, to relation in a lone as a whole as than using dramatic play of predictor cultural heritage, those that represent their own ethnic or that More specifically, this study finds child development. attention pay learning are to of to or offer verbal to role nonverbal direction out in what matters most read- stepping increased ing-comprehension. with understanding and sustained associates This study also has implications for children's writing recall. Another observation important is that this study in skills. of recent research Much on effects recall were measured story for while controlling writing of acquisition the on and role- peer interactions of role the on few of is one language subjects' general oral the skills. This focused has skill energy with engagement write who Children playing. and in to analysis regression using multiple drama pro- studies shaping peers their talking with are usually their stories and controls within its framework. analytical vide implication of One this study extends across the litera- dur- them (similar to entertain to those exhibited behaviors opportunities ing fantasy play), and children who have to drama and classroom investigating ture generally reading groups This is that drama-involved usually comprehension. thematic- through they (as write they stories the out act do outperform non-drama groups. An open question remains fantasy play) increase writing. Writing their enthusiasm for based similar are that demands other qualities what to this study: on to those required advantage the is degree their groups carried by drama to members who constant shifting example, for play, for thematic-fantasy assigned engage activities to out meta-cognitive in low-level (such mechanical concerns. as of stepping decisions from high-level must "shift" between regard- children writing, In decisions a dramatic pro- study This production)? on" "work to role writing the overall gist of is about what a piece of ing to not vides a suggestion that drama alone versus no drama is lower-level concerns very of case in the or, spelling, as such a large to developmental advances: gains go to contributor them- young children, even the formation of the letters more thoughtful the cast.-J.C. the of members critical and selves. In thematic-fantasy play, children must shift from high-level decisions as the grandmother FIELD play THE to who could CONTRIBUTIONS TO back to the low-level miming of picking a flower. Williamson and Silvern were appropriately cautious in shows a rich research on Building that the- tradition that of and their interpretation their study have suggested ways improves comprehension matic-fantasy play as well as to causality explore studies further can be designed other cognitive abilities, this study breaks new ground. For metaplay, between and comprehension, IQ. It would be have evidence that it the direct- first time we is metaplay (or appropriate this embed to a of concept in Vygotsky's study acting in that of the out is critical the in story) peers ing and Silvern wisely comprehension. Williamson conclude development He what that implies (ZPD). proximal of zone comprehension that that it accounts well be the better may Williamson and Silvern call thematic-fantasy play provides a effective- To the symbolization. of process ZPD because of around, for the metaplay rather than the other way but because the two go together, metaplay needs to be fos- must only ly use symbols, a that know to not able be person tered and valued in early childhood programs.-B.J. is a purse, this object now purposes her or is for his but W. it Red Riding In other basket. Hood's Little the both it is words itself what and thing symbolizes. it COMMENTARY child who can expli- The in a ZPD where objects can be distinction this cate is just assigned an arbitrary function, as a reader eventually good a study make giving of The findings this chil- for case has on to learn to assign a particular squiggle a to a page for themselves ways design to to dren ample opportunities speech who comprehend stories have sound. Children to peers, their they direct As hear. they out act they will stories know the who their caregiver that is reading simultaneously be demonstrating or improving their comprehension the of and enjoyable for them. a way in stories is that natural with, Dear" about not is my you eat to better the "All harsh to devour them, as but, rather, is choosing role the play to Children who teacher without together a story out act in a order wolf heighten to pleasure story. of the the take charge inter- tuition of their own learning, and find the Expressive in common with thematic- has oral reading this engaging. and personal cognitive challenges fantasy play. his to a trustworthy friend child can remain A kinder- on preschool and In light the current pressures of become a peers and also teachers garten read to teach children to and at younger big bad wolf in a drama.-B.J.W. 66

68 through STUDY Flight of Reading: Shifts in Instruction, Orchestration, and Attitudes The NAME: Classroom Theatre AUTHOR: Shelby A. Wolf d71 Reading Research Quarterly, 1998, 382-415 PUBLISHED: 33(4): Research Questions fluency, and attitudes toward reading affected reading Are children's comprehension, expressive periodic of coaching based on texts? a year by dramatic an What happens of 8- and 9-year-olds makes a transition from a when academically diverse classroom to one involving the creation of and performing in a class- traditional "round-robin" reading program theater where children are encouraged to consider and enlist multiple forms room expression? of teacher students transformed their reading program From one that used "traditional" instruction to one in which they worked main- ancl of ly through classroom theater activities. under the guidance visiting expert (not the researcher). The theater instructor worked with the a class once week from mid- December through April. The class was exposed to a on multicultural trade books, dramatic expression based these books, and literary Instead of traditional cycles of reading, hearing others read. minimal discussing. and reading Some discussion. more, students to approach their texts through interpretation aimed begari at performing narratives and excerpts from their readings. The researcher used participant observation, audio recording, and video recording to discern various qualities of classroom life during read- children's approaches (2) instructional practice. (1) given instruction. language and action that characterize was attention ing Particular to to reading, (3) children's attitudes about reading, and (4) the degree to which children create meaning from text.-J.C. F- TO THE FIELD ofjust decoding story after story. When using classroom ter CONTRIBUTIONS instruction, students a routine in their reading as theater heightened in stories and displayed great interest took example a This study of offers the field an thoughtful, meaning inclinations to read for and increased interest in life a classroom of the into patient, inquiry long-term and involved movement and in stories.--J.C. the expression an entire year. school the more over Instead of familiar use of and and a one-week research treatment control groups COMMENTARY the par- in author case discern effects, to experiment this A a classroom twice per week. ticipates and observes in what the demonstrates study This of the author calls value explicit very the is report resulting of quality special the evolution which in the of "design experiment," one a account of how the author grapples with making valid a new events in instructional a real classroom engaged in voluminous notes the of sense and hundreds hours of of model led of call "profession- sort insights the to we might taped language generated in the study. The classroom much as al knowledge" as "research knowledge." However sense-making works world-lead- the by informed of is ably the products the characterized, be might work such of Fred ing ethnographers, including Erickson. makes of author the this experiment sense should interest results of The this study should also be considered con- researchers, teachers alike. The and specialists, theater in academ- roles drama's tributions to what we know about perspica- and tenacity value of this work results fronthe The classroom theater trans- and social development. ic the author cious orientation of what "see" to place takes was formed students. At first they believed reading a mat-

69 motives, and reader response. before, of in-class drama during, and the 10 weeks after o ma " Ed uca t i na I po I icy - ke rs probably would The contrast an by in the There expert. is rich detail coaching reporting, not be as stark as was found in a very dialogue, children's of and much reproduction con- to this study use can show study, this but such research by can learn valuable that one argument vincing things might show just what is that it watching events. classroom the value the- classroom of other that do theater can its At with Seidel's evalua- has study center, this parallels instruction that aims the at Shakespeare education program. In tion Company's & of same the understanding by stu- unpack time and study adolescents that taking patience to under- an facilitating ater in is It not do. does dents not the of the language richness complexity and a play come in in clear this the study whether sort of learner-deeper a different themselves see to as standing and interpretation teacher reading whole- ever in self-percep- An analogous shift accomplished. and more heartedly embraced goals achievement visited tion sense the and much younger of is deep that literature of and decoding accurate beyond children academically in this challenged study.-J.C. obvious enthusiasm despite her long lasting." for the project and her theater FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS in increase time before wait her year, nar- goal major supplying words. By the end of the This is a very interesting study, richly detailed and embed- the for the test battery. Hence, rowed to preparation in an ded appropriate theoretical framework con- social of flying, of metaphor time, a short only for but apt. was changes on structivism. Because of its focus in decoding can to study this use show Educational policy-makers in comprehension, and this study contributes to research value of the classroom understand- an in facilitating theater educational drama both The study reading pedagogy. and literature long and interpretation of ing that is deep and research of contributes to the expanding body specifically lasting. Wolf's a persuasive warrant for the findings provide of and readers' the- effects the on improvisational drama more of advocacy support financial and theater classroom It would ways. in significant reading on ater strategies have positions and for theater schools for in training programs body of this acknowledge to Wolf for appropriate been W. experts-6.J. Whirlwind research (for drama study summa- example, the W. Cornpendium).-6.J. rized in this COMMENTARY focuses read- study The major part of the on the teacher's ing strategies and the students' responses to them, and on children sensed in the beams a spotlight contrast the vs. children's their characterizations of The acting. reading acting understanding of encompassed expressive intona- reading, oral teacher tion every an good reading ability in Wolf has qual- in-depth an do to chose as Because a goal. to capture a she itative "design experiment," able was thick description of what was going on in children's the understandings and attitudes; her inquiry method of well. served her believed who one The study to Wolf chose teacher was widely discredited now the in and dedicated was Wolf (as to admits) "round-robin" reading for remedial readers. This teaching an extremely sharp contrast created method the between what the children deemed reading, and read- that the theater teacher er response and interpretation introduced. views of the teacher Wolf stud- the Admittedly, may be more characteristic of teachers of remedial stu- ied so. this is a sad other students, and, if dents than teachers of commentary the status of reading instruction in remedi- on al settings. studies is needed from future research are What sound reading psycholinguistically good that compare with is which one, this theater strategies (unlike instruction compromised it seems to contrast bad because reading instruction with good theater techniques). Such a focus might tease out a distinction between reading and theater both aimed at some of the same goals, instruction are that such as fluency, expressive oral interpretation, connecting new with prior knowledge, insight character values into and 68

70 Essay: Research Drama and Theater in Education on S. Catterall James it possible makes an event or to compare one event with another, to look to Dramatizing isolate have events at happened that look places times to or to and at other people in other perhaps, after the event, within the safety of one's thatjust at this moment it is own experience knowing happening. We feel that it is happening because drama can, however, the same not really uses we find rules exist in their environment, living in at a time and making life. People a moment decisions in the light of their present knowledge about the cur- those which seem reasonable or of .so drama can be a kind of playing at . practice of living, tuning up those state affairs.. rent feeling-capacity and expression-capacity as well as areas Poets of social-capacity. this their do in in their in their writers in their books, painters filmmakers painting, films. poetry, and Heathcote, 1975 ' Dorothy Introduction 40 years ago, a current surfaced in professional education writing and instructional practice reflecting a new About of and legitimacy theater in the education of children. We may persist in debating what we want our chil- drama to know be able to do; but when all is said and done, education is at least about preparation for effec- dren and pre-eminent and reflected of the world's writings classroom drama expert sampled living. In this context, in the tive can readily see why some teachers would include dramatic activities in their instructional repertoires. above, we and the situations of life: for experimenting with expression out harbor for trying a safe Dramatic conventions offer understanding-developments devoutly to be desired, all. communication; and for deepening human and writing about drama in education in the middle of the Thinking century did not involve much profes- 20'" observations social the deep experiences and up-close research. Rather of teachers and coach- inquiry-or sional in the schools as well as the trainers of teachers engendered a broad consensus that drama can teach. es Professional began with such an assumption, and the concerns and divisions among the leading edu- discourse cationists focused the much on the "whys" of drama in not curriculum but on the "hows." This conversation so schools elementary the in United Kingdom, where from the its brightest at radiated drama became widely used well as in the preparation of teachers.2 as a course of The American schools rests on informal traditions and is dictated largely by individual drama in presence range is wide-from U.S. teachers making pilgrimages to medium. The teacher preferences for engaging the the lone teacher spontaneously organizing a role-playing exercise at the pop study with Dorothy Heathcote, to inspiration, of to entire teaching staffs in schools working in substantial partnerships with local theater an and classrooms The is that teachers use drama in their ingredient when they believe it accom- companies. common something. plishes of this Compendium The purpose report on the nature and extent of our knowledge about that "accom- is to plished The lens we have chosen is the lens of scholarly research. This is not because we believe that something." only we we can claim to truly "know" come to us through the efforts of formal research. Rather, the seek things check intuition with of experience and to that of more formal processes that examine the effects the "knowledge" on human of drama and theater in educational settings. development of Drama Definitions ~rwy was origin;illy 1xh- lished in 1975 Drama and are carried out in many formats, with many purposes, and in the guise of wide- theater in education terminology. ranging characteristic is the adoption of character roles of unifying sort or another by learn- A one Many studies included in the compendium involve portraying a character from children's literature; some ers. of children groups prompting of a teacher or coach. Most studies involve fantasy emerge at the from pure roles scenarios or complete stories, sometimes enacting advance planning and sometimes not These with the conventions a safe harbor for trying out offer T'DGmatic beg,n at the general focus I across the studies we chose for inclusion-research I. of life: situations for experimenting with expression and com-, mainly on young on drama in education 1 I ~ elementary- and kindergarten-age children, an obser- ,, munication; and for deepening human understanding.. . vation to which we return when discussing specific research results. Research studies not exhibit much in the way of do vocabulary when they come to identifying a standardized dramatic activities. The studies included in the Compendium are no exception and display a diverse array of terms: 69

71 Classroom drama. This refers to the use of drama in the school class- term Such activity directed by the classroom teacher or by stu- room. is typically I i' and or direction of a dents themselves sometimes engages assistance the between and, dramatic enactment ations the drama specialist, sometimes researcher. I oral reading comprehension, story under-1 drama. refers Creative primarily to term This improvisational activities in I I their own of characters and participants invent fictional situations the which and. standing, written story understanding."; without specific guidance or context-setting by teachers or choosing, with or inventiveness dra- to bring children the the refers "Creative" coaches. to orchestrated or spontaneous, A word of caution: improvising may smack of chaos in the canons of cog- matic act, But a process research. of invention and expression, improvisation proves of great interest to scholars of nitive as reading, language reason, on the basis of what we report here. and with development and good tend situations involve young children (e.g., 5-year-olds) who very to bring a great play. "Fantasy Fantasy play" inventiveness to the portrayal of even the most tried and deal children's stories and characters. of true play. fantasy play" is dramatization guided by a theme or themes Thematic fantasy "Thematic art? this Is description of the "field" offered and implied just above, Given be worth pausing before going for- the it may ward visit and dispense with this awesome question. As the details of to Compendium's studies in drama the unfold, reasonable to ask what the fantasy role-playing of a 5-year-old or the classroom enactment of it is has to with "art." We face the same issue raised by both Terry Baker and Karen Bradley in "Rumpelstiltskin" do for of visual arts and dance for this Compendium. Baker, the example, asks what ele- overviews their studies in decid- in to be considered an instance of the visual arts. We too faced challenges are ments of educational activity dramatic to as a study what the include or theater arts. ing in found no explicit conception of drama as an art form in the research studies we surveyed or in the studies We summarize no And we found we empirical research into the academic and social effects of what was termed here. many even called the theater arts of any sort. This means that a great be things potentially relevant to a or might do not enter the present conversation, espe- and theater discussion of the academic and social effects of drama cially things to having with production and performance. Our focus necessarily became foun- do formal theatrical that role-playing was the common ingredient of dational. We indicated above studies we included in the the Compendium. flowed from our main criterion in selecting studies for This drama section: we chose studies the where individuals adopt "roles" for one reason or another-characters other than themselves. The characters may fictional real, present time or historical, planned or improvised. The rationale for our main selection was be or lies that heart of the dramatic form, however infantile its execution and regardless of where at the role-playing lead steps an artistic point of view. from baby might find? we did What to several characterizations of the studies Here in the Compendium. We first describe the tar- we turn we include 2 In con. wch 01 presence the main findings of the research. designs gets and of the studies. Then we describe the victions. we mighi iisk why schools no1 elcrr~fnr~ry Find 01 ockovrt? The schoold all on studies, is studied? Among our drama young children. focused research of concentration is a large there Who scholarly wriling alw~ii rlns5- the drama studies included in the Compendium involve children of between preschool and fourth than half More young moni c0iicRms clrntnn We chilclren see x;mx n6r. grade and in first children on focus studies of the a third studies involve subjects, grade three Only earlier. as and lo Ihc rncs uw niclRCIroorn and three schoolers. middle involved high school students. in sccnnilary -d,nnl tliiinin classrmms. perhap< because disciplinary qpecinlisl renches true our studies of designs. Nearly half Study are experiments, which use random assignment of subjects to se~ liiilc phcp In! tllrlm~ in their instiiiclioniil rrparloims control groups. Most others construct comparison groups in rigorous ways. None depend sole- experimental and ~IeIaChInent clmmai While are of some studies. among included these although the data collection activities post-measures, pre- and ly on %hmI physic5 high iioni rnighl 11- polon- he cxpccl~?tl. short of be published many studies like learning, and in drama Studies to tend psychology, in developmental iii liierntiire iial 01 siurhm LR~ hi%ory and matter over a studies were our of a third About duration. or involved experiments half About days. of conducted on eviclenl seem5 with resealcll 01 basis ihe two interventions lasting a few weeks or less. Three of our studies lasted a full school year, and one spanned chilclren. young FcIl-evi- not il 01 iraclilion A rhcnrrs in den1 school years. This distribution reflects the field of experimental research are studies child development. Long in much involved ediicnlion VIE) regular classroom studies expensive, extended may tax the patience of teachers, and children their initial leave with the in %hcrOls secondaiy sul,Jcc: is the of UK much control groups. And the academic context of the work of schools doing so deplete experimental and in and wiling hul hr1s IprCYliicerl no frequently occupy shorter more researchers when their projects researchers again publish field: the constrains ihal rswarrh wr t?mpirir,ll COLM linrl. is of of time. This is generally unfortunate, because there periods good reason to value investigations long-term

72 programs because their potentially deeper impacts and longer-lasting effects of on narrative understanding. studies point to scholarly interest in a rather narrow clus- Focus The Compendium's ter academic shows consistent positive impacts. Although the dramatic or role-play- domains of in which drama a strong designs vary considerably, the effects gauged in experiments majority of our and the of ing activities the area of narrative understanding. Research shows consistent positive studies between dra- lie in associations comprehension, oral understanding, and written story understanding. matic enactment and reading story almost youngest kindergartners, and first-graders attends the exclusively to on Research subjects, 5-year-olds. a story (as opposed to having the story read to them in many designs), chil- story understanding. Having enacted better dren are able the to recall more details, and to put the story's elements in the correct story, retell to skills, children impacts of drama on reading show persuasive writing ability, narrative of sequence. Studies older and children's self- conceptions as writing and readers. skills, learners younger better? Several studies teased out an important phenomenon within the range of impacts of The the across young In the four studies testing for effects on age groups, the impacts of role-playing drama children. consistently stronger for the younger or youngest participants. Effects for kindergartners were first-graders and exceeded on second- and third-graders; and in one study (Wagner), effects of enacting stories on writing effects were larger than eighth-graders. for fourth-graders effects for might help observation This in concentration young children to subjects on published drama the explain as dramatic enactment has its most profound effects on younger children, this If will find is where studies studies. who to tend scholars on younger children by other focus effects this will reinforce a And attain publication. and on than push into unestablished territory. build each other's work rather such concentration on reading and language? We might expect studies of drama to be drawn to reading Why story with because dramatic activity has substantial traffic and the spoken and written word, and dra- domains acts almost involve "narrative" or story--"movement in time." as Heathcote likes to say. But matic by definition mathematics) is probably and language development (along with Reading are the coin of the more involved. in the educational research community. Because realm are considered most central, academic journals and they book no doubt favor research in reading and verbal expression-and of course researchers must publish editors of these outlets. Another lies on the technical side influence the education research business: reading and lan- in guage development benefit from established instrumentation for measuring results. "Straying" into on social developments such as empathy and tolerance or self-conception as exam- research of touted benefits engaging in drama generally requires the invention of custom measures, observations ples of use and the part of researchers, or the much-criticized on of self-reports. As a judgments inferences requiring measures are "softer" than test scores, and scholars using them must go to extra group, to demon- these lengths the of their measures-as some Compendium authors manage to do. In our studies, inquiries validity strate into development often supplements to are of reading and language. social studies development. Drama is typically a social, interpersonal event. But Social given comparatively little research has attention potential social Among our studies there are some exceptions: de la Cruz finds to developments. development generally courteous special education children including social behavior, ignoring enhanced among study suggests acceptable and free time. Fink's extensive use that drama activities for kindergart- distractions, of to various social development of what he calls "social perspectivism,"-the ability to comprehend the ners lead inherent school a situation involving a cluster of individuals. In another study (one of only three high relations in self-image we Horn explores self-confidence and include), among at-risk secondary students who became studies engaged in playwriting. And Schaffner shows evidence of lasting attention to moral dilemmas a result of drama. as complex of should be considered especially strong with respect to its reach into the studies Another our of emotional, and social development. academic, of the programs of worlds This is Seidel's assessment & Company carried out between 1996 and 1998. This work a high- because it investigated is strong Shakespeare and extended program and of its intensive methods of documenting the program's functioning quality because impacts. This study shows that Shakespeare's plays can and particularly effective because of their lifelike com- be plexity. of issues and emotions The complexity the plays promotes, "word-by-word, emotion-by-emotion, in thought-by-thought investigation of meaning," at least when teachers and learners choose to devote time to such an and to these ends. The step-by-step approach of Shakespeare & Company invites those who approach all types into learning. of to their own experience. which is linked directly study Shakespeare deeply go to study Seidel's the impacts of Shakespeare documents & Company's summer teacher training and fall student plays productions on the understanding and interpretation of Shakespeare's only but also on acting and stage not direction skills. The study illustrates a whole approach to teaching and learning that has implications across a wide spectrum of educational situations.

73 Unpacking drama in drama, like research most types of interventions, often simply compares drama-involved groups to Research in see this many studies included here. Our studies also show that qualities within or We non-involved groups. in One contributors effectiveness of role-playing. the such factor important are accompanying dramatic activity to out of role to direct, suggest, and/or comprises various acts of getting dramatic portrayal. a during transpiring is what of discuss aspects Directing and ~'-%aThcotes-ITst^i~lks n indicative are performance or rehearsal during suggesting attractis1 a Whatever effects a study measures are usually more On education centrated in drama agenda for research thought. I for children expressing active concern for how things are pronounced enactment dramatic surrounding activity productive Another going. OutCOmeS prolnising into delves it because partic- (Schaffner) is study in one shown reflection formal of value the by ! standing, and writing achievement. She found leadership, in contrast to the few studies reading achievement, found to influence in some domains and not in others. She here, leadership to impact oral and writ- included have measures of story understanding, but not to ten reading and writing achievement. Interestingly, the affect general rneta-analysis that dramatic activities using a mix of structured and non-structured plots produce the indicates on oral generally that awareness and promotion of specific largest effects language development. We conclude and formal within as critical thought, questioning, opportunities for direction, such reflec- child behaviors drama, be important may tion, designing dramatic enactment programs. to consider when Transfer refers learning in one situation and context that produces capabilities and dispositions or inclinations to Transfer Transfer performance situation and context. in a different is a central question explored across producing effective Compendium, notjust in the drama section. Does learning in art engender skills or dispositions, which in turn this academic social enhance development? We approach the larger questions regarding the transfer embedded or the entire a separate essay within this volume. across Compendium in drama our studies some of of transfer from show activities. DuPont found that comprehension Four evidence text promoted in drama contributes to comprehension of text of Fink found that using imaginative play generally. in facilitated associates with generally higher imaginative play subsequently. Horn finds experimental conditions high that in a drama experiment with struggling writing involved schoolers cultivated general habits of mind the during the year the class spent conceiving, writing, and producing a play. The disposition cultivated in this case was general of seeking additional resources in order to write more effectively (specifically, using school the habit from turning libraries: habit of mind is in short supply across student populations to grade and public peers). This 1s worth obsorvirig ttini p'o- It 3 through graduate 1 school, by all known assessments. "lathe. Tcienli~l~. Iewonal and even historiaris mnficinns. lypicolly chamcteii2e nn drama studies? overlooked available is What in their component important 01 work a5 play-the 5tructured but of exploration unfettered to tend Compendium this in Since studies the that above discussion the indicates a relatively narrow included itlea .This is no[ A typical quality deal of territory within to drama it should occur early elementary level, at the cluster and focus xhool %xonrlnry o1 readers that a great nppronchos and learning 10 Researchers have older to students. attention obvious void unexplored. remains is the lack and education of One in~lrutlion. where [he curricu- lum embraces the iesulrs 01 the aimed few experiments or inquiries at the higher grades, as noted above, probably due to such influences as hworical play-hrenk. relative educational psychology community's bias toward basic and early developments of children and the lhrough?. invenlions. rnolPclI- 1% siructures. persons. itnd prevalence of classroom drama in the elementary classroom. And teachers may be much less in middle inclined claier-rather than on crm1. their dramatic play or involve drama to school high because teaching repertoires in their academic of school and itlea5 ing play.3 do with as academic specialties having on little to concentrations regarded on drama presented here is substantive attention to many An unquestionable omission in the body of work foremost candidates beyond and language development. The reading among these would potential outcomes learning to be any that results from seem the interpersonal and intra-personal qualities of assuming characters long to perform narrative scenes. Theater professionals have of concentrated on importance the and interacting stage on genuinely perform worldviews, in order study character with characters about film. Learning in or to to lead to expected be would own one's different from assumptions and beliefs, general- traits valuable or skills others' ly such as by affected student's personal character views-a increased of understanding and empathy characters. studying dramatic 72

74 A scan of no references to theater. The entire world of theater in education- our studies produces practically production and school theater societies and productions, the visiting troupes specializing in thematic discourse, musical, annual empirical research that managed the local children's theater company-benefits from school no way effects our files. We know very little on the basis of research about the its of dramatic presenta- into work to the about impacts on either the performers or audiences audiences in the case of school tions generally, or to are suggested above, including the prod~ctions.~ that the older age groups involved in theater Explanations fact not into the sights of reading development researchers. But surely elements of oral language development do fall as stage be psychological developments of performing regularly on involved in theater performance, are may self-confidence and esteem). as (such Conclusion close this essay with a familiar refrain, We have to leave such untested questions up to future could "We'll And because we did not find these questions addressed in the vast literature considered for the research." they Compendium, point to promising subjects of future inquiry. We can do added service to the topic by do to the that began this essay-the realm of professional knowledge. And once again to Dorothy returning world compelling whose comprise a tantalizing menu for future research. Heathcote, claims for drama an inventory to "guarantees"-what she believes will happen when Heathcote articulated what amounts of use drama thoughtfully and effectively in their classrooms. The promised effects of drama she has culled teachers lifetime and students using drama role-playing and observing teachers from a touch on most subjects within of are: and of our schools. These "guarantees" agendas the academic social Making abstract concepts concrete. 1. Teaching a narrow fact so that it is fully learned-placed in a context for 2. meaning. added 3. artifacts so that children are curious about them and experience Introducing at a significant level-an them important quality of any learning. 4. Inducing students to reflect on experience and see what they have in common with other people. 5. Opening to curriculum areas students might fear to venture into, including science, mathematics, and doors literature. 6. with responsibility. Giving students freedom coupled values. 7. Clarifying for a variety Developing and ideas. tolerance 8. of personalities can stay 9. something they don't like, perhaps geometry or Tennyson's poet- Showing students how they with to ry, a point of accomplishment. Increasing students' vocabularies and helping students develop a finer control of rhetoric through interac- 10. tions with others. Bringing classes situations that will increase their social health. 11. into they students that they know more than Helping thought they knew. 12. discover Leading students to 13. real world more clearly in light of what they have learned in an imagined one. the 14. students capture more of what is implicit Helping experience. That is, dramatization encourages prob- in any ing into the meanings of terms, the use of words in the context of action, the nature of human relationships and individual motivations-and more generally encourages reflection experiences and what one is learn- on from them. ing its and of drama professional speaking to educators the to learners. In reading through list This promises reflects say that the drama elements, we can Compendium have made a sortie or two into the hearts of studies in this these claims with profit to show for the effort. It also appears, on the face of things, that this inventory would our chil- receive widespread acceptance developmental goals. In addition to the aims it suggests for as of a set in on drama education because it delves into for research list implies an attractive agenda Heathcotes dren, promising outcomes that have never been put to formal tests. Succeeding in even a small part of this agenda knowledge would the state of research-based amply expand about drama in education on hand today. 73

75 74

76 STUDY NAME: Art Processes to Enhance Academic Self-Regulation Using Susan M. and Steven V. Owen AUTHORS: Baum Presented at Symposium on Learning and the Arts: PUBLISHED: Paper ArtsConnection National 1997 Promoting New York, February 22, Success, Student for New Strategies Questions Research students use more self-regulation strategies (such as paying attention and Do artistically talented that integrate the are with academics than when they are in persevering) when they arts in classes traditional classes? they learn more academic content in arts-integrated lessons? Do show gains on standardized academic tests as a result of learning in arts-integrated classes? Do they METHODS students from York City classrooms participated in an observational study. The students were tal- Fourth-, fifth-. and sixth-grade New by talent development program in their particular art form provided a participating in in music. theater, or dance and were ented students were The ArtsConnection. in which the arts were integrated into the regular curriculum, and in which the also in classrooms with teachers development. were involved ArtsConnection staff in two as were taught the the academic content they different formats-a traditional format without same observed Stuclents were one in which the arts were integrated. Observers clocurnented the use of the arts, and self-regulatory skills: paying attention, following persevering, asking questions, taking risks, cooperating, using feedback, and being prepared. Students problem-solving. self-initiating. were also content-based quiz after each lessori. given a separate a pool of students. Three groups of period for in reading and were examined over a three-year mathematics scores Test compared students were was given about (no many were in each group): information how Young Talent Academic participating in the Young Talent Program Students instruction and who were achieving on or Group: arts grade level in school. These students were presumably enrolled in classes that integrated the arts. above Young Talent at-Risk Group: participating in the Young Talent Program who were at risk academically, especially in reading. Students arts a program that also used the a to support academic instruction in manner similar to the students also in MAGIC. These participated classes. arts-integrated Control Students who were not participating in the Young Group: Programs in the arts, and who presumably were not enrolled Talent in classes integrated the arts with the curriculum.-E.!N that RESULTS arts seen Self-regulation. lessons in which the Significantly more self-regulatory behaviors were were integrated into the curricu- in the p<.oo1. tests, t shown by correlated as straight acadeinic instruction. with than lum in lessons Content Content learning. vs. non-arts-integrated lessons in the same sample of students was examined learriing in the arts-integrated via the other lesson, students one lesson (p = .26). For significant differences were found for in the non-art5 lesson did bet- t tests. No .07). = (p a difference that almost reached significance ter than those arts-integrated in the lesson. Young Talent the of the study were scores at for the outset academic group and lowest for the Young Talent at-Risk Reading highest the years. and Young Talent academic groups showed fairly steady performance over the three the control group. While students in at-Risk students showed marked improvement in the third year (conclusions drawn from inspection of the graphs). Young Talent a correlation of .44). at-risk students scores for the training (with extent in arts-curriculum integration predicted reading The of teacher scores were not enhanced by the arts program. But it should be noted that the arts in this program Math integrated with the were for acad- Young Talent the with mathematics. beginning the study, math scores were highest not the At of language-based curriculum. emic group, and lowest for the Young Talent at-Risk group, as shown by an ANOVA main effect of Group, p <.001. All three groups gained in math over three years, of Time. p<.OOl. Neither of the two Young Talent groups, however. gained as a main effect shown by more than the control group.-E.W. CONTRIBUTIONS THE FIELD TO more in learn did not ones. in traditional than such lessons talented artistically When but academically at-risk stu- whether at This study is notable look to first the of one as course dents were involved over the of three arts in years in arts-integrated students more self-regulation show partici- in arts-integrated classrooms, and training, learned support arts to pated in an additional program that used the it examines the effect of the arts classes, and because on chiidren. academically at-risk academic classes, they made greater gains in reading than students The study found that artistically talented did a control group. In math, their gains did not exceed behaviors during classes engaged in more self-regulatory not surprising those of the control group, though this is in which the arts were integrated into the lesson. But they since the arts in the program were integrated with the lan- 75

77 guage-based curriculum, with mathematics.-E. W. not COMMENTARY It is not students showed significantly clear why the at-risk the group) with control in reading (compared greater gains self-regulatory more ”Significantly than did risk. It may be signif- the students who were not at received by the two groups of icant that the arts programs in behaviors were seen in the lessons should com- research identical. Future not students were both types of pare in identical arts programs. children the which the arts were integrated into Another possibility is showed more students at-risk that the reading gains because they initially lacked self-regulatory curriculum straight than in lessons with arts-integrated more helped skills and hence were by the tested. classrooms. This hypothesis could be st in e m i c d ca a ” . n o i t uc r We study that the improve- cannot conclude from this ment of reading by the at-risk students was a result in case, the If this were enhanced academic self-regulation. the control have showed gains (exceeding should students group) in mathematics as well. investigate whether these Future research should findings generalize to artistic talent.-E.W students selected for not CONTRIBUTIONS THE FIELD TO This studyk contribution to arts education research is its to attention serve the potential of the arts to as intermedi- the is, process. That in the learning aries suggests that study arts may the of academic value the reside as much in the encourage ancillary behaviors and attitudes they as in their direct effect on content acquisition. In this case, artistically students inclined seemed (a global term that to self-regulate encompassed several attention-related behaviors) them- lessons than arts-integrated in more selves “traditional” in arts involved). The researchers without the lessons (i.e., those influence explore why-or why not-such integration might acquisition in and other skill disciplines.-D.C. content COMMENTARY order for and In others to have a high study, this like it, schools, degree of significance for to it would have explore differences among the arts programs the in more detail the of students in the study experienced. Such different groups saw probing might explain better why the researchers the results they and would offer readers a clearer under- did standing integration. the researchers’ definition of arts of program” broad too is much integration The term ”arts to serve as a variable for a study. Instead, it is a category under on specific practices gather. For research a host of which like this integration arts have to having of sig- the potential nificant implications for education, the various implement- arts of forms ed will have integration illuminated to be brightly.-0.C.

78 STUDY NAME: In and Through the Arts: The Question of Transfer Learning Judith M. Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles AUTHORS: Burton, in PUBLISHED: 2000, 41(3): 228-257 Art Studies Education, Questions Research show more creativity and higher academic self-concept arts-rich schools in children Do schools? in arts-poor those than climates than arts-poor schools? Do arts-rich schools have different METHODS These in 18 public schools were studied (2,406 students). eighth-graders students attended a diverse group seventh-. and Fourth-. fifth-, ranging from ones in which the arts were integrated into the curriculum by classroom teachers to ones in which of arts were schools the taught by specialists. Some schools were "arts ricri" while others were "arts poor" as defined by "quantity of arts pro- as separate subjects Students were given gramming." arts lessons in-school arts and private about how they had received. Students were a many questionnaire given to creativity (the Torrance), a self-concept test, figural a questionnaire about their arts experiences (which led test a score for a and arts instruction each child had received in school, and how much score for amount of arts lessons outside a school). Teachers were given of three they were asked questionnaires: rate their of students' imagination. risk-taking, expression, and cooperative learn- to perceptions were ing; asked they achievement orientation. for- climate in terms affiliation. student to professional interest. of rate their school support. innovativeness, centralization. malization, and they were asked to and how much they integrate the arts. collab- resource adequacy: rate arts specialists. use the arts orate with and a tool teach other subjects.-E.W. as to RESULTS in the top quartile of high arts exposure (both in and out of school). as determined by the Children questionnaire. were compared student with those (no the arts exposure. High arts children scored higher on the figural creativity test of statistics reported). High in lowest quartile children scored higher (from teacher ratings) arts expression. risk-taking, creativityimagination. and cooperative learning. A regression on showed analysis per- significant between (a) amount of arts instruction and teachers' efforts at arts integration and a relation (b) teachers' ceptions students' risk-taking. High of children scored higher on arts rneasuring academic self-concept. Teachers and several subscales principals in schools with strong arts programs believed that the presence of the arts led their teachers to be rnore innovative, to have increasecl awareness different students' abilities. and to find school of aspects of to more scored work. a enjoyable place Arts-rich schools adequacy, affiliation. interest, teacher innovativeness. and resource professional and or1 student support. teacher ratings) (from higher and centralization, suggestirlg that arts-rich schools are not top-down structures. on achievement orientation, lower formalization, also conducted. Teachers Qualitative measures (interviews, observations) in five schools were schools were the likely in arts-rich more to speak perception. able to express ideas and feelings, take risks, and of focus their students Drama teachers spoke of drarna their as to - to empathy and ability to collaborate.-E.W leading as on creativity arts-rich schools and academic scored higher THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO their of experiences self-concept as a direct consequence more with the arts. However, since the arts-rich schools had of and study This is a rich qualitative quantitative study the inno- teacher is equally possible that it teachers, innovative between creative and education arts relationship thinking, and greater creativity to led that acad- factor is the vation It found school climate. and self-concept, academic that emic self-concept. students in arts-rich schools scored should research Future that schools investigate whether creativity and several mea- in higher and "Teachers principals grant arts a central role attract better, more innovative the of academic self-concept than sures the of for the consequence a direct as teachers new role schools without that level in students in sc-,ools ,,,,it-, strong the schools can in arts is needed how arts. on More study arts. had also Arts-rich schools of Measures the alter are self-report beyond school climate. mea- (as innovative teachers more programs Chat believed teach- observation of systematic as such needed, objective by teacher self-reports).-E.w sured observers trained by schools arts-poor vs. arts-rich in ing arts of the presence the hypothesis.-E.W the to blind COMMENTARY be teachers their led to CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD THE study is correlational This in design not allow causal and does conclu- ." innovative.. more important two to integration stu- arts This study connects children sions. It is possible that in

79 dent outcomes-creativity self-concept-and one sig- and scored schools arts-rich in .students 'I.. is Such research nificant school outcome-school climate. it lends ammunition important because "value- the to measures several and higher in creativity everyday added" justification for including the arts in the curriculum.-D.C. of academic self-concept than students in COMMENTARY of arts." level without that schools The study explores perfor- students' school of aspects have arts-related activi- mance that to connections logical of other ties. In acad- the study identifies the words, arenas personal emic performance in which arts researchers and about should think creativity staking their claims (i.e., and opposed self-concept)-as defining to performance such narrowly of standardized tests more geared in terms spe- to cific disciplines. correlational is design (among the While certain in study variables), student and school has important implications it how for what arts-rich schools become so. It not only details the arts also offers the participating sites did to integrate but to of how the arts-rich schools managed an account estab- arts-related lish their approaches. Thus, the study situates contexts, educa- a feature that practices arts schools' in the if the incorporate tion research has to into study designs for findings are going to have meaning educators.-D.C.

80 in Secondary School STUDY in the Arts and Success Involvement NAME: AUTHOR: James S. Catterall PUBLISHED: Americans for the Arts Monographs, 1998, 1 (9), Washington, D.C. I Research Questions I students in middle high school who have high involvement in the arts perform Do and with low better on a variety of academic indicators? And if arts than those involvement the relationship up when the this is restricted to students from hold so, does sample lowest quartile in the United States? SES METHODS students participating in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988 were examined for this study Data from 25,000 study were Students in the from eighth NELS followed involvement grade. Students in terms of arts classified both in and tenth were to was measured by number of arts courses taken, number of out-of-school out taken, and atten- of school. Arts irivolvement arts courses museums of school. Students in the highest quartile dance at outside arts compared with those in the lowest art- of involvement were involvement quartile a variety of academic measures. Academic measures for eighth graders were: grades in English; scores on com- on standardized dropping out posite tests; school by grade 10; boredom in school half or most of the time. Academic measures for 10"'- of were: composite scores; reading scores: scores on a test of history/geography/citizenship. Tenth-graders were graders standardized test community service involvement and television watching. of in terms assessed also was conducted on 6.500 A SES quartile. The identical methods and measures were used.-E.W sub-study students from the lowest RESULTS relationship between arts involvement and academic achievement was positive in both eighth and 10"' grades for the broader sam- The of ple students cutting across all SES levels. High arts students earned better grades and performed better on standardized tests. 25,000 High arts also performed more cornmunit,y service, watched fewer hours of television. and reported less boredom in school. students high When low arts-involved students from the lowest SES quartile were compared, the same findings vs. arts students emerged. High again earned better grades and scores, were less likely to drop out of school, watched fewer hours of television. were less likely to report boredom had in school, more involved in community service.-E.W. a were more positive self-concept. and CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE TO FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS study draws on data collected from more than 25,000 This This study who are highly that students demonstrated 10-year database contained of the in National students the in the in middle and high school in the United involved arts The author exam- Survey (NELS). Longitudinal Educational perform better measures academic of a variety on States the ines participation arts students' between relationships arts. the in are minimally who students do than involved their achievement. and behavior in secondary attitudes, and This population student general the for association positive school. The analysis establishes a significant correlation academic achievement was between arts involvement and 10"'-grade between students' arts activities and eighth- and in a focused study of students from the lowest SES found and their grades, standardized test scores, staying in school, United quartile W. the in States.-E. This being lays the interested groundwork in school. study a inclusion for for arts in the schools. viable rationale COMMENTARY cause demonstrate to unable is researcher Although the effect, and envi- an arts-rich learning that research shows the demonstrates that'the it because important is study This of positive educational ronment with a host is associated study correlation in the United States between choosing to the secondary The study (or more accurately put, measures. of a function is not academically well achieving and arts the to data). therefore, connects arts the analysis of the NELS However, because this study is correlational in design, SES. "value-added" other to and academics outcomes.-D.C. involvement to does not allow conclude that it arts us caused academic achievement to It is equally possible rise. COMMENTARY involve themselves academic students choose to that high because they come from families that in the arts, perhaps Studies arts educa- between association the highlight that the value academic achievement as well as arts.-E.W.

81 tion offer a direction for further and student achievement students.. .earned better “High arts and, thus, have value considerable imaginative study, arts for education researchers. However, is absolutely further study likely grades and to less were scores, necessary in order for correlational designs to have substan- tive meaning for addition unable to being In to educators. way tease which involvement effects flow-from arts the out out drop watched fewer school, of arts involvement-the to achievement achievement to or is unable study to illuminate the types of arts experiences to likely less television, were of hours is having. More arts involvement students are apparently the desirable, according to the study, but almost certainly nore a report boredom in school, had this matter, as do involvement and texture richness of the in which the students partici- programs the of characteristics positive self-concept, and were nore Empirically pate. involvement the of nature the unpacking the programs will find- primary the for possible it make and involved service.” in community ings the have actual implications for enhancing to role of the arts in education. because study is additionally important This it mines the available database for of measures of academic a variety general from content and skill acquisition to performance, the that American educational poli- attitudes. Despite fact with test scores, the arts may have more is consumed cy other actual connections to aspects logical and students’ of the exclude To everyday lives. and academic latter from and test on focus only consideration research in scores the to arts justify their presence force to in would be to ill suited potentially they goals reaching by schools are accomplish.-D.C.

82 STUDY NAME: in the Arts and Human Development: Extending an Analysis of General Involwernent and Associations Special Cases of Intensive Involvement in Music and Introducing the Arts Theatre in Richard Catterall, John lwanaga James Chapleau, S. AUTHORS: and Unpublished Manuscript, The Imagination Project, Graduate School PUBLISHED: and Education of California at Information Studies, University of April Angeles, Los 1999 Research Questions Do who have been highly involved in the arts at least since eighth grade per- high school seniors academically than students who not been involved in the arts? have what acad- better form And music? in with involvement in theater and associated are patterns emic achievement intensive METHODS classified in terms of how involved they were in the arts. Arts involvement was measured by number of arts courses taken. Students were High out-of-school museums outside of school. taken, and attendance at arts-involved students were ones who of number arts courses in the arts since the eighth grade. The top quartile of students had been involved of was involvement (n=3720) terms compared in arts on of academic tests.-E.W. (r1=3720) a variety with the lowest quartile RESULTS findirig by Catterall As with eighth- and tenth-graders. the students with high arts involvement scored higher on stan- in the earlier (1998) scores than those with low arts involvement. dardized test More specifically, percent of high arts-involved students scored in the top 57.4 cpartiles of tests, compared to only two standardized students scored of 56.5 percent of high arts arts-involved students; low percent 39.3 quartiles in reading, compared to top two in the of low arts students; and 54.6 percent of the high arts 37.7 in the percent students scored arts of historylgeographylcitizenship tests, compared to 39.7 percent of low upheld students. This same relationship was quartiles top two when the lowest quartile of students was examined, though the difference was smaller in magnitude. Specifically SES percent of low- 30.9 SES arts students scored in the top two quartiles of standardized tests, compared to only 23.4 percent of Iow-SES low arts students; high percent of 23.6 high arts students scored in the top two quartiles in reading, compared to 32.9 percent of low arts students: and low-SES compared percent the low-SES high arts 30.7 in the top two quartiles of history/geography/citizenship tests, of to 30.4 students scored percent low-SES low arts students. of report consistent high levels Students who of involvement in instrumental music over the middle and high school years were also per- forming better at 12. Specifically, 48 percent of high-SES students in orchestra or band performed at the highest levels in in math grade more 38.6 of high-SES students not involved in music. Even percent striking was the group difference for the Iow-SES math. compared to t- students: percent students in orchestra or band performed at the highest levels in math, cornpared to only 15.5 percent of 33.1 low-SES who involved in music. not students of Iow-SES were of 48 percent drama students scored high sustained involvement performed in theater better in reading Students who report (about to compared in reading. not involved in drama). Low-SES students in theater also showed greater gains in self-con- 30 percent of students did measured students not in theater (as than by questions about how much they value themselves, their abilities, and their cept Iow-SES differences between the groups The (about were achievements). small, however 48 vs. as indicated by the authors' percent 53 percent, in theater responded students 138 considered significant. Finally, low-SES not the differences would charts), and the authors caution that two questions about racism than did low-SES students not involved in theater. suggesting that students involved more tolerantly to in of do those not involved etripathy and tolerance than drama have higher levels in drama. The self-concept and ernpathy/tolerance com- on the low-SES quartile.-E.W. parisons were carried out only tant because it demonstrates that the correlation in the CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD and States between choosing to study the arts United achieving well academically a function SES.--E.W of not is 1998 This Catterall James study extends the by also study examining the relationship between arts involvement and COMMENTARY had been who 10-graders among academic achievement findings involved in the'arts since eighth The grade. at least by study This study, 1998 the is volume) like Catterall (this who seniors school high States, the United in that show Thus in design. correlational cannot conclude that we is it school middle since arts in the highly involved been have arts academic achievement, nor that causes study that not have academically than those who better do been achievement, nor that math drama music study leads to the involved in arts. in music do In addition, those involved study leads to verbal and social improvement. We cannot in math than those not involved in music; and those better know whether students with particular academic and social verbal and social measures involved in drama do better on profiles gravitate to the arts, or whether the experience in involved in drama. This study is impor- than do those not $9

83 the academic and social profiles that these arts molds the relationship "Significantly, the students exhibit.-E.W and involvement arts between FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE was academic performance most are found that who those students This study involved better perform mea- in arts experiences also in standardized for students robust be to found academic performance, sures of achieve higher and grades, are most engaged in school. The comparative performance 12"'- of to from eighth- increased high-arts-involved students from - w o I i soc o S) E (S c i m o -eco n build over time. supporting the view that effects grade, and involvement arts relationship the Significantly, between backgrounds. " academic performance was found to be students robust for low-socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. Further ana- from music found lysis relationships between involvement with low-SES and math proficiency for students. Relationships (for low-SES children) between drama were also found and and various academic social outcomes, involvement including development of reading proficiency, self-concept, motivation, empathy, and tolerance. These findings are con- cognitive and sistent with other studies examining general from arts learning, and suggest areas for fur- social effects study.-R.H. ther COMMENTARY high-SES fam- demonstrate that children from authors The much more to ilies are be con- low-SES than likely children or instruction. sistently involved in arts activities Economically disadvantaged students often do not have the to become engaged in arts. opportunities same the those children this study shows, low-SES do who But, as and better, academically perform in the participate arts also perspective, it may socially. Therefore, from a policy be beside the arts instruction is the fundamen- point whether increased cause of performance, or tal instead is one of the conditions of superior schools. Either economically way, have disadvantaged youngsters opportu- same the should the arts can in the that partake benefits to others as nities or academic performance either bring, through improved perspective, these a research From schooling. improved more focused study findings indicate a direction for further, artistic aca- and domains, specific between relationships on social outcomes.-R.H. and demic 82

84 STUDY NAME: Arts Partnerships in Education (CAPE): Evaluation Summary Chicago James S. and Lynn Waldorf AUTHORS: Catterall E. PUBLISHED: of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. Fiske (Ed.), In Champions The Partnership The President's Committee on the Education and Arts Arts and 1999 D.C., the Humanities, Washington, Question Research school students urban public that integrate arts and academics low-SES Do in schools with teachers and artists) perform better on standardized tests than do (through partnerships in schools students who do not integrate arts with academics? are that METHODS in Education test scores of the Chicago Arts Partnerships on (CAPE). CAPE schools brought artists and This study examined the effect Fifty- so that they could develop curricular units in which an art form was integrated with an academic subject. partnerships into teachers percent of the teachers reported having developed one arts-academic integrated unit, while four percent reported having created four 24 art forrn four six weeks. Typically it was a visual to integrated into a reading or social studies unit. five such units. to Units typically lasted 3. to scores from other Chicago public schools at grades 6. compared test scores for CAPE schools were reading and The rnathetnatics 9. 10, and 11.-E.W. 8, RESULTS none of the comparisons made between CAPE and control schools did the control schools perform better than the CAPE schools. In Math: In K-8 grades, 40 comparisons were made between CAPE and control school math scores. Of these. 16 comparisons showed the out 8 of 12 comparisons showed CAPE schools increas- At the high school level, schools CAPE lead over control schools. increasing their their ing lead. I In the K-8 grades. 40 comparisons were made between Reading: and control school reading scores. Of these. 25 showed CAPE, CAPE increasing schools CAPE showed comparisons 12 of out 7 school level, At control over lead schools increasing their the high schools. 3 their lead. students were statistically significant in elementary school, especially and sixth grade. The differences CAPE between comparison by the eighth-grade level. While the No still favored the CAPE students at the high school level. these differences were found at differences W. significant.-€. statistically not differences were comparison would allow us to determine This kind of CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD rises because ener- the of whether academic performance - teachers believe gizing that program of in, a new effects children in Iow-SES arts- that study demonstrated This the as rises only of their performance whether or a function better schools than those in compari- perform integrated W. arts.-E. the was son test sta- scores. The difference schools in terms of tistically significant at the elementary level, but not at the CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE TO high school level.-E.W. study establishes an association between low-income The COMMENTARY attending students' academic achievement and their doing have arts schools that integration activities. In so, it study reports an interesting but difficult-to-interpret This compared student performance in schools that had estab- finding. relative advantage the whether know cannot We arts agencies with local artists and lished partnerships with is of the students in the arts-integrated .(CAPE) schools connections arts such created not had those that the to of due to the role the arts it is whether or schools in their community.-D.C. due the energizing to -- Of kind effect Of any new arts-inte- children in ,low-SES 'I.. COMMENTARY program (the Hawthorne effect). Future research should CAPE grated schools perform better to unable and cause demonstrate are this as such Studies be suggestive than more effect and, thus, must regarded as students to students in than those new and in comparison another kind of makes conclusive. Nevertheless, the study two equally important intellectual contributions: its suggestion that program that exciting does test scores." of the terms schools in arts, not artist and teacher partnerships can have a positive effect on

85 student achievement its attention to what these part- and look like how the role of the arts evolves in nerships and With to the former, the use of schools. respect participating adds an element of comparison to the study, but sites rigor knowing extensive details about what these com- without like it is impossible parison schools were to determine the two of schools were organizationally whether groups similar other educationally in terms of arts inte- and than Regarding the form the arts partnerships gration. the took, authors clearly (1) that there are a variety of demonstrate ways enacting partnerships, (2) that some of these ways of may be more effective than others, and (3) that con- , school and leadership all text, organizational arrangements, play a sustaining and in the partnerships over role expanding This is the kind of research that bridges the time. gap between educational justifications for integrating arts the afford everyday instruction and how into actually school to the arts such a meaningful role in schools. Additionally, the study addresses other “student out- comes” that arts might influence, such as workplace the there life The study argues that and appears to be a skills. stronger connection between incorporating the arts into than schools student benefits in these two arenas and sole- ly in content acquisition in certain core subjects.-D.C.

86 STUDY The Role the Fine and Performing Arts in High School Dropout Prevention NAME: of AUTHORS: Barry, & K. Walls J. N. Taylor, FL, 1990 Research, Center for Tallahassee, PUBLISHED: Florida State Music University, Research Question dropout with lowered high school the rates? in Is involvement arts associated METHODS high school dropout were surveyed (including both students currently in high school Forty students at some who have grad- risk for and were thought to be at risk). Students were asked why they had decided uated once but In stay 11 at-risk students to addition. in school. classes arts were observed in as academic classes for their degree of attention and engagement.-€. W. as well RESULTS 22 Of the responded that they had scriously considered dropping oLit of school, six (27 percent) said that they stayed on who students in arts and three (14 percent) said they stayed because they wanted to go on music. an arts field. Thus. nine out or they liked the because 22 of said that something about the arts kept them in school. Thirty-six (41 the students were asked directly whether partici- percent) of in an course affected their decision to remain in school. Of these. 30 out of 36 (83 percent) arts yes. When asked how the arts pation said job opporturiities. seven (23 percent) cited course influenced them, of 11 at-risk students revealed that in arts classes, these students were "on task" 84 percent of the time. as com- Field observations appears that academically at-risk students the time in non-arts classes. Thus, it of are somewhat more often 73 percent pared with only classes such classes. Whether in arts engagement is what led students not than in academic engaged cannot be determined drop out to IT( I from this study.-E.W. to that students investigate arts teachers' claims designed CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD identified as at risk of dropping out and attend school of perform well their classes. Employing a qualitative in study investigates social important potential out- This an of of aspects the some reveals also study the approach, come arts education-decreasing of W. dropout.-€. school t arts classes increased that support effective engagement, motivation, and limited by sampling issues, While learning. COMMENTARY makes a as noted by the contribution this study authors, to F how of the describe document and to our understanding A small at students dropout risk group for high school of remained who W-D. a reason for as cited the often school in arts education.-J. arts of outcomes and processes not their decision to drop out. COMMENTARY This did study but rates, dropout actually measure not did who students rather rea- their about out drop not asked High the anecdotally describe often teachers arts school Future research should compare dropout sons for remaining. as arts positive effects of engaging for a strategy education who two groups of equally at-risk students, ones rates for do These teachers motivating their "at-risk" students. and do participate in the arts and ones who not. Ideally these stu- assert identified students that par- potential "dropouts" as be randomly dents should "assigned" to arts or non-arts. ticipate develop in ways positive in their art classrooms and to research remains the assignment, Without random subject when they expression in struggling artistic skills are and who the self-selection hypothesis: are perhaps students other classes. Arts teachers also claim that attendance the enough motivated arts the take to and who then to choose com- records students at-risk in their of are good, in classes classes are also those who are these become engaged in Given national concern classes. other with some parison motivated enough in school. remain to high identifica- dropout rates, early with persistent school might compare Future arts research deter- sports to vs. tion of students of risk at dropping out and effective strate- engagement students, some whether for mine arts the in are gies for keeping them engaged critical interest. of keeps in school, while for others, engagement in them Research key characteristics effective of the identifying arts to stay.-€.W. sports is what motivates them arts teaching and supportive learning environments may recommendations that will provide resource strategies and THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO this to other contexts. The study described in generalize report, conducted by members of the Arts and High School Arts The was Prevention Dropout School project and High 85

87 Dropout project at Center for Music Prevention the Florida Research by the State University, was at funded of in an effort to systemati- Department Florida Education the cally between participation in document relationship arts students identified as and risk" of dropping out the "at important "This study investigates an school. high of at-risk study attribute students in this The participating outcome social potential edu- arts of in school their to motivation stay to experiences. their arts report arts to related of a number the The authors factors school dropout." cation-decreasing these students, that positively affected the motivation of opportunity including the development of and/or to exer- a context arts, cise keen interest in the that promotes the of criticism, a positive and sup- constructive acceptance portive social environment where it take to risks, safe is and artistic to creative opportunities meaningful achieve of self-discipline. satisfaction, and the development non- and their both in students these of Observations arts and motivational tech- arts classes revealed the strategies including used, these students of teachers arts the niques behavior, on-task promote to hands-on involvement indi- vidualized instruction reinforcement, with positive coupled and per- genuine for creative accomplishment, recognition the in maintaining high standards students, interest sonal expectations, arts with adequate program and a quality and and offerings, supplies, equipment, staff. of this study has limitations with respect While the design data, to sampling, it provides evidence that in qualitative responses, this case open-ended survey provide compelling arts class- and rich descriptions of the social processes of experiences for stu- arts quality of effects and the rooms in turn may illuminate those dents-which of characteristics student engagement, to central are that contexts these motivation, recommend and learning. The authors that issues of a very limit- future research attend to the sampling self-selection.-J.v-~. participant and size sample ed 86

88 STUDY NAME: Education in Secondary Schools: Effects and Effectiveness Arts John Harland, Pippa Lord, Alison Stott, Ian Schagen, Jo Haynes, with AUTHORS: Kay Kinder, and Riana Linda Cusworth, Richard White, Paola for Educational National The Mere, Upton Park, PUBLISHED: Research Foundation (NFER). 2DQ, October 2000 SL1 Berkshire Slough, UK, Research Question arts in secondary school Does general academic performance? involvement in the boost METHODS study based on student self-report. but it also included a qualitative of the relationship primarily This was a quantitative examination concentration arts between school and performance on national exams. The study had four major components: in secondary of five secondary schools in the United Kingdom with strong arts reputations were carried out through annual interviews Case studies cohorts with (79 each year) who were doing well of two students officials, interviews teachers and school arts and in arts courses. with observations classes. The focus of the of was on what students perceived the effects of arts education to be. arts interviews 27,607 11:" in the (GCSE) was reviewed for schools students from 152 the United national academic exams Kingdom's Performance on of secondary school, particularly looking at the year of each student's arts study. arnount and type Questionnaires were to 2,269 administered year students 22 schools to relate exarn performance, prior attainment scores. and 11"' in key stage 3 test results. national a sinall group of school administrators were conducted to probe their views of the impact of the arts on school culture.-E.w of Interviews RESULTS results showed that students performing well in at least one Case form reported a wick range of positive effects from arts edu- study art the most common effect reported cation. While direct learning of skills was in form, students also reported that arts classes result- the art ed development of tension. learning about social and cultural issues. relief of creativity and thinking skills. enriched expres- in enjoyment. confidence. and personal and social development. sive skills, self students perceived Thus, that the arts facilitate their personal and clearly development. social differed by art form. Students reported that dance increased Responses awareness, visual art led to expressive skill. drama body enhanced empathy. and music promoted active listening. The authors conclude that to achieve the full the arts, students need effect of i'. each of individual art forms. Learning gains from exposure to one art form are not the same exposure to the exposure from as gains to another art form, and the arts should as "one" unified discipline. not be treated academic sample no evidence that the arts boost general larger performance Results from the found by performance on measured as exams taken at age 16. For instance. when social class and prior attainment were controlled. there was no relationship the national between performance on or mathematics exams, on the one hand, arid taking two years of visual art. drama, or music. on the the English hand. other school the arts affect the reported culture by encouraging School that administrators cohesive atmosphere. They also a positive. school many on that factors besides the arts. acknowledged improvement depends subjects, the should that equal status with all other arts and The authors conclude have that the different art forms should have also status in the curriculutm.-E.W. euual what students between a disconnect there is exams. Thus THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD show. and administrators believe and what the Future tests attributed study should examine whether the positive effects well-designed in This is a large-scale and study conducted or arts to the by students and administrators are illusory. component the qualitative self-report United Kingdom. The but are simply not captured by the whether fact exist they in this study school students secondary of demonstrated that exams.-€. national W. attending and arts schools well doing are who strong in the believe arts contribute to their personal in and the that arts COMMENTARY the social development. School administrators believe that on school culture. arts have a positive effect the contrast an interesting study reveals This between admin- quantitative component However, the study this of perceptions istrators' arts facilitate academic achieve- the that and social for controlling after prior demonstrated that class arts study between no relationship ment and the finding of achievement, the no relationship existed between studying This result directly contradicts the and exam performance. in secondary school and performance 'arts national on 87

89 er the resultsof purelycorre- 'I,, .students performing well high- U.S. students with more arts courses score findings that lational studies. The qualita- understood if on the SAT. This be we rec- er discrepancy can both that not causal. Perhaps ognize results are correlational, one provide mm- results at least a art form report- tive in the more ingful context for students are advised in the United States academically strong generated limited findings to study the while arts, academically United Kingdom, the in positive ed wide a of range by the quantitative analysis. students are not study strong the to encouraged arts. by The primary outcomes reported arts-strong students Future were social ones. research should examine social and arts skills of knowledge outcomes measures objective using whether determine to of qualitative described by participants in the component out are benefits social of students' self-reports in borne and studies this research are echoed in numerous other empirical of social outcomes.-E. W. measures the need cap- point of means develop appropriate to to turing them the status in affording and outcomes these CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD society affords that students school are out them once of school.--J.W.-D. in the United Kingdom, this ambitious, large- Conducted scale, mixed-methods study addresses the central question whether or not arts education positively affects of the gen- secondary performance eral academic students. The of researchers also attempt identify the critical factors and to use and effects such promote may that processes these fac- the basis for policy recommendations to promote as tors in practices Commissioned arts education. best by the United Kingdom's National Foundation for Educational corporate, Research (NFER) and funded by a range arts- of governmental organizations, this work was related, and part of to balance advocacy a rig- the arts with effort of a national orous examination of "the effects and effectiveness of arts education." This is an executive summary of the much larg- team. research the report generated by comprehensive er several years, this research was con- over Implemented set studies two phases-a of and school-level case in ducted an analysis of national test data. The findings from the case five exemplary secondary schools studies conducted in pro- a range of do promote vide evidence that, in general, the arts outcomes for students. Positive positive learning social and outcomes schools, employers, and local communities are for In the case study schools, selected for their described. also teachers, administrators, and robust arts programs, students, of the larger school community share a strong members to students' the arts make a significant contribution belief that personal and social development, provide opportunities for learning that generalizes content other contexts and areas, to when on school culture. However, have a positive effect and of to compared test the analysis qualitative results these from a larger, more rep- results appears contradictory. Drawn schools, of resentative sample data reveal test no signifi- the cant relationship between involvement in arts study and improved exam performance. These statistical results also contradict findings from appear to research conducted in the United States that between relationship strong reveal a and high in arts study involvement to According scores. SAT as authors, intervening factors such the quality of arts the in teaching or differences participation cultural patterns of W-D. may help explain these discrepancies.-J. COMMENTARY A real of this research is its design-employing strength both qualitative and quantitative methods allows contrast- ing results to emerge and points to the need to reconsid- 88

90 STUDY NAME: the Arts Through Language and Learning: A Report on Community-Based Living Organizations Youth Brice AUTHOR: Heath Shirley the for Washington, DC, November 1998: 2, 7. Arts Americans PUBLISHED: Monographs, Question Research the are intensively involved in low-SES, arts through after-school Do at-risk who students perform organizations than in who are not so involved? better school those METHODS organizations. 120 adolescents organizations of three types: arts in athletics organizations that also had Heath studied involved non-school and community service organizations. Forty-eight of the organizations were arts-based. Of a 32 were pri- strong academic bent, these. drama-based also involved work in other arts to support drama productions-e.g., music, dance, writing scripts, and scene marily hut organizations on arts. All of the arts or musical involved students in working painting. The remaining 16 organizations focused visual public performance or exhibition for the community, All of the organizations a a strong community service orientation. had toward in their after-school site. The students came from at- were Students observed over an 11-year period (1987-1 998) as they participated arts- the 1990. In comparison to students surveyed in the National Educational Longitudinal Sample (NELS) in schools. homes risk and from schools with double the potential for violence. They came from families with twice as much divorce and involved students came unemployment. And five tirnes more likely than those recent their fartiilies were welfare. NELS have been recently on to sample the in involved were The students after-school arts orgariization for at least three hours a day three times in for one full year. Thus. an a week in these organizations voluntarily. Their activities exceptional commitment of time. made students participated students an these All included only work in their chosen art form but also indirect academic training. For instance, writing and reading were often involved not scripts (for example, gallery catalogues were read and written): math was involved (they calculated travel costs); oral verbal skills were and (they involved were involved verbal critique sessions and learned a technical vocabulary related to their art form): and critical thinking in systematic involved frequent critique sessions, students were asked was think and reasori about their work in a quite (in their Way). to as for their organizations. coordinators travel as students sometimes served or receptionists social involved, also were skills Finally, One hundred forty-three students in these after-school arts organizations were given a series of questions that also were administered sample group.-E.W. 1990. The NELS in served as the control to the sample of 17.000 lO”-graders NELS RESULTS Students involved arts organizations stood out from the NELS control group in a variety of ways. They were: in the - an times more likely to win two award for academic achievement * achievement times more likely to win schoolwide attention for academic four * four more likely to participate in a math or science fair times * more likely to win an award for school attendance three times four times more likely to win an award for over essay or poem an * as likely to read for pleasure nearly twice - more he elected to a class office over three times likely to in school * four tirnes over more likely service in Community engage to * award a community service win likely more times eight to instance, arts-involved also had higher thari average The aspirations. For students in the NELS sample, 62 percent said they educational would go to college. but in the arts group, 83 percent viewed themselves as college-bound. The arts-involved from farnilies that valued educatiorl ancl that held high aspirations for their children. A higher per- students came the in NELS their children to get of as compared with the parents parents of the arts-involved students wanted centage a higher education And parents of the more often attended school events. sample. arts-involved students hypothesizes that several key factors in the arts organizations promoted acadernic success. For example: Heath * All Achievement ethic. the feel had expectations that were non-negotiable. And all students were organizations to high arts made for the final performance or exhibition. responsible - Students participated in a wide range of activities that involved activities connected to school-type work. School-related activities. and reading notations, newspapers. brochure. and reviews). calculating costs. and both planning dance organizing. such (scripts, as - All students participatecl critique. Pccr critique and thus were always challenged. In addition. critique is likely to pro- in continual peer language. mote fluency with - reasoning. Discussion often took Conditional tried this, have you thought of that?). a hypothetical stance (what if we - and divergent thinking.-E.W. organizations value risk-taking arts The Risk-taking. 89

91 CONTRIBUTIONS arts FIELD learning related to language development. TO THE makes a larger study represented in this summary The significant contribution best to our understandings of how correlational to the show- of This study research adds body document and arts learning that is not captured describe to arts students ing who become engaged in the that and by measures of general limited standardized academic rather dispositions a and skills of broad range learn be to are If children is than achievement. of capable more who students be to tend through that engagement are current achievement described by tests, researchers such achievers, academic before and/or after that engagement. and must continue Heath as others associates her and to that extends study strongly This work of body students to body of work.-J.W-D. to add this from and those in lower socio-economic backgrounds environments.-€.W more troubled contribu- major makes "This study COMMENTARY of both our to tions understanding design, we cannot is study this Because correlational in possible conclude anything It causality. about that is arts learning the impact experi- of involvement in after-school arts actually fostered the devel- turn opment of cognitive skills and these in led to higher on ences ways of thinking and academic achievement. If this so, have occurred may many verbal activities because called for of after- in the using language and on young peo- as well as the high achievement ethic school arts programs that the kinds It is equally in these programs. of possible in participation of ple's habits of a week after- to engage in nine hours students willing who high-energy, students also motivated school arts are ." learning contexts.. other possible is also It areas. in academic well do these stu- that organization were motivated before joining an arts dents arts but developed even stronger skills through the that with increased their academic performance. Only a study us choose among these could help experimental design an alternatives.-€, W. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD This study makes major contributions to our understand- ways ing both of the impact of arts learning experiences on thinking and using language and on young people's of 0 j ; participation learning contexts, and how of in other habits arts research that to adequately capture these conduct can of results-J. W-D. kinds COMMENTARY has been focused on For several decades, much attention strategies for identifying academic achieve- improving the and encouraging social and cognitive develop- ment the of those youth who are typically identified as "at risk" ment focused research has this of Much by and schools society. as primary environment where the kinds of school the on foster such experiences occur. In a departure that learning from this tradition, these researchers turn their attention to non-school environments pro- nonacademic and instead a 10-year longitudinal national study of low- in grams income students in community-based arts participating addition providing evidence that quality programs. In to arts programs provide an environment where community goals of improved academic achievement and social the and cognitive development are effectively addressed for students ethnographic communities, this low-income in study documents the specific kinds of experiences and the They related arts looked at particularly learning occurs. that and learning that carries over into other learning contexts 30

92 STUDY NAME: Protect Against Early School Dropout? Do Extracurricular Activities L. Mahoney Robert 6. Cairns AUTHORS: Joseph and 1997, Developmental 241-253 PUBLISHED: 33, Psychology, 2, Research Question are less likely to drop out who of in extracurricular arts activities Are students involved arts? who not involved in the are middle or high than school those METHODS students (206 girls. 186 boys), recruited in the early 1980s. were Three from seventh to 12th grade and were hundred ninety-two followed about Students were classified as having had any vs. interviewed annually extracurricular activities. fine or no in involvement arts, athletics. also inonitorecl for early school dropout. defined as failure to complete 11"' grade.-f.w Students were vocational extracurricular activity. RESULTS (27 girls, 34 boys) were early school dropouts. Students who dropped out of school had participated in significantly fewer Sixteen percent at all several years prior to dropout. extracurricular activities grades. including level, was only athletic participa- school it the middle At those tion did not drop out had that differentiated dropouts from non-dropouts: who rnore involved in athletics than been significantly nor was Fine arts participation not related to dropout. out. were vocational activities. At the high school level, there did who those drop a was were = .08) showing that those who dropped out near more likely to have had no involvement in extracurric- (p significant effect arts (27 percent) than to have had arts involvement ular percent). An more significant difference was found for those involved in (7 even not not (p<.o1). and for those involved in vocational training vs. vs. so involved (p =.Ol).-E.W. athletics involved THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS of with the extracurricular activ- 1998 positive effects study is consistent This to points This study study by James lowering and Catterall (this girls, for boys rates dropout particu- on ities volume) showing that students who partici- larly for students with early participation. The greatest a host academic indi- pate in the arts perform better on of those who at the high- impact were among observed was in school.-E.W. is staying case, the indicator In this cators. who for dropout-for risk est those students had been COMMENTARY during mid- identified as competent or highly competent in involvement was school, dle extracurricular activities The authors The authors conclude school dropout is associ- wisely dropout. school early to that only modestly related properties may extracurricular activities that participation in speculate of multiple with ated the individual and the pos- to develop with opportunities provide students at-risk it is unlikely that a single cause is social that and context, involved. They pro- results these correlational that note also conventional more to school and itive connections to to interests, their individual promote deter- vide only weak evidence for causation. We cannot social networks, and and achievements, reduction in in school The goals. dropout extracurricular activities pro- whether participation mine for early during even greater was students at-risk high or tects against dropout, whether students who are less likely occurs at it them- the point where to drop out to begin with choose to involve as school, a significant trend students selves reach the age of 16, in such activities. when school is longer no mandatory, and dropout overall rates climb. typically well However, that be it may .participation in extracurricu- ". . related examination of the findings An involvement to extracurric- in participation that in particular activity domains reveals while in middle protect activities helps ular provide may activities lar at-risk school, only participation in athletics was associ- positively dropout for school against secondary the At rate. dropout a reduced ated with level, These students. activ- some are ities students with Opportunities to participation arts vocational training, and in athletics, fine the not limited to of a reduced rate with were associated dropout. arts but include sports and develop well. as training vocational connections positive guidance offers The study field the to by suggesting explore future that what research motivates stu- it is that Future should research students investigate COnVen- more to and school to why their maintain to join extracurricular activities and to dents school participation and what impact participation in study arts to the choose extracurricular activities may have when students leave or W. social ." tional networks.. outside of school.-€. complete their formal schooling.-J.W.-D.

93 COMMENTARY While authors identify weaknesses in this study related the the limitations a purely correlational design and an to of individual in isolation of the com- of factors examination of social experience, their work raises plex context impor- equity related tant issues access and participation in to to that may promote school success as defined by activities school Given high the findings, it is unfortu- completion. that extracurricular were consis- nate participation rates lower at-risk students-those students who may tently for well benefit the most from such involvement. very In order for this and others like it, study, have to a high of significance for schools, degree would have to explore it in more detail the characteristics of the individual extracur- ricular programs students experienced. For example, the term "fine arts is much too broad to offer the programs". schools attempting to build effective extracur- guidance to programming. ricular arts implicit in the study is to better Another suggestion why effects dropout-reducing understand in high arts have but not school middle schools where athletics have the in major connection. Could the arts strengthen their effects on middle And is it the case, as the authors ask, schoolers? that effect is stronger in high school due to an expand- the ed and more diverse menu of activities? Increasing the diversity activities offered at the middle school may cre- of ate a platform for strengthening the engagement of at-risk students.-J. W-D. 92

94 STUDY NAME: Studying the Arts Engender Creative Thinking? Evidence for Near but Not Does Far Transfer AUTHORS: Kristin Burger, Lois Hetland. and Ellen Winner Erik Moga, of PUBLISHED: 2000 34 (3-4): 91-104 Aesthetic Education, Journal Fall Question Research learning in the arts leads to creative that skills'? is the What evidence thinking METHODS was conducted for studies investigating connections between arts study and creative thinking. An A collec- comprehensive search initial upon studies was reduced to a set of eight studies based 2.700 stringent selection criteria. To be included. the studies had of tion over empirically assess the relationship between arts study and outcome to: based (1) measures creative or (2) upon higher-order thinking. study total control or comparison group that did not have a the arts. A (3) of 10 effect sizes were derived from visual arts. and the include the of eight studies. pool Iperfortned three The researchers meta-analyses the research. The first meta-analysis examined four of the studies that on selected based were from the design. The second meta-analysis synthesized three effect sizes derived a experimental studies that on correlational verbal creativity scores used an outcome measure. The third nieta-analysis combined three effect sizes from the experimental as studies using (drawing) creativity measures.-R.H. figural RESULTS The rneta-analysis correlational studies demonstrated a reliable association between study of the arts and performance on stan- of the tests. who study the arts are creativity dardized Students likely to score higher on measures of creative thinking. Effect sizes in also more .27. group r = correlational to .43 with a mean effect size of f = ranged from Stouffer's Z and a t test of the mean Zr were both sig- the .09 (z = 8.91. p .03). ,0001 and t = 3.75. p = < nificant outcomes meta-analysis three effect sizes derived from the experimental studies with verbal creativity the produced a mean The of size of r effect .05. However, this was not found to be significant (Stouffer's Z = .35. p = .64 = t test of the mean Zf = .81, p = .50). and Therefore, this meta-analysis not provide evidence of a causal effect of arts did on verbal creativity. This may be due to the short study long. of the studies. One study exposed students to the arts fot- only four days. while the others were four months duration the studies with figural creativity outcomes provided some evidence of meta-analysis The experimental relationship of a causal Effect sizes ranged creative between arts thinking. study and from .30 with a mean effect size of c = .19. This effect was signifi- f = .12 to approached = p = .0002 but the t test of the mean Zronly 3.57. significance (3.19, p = .O9).-R.H. Z to cant according Stouffer's - TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS employ that ies popu- subject measures, outcome different interested lations, and research designs. Researchers in pur- suing promising creative links between the arts the and of available correlational research, a meta-analysis Through point a useful starting studies gathered the thinking will find found arts study authors a significant association the between appropriate Researchers will also developing for designs. and includes standardized (that measures of cre- visual arts) A meta-analysis quasi-experimental studies of ative thinking. likely approaches determine meta-analysis than other that time this most for unraveling these links. are on scores based on interpre- creativity positive effects found point The authors that be limited out their findings may of of subjects' drawings, although tests statistical sig- tations by the creativity measures used in the analyzed studies. nificance produced mixed results. The authors conclude that researchers and measures develop new should Future of a this indicates "some evidence (although equivocal)" the arts and cre- further on explore links between figural creativity scores. A meta- to designs causal effect of the arts ative thinking. authors sev- suggest discussion, the In their evi- no and found of analysis scores verbal creativity arts study This a causal effect. of dence of selection the to due be may approaches eral should consid- researchers that alternative met the filtering a very small group of studies for analysis that as better measures creativity qualitative more suit- such er, or requirements of the authors' chosen meta-analytic process, kinds for ed the creative thinking that of are capturing the duration of the selected studies.-R.H. short researchers employ could Or arts. the engendered by upon the activities, based open-ended problem-finding COMMENTARY Getzels Czikszentmihalyi. and of work The authors also their conclusions "are that point out to study highlights the syn- limitations of this approach This strongly limited by the dearth of experimental studies set a very small of to not a conclusion stud- draw to on go thesizing research when applied they However, found." 93

95 ical/agricultural model upon which these standards for readily apparent data. The believe from their researchers are meta-analysis derived is not necessarily the best one they have evidence of near transfer, but far not transfer, from which educa- of complex endeavor the understand to because results are stronger on the figural (drawing) cre- tion visual art education. The or more varied specifically ativity test than the and the students all verbal creativity test is delivered, even from class- contexts which instruction in had visual art. Although their interpre- some instruction in it make building, same in the classroom to difficult room to tation phe- possible is one transfer of explanation for this meaningfully transfer successes in controlled experimental explanations are possible. The paucity of nomenon, other settings to messy classrooms. available studies and the variability, and possibly validity, of While is important to understand the value that visual it in the considered must the outcome interpre- be measures can art add students' it is just as important (if to creativity, tation. debate, if the well. This might be a minor point for as behind visual not more so) to know the hows and whys art authors chosen as part hadn't their title "Evidence for of contributing well as creativity, to and organizational the as giving their conjectures the thus Transfer," Far Not but Near visual art to help students that instructional allow conditions findings. well-validated of weight Thus, become more successful studies 2,713 the students. been have It would been had researchers if the valuable be should also mined qualitative what to learn the many able to pursue additional of subject populations, analyses add could studies W. questions.-6. important these to collect- and outcome measures in the conditions, research ed studies, as was done meta-analyses in in reviewed other of kind This Compendium. this the could aid examination practitioners design of future inquiry while providing with in pursuing the interested "Researchers guide to program development.-R.H. information and promising links between the arts FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS the gathered find will thinking creative of comprehensive value work is its careful and The this review of the entire research field (including published and studies starting devel- for point a useful uncovering 2,713 unpublished investi- that studies work), creativity. on the effects of visual art gated oping appropriate designs." a widely used research The accepted technique, meta- analysis, allowing the authors to assess the aggregate con- cre- of multiple studies that employed a range of tribution techniques. ativity tests, as well as varied statistical I fact that The important contribution, beyond the most this is the first systematic review across all the research on number studies of this topic, is simply that only a small met the researchers' standards for acceptable scientific rigor. research. The clear message is that the field needs more finding that is there Another is the important contribution visual between art instruction and cre- a modest relationship connection when it to sustain the is difficult but that ativity, verbal through forms (i.e., non-art in creativity is expressed modes). more to in addition note, authors the As conceptual studies better ways to measure creativity.-6.W we need COMMENTARY researchers only found The four correlational studies meet- inves- their strict standards of acceptable research that ing instruction the relationship between visual and art tigated group former The studies. experimental four and creativity 1,513 stu- of four studies included a total sample of only involved only four studies group of latter the while dents students. 2,271 only research of years 50 in almost so, 758 treat- students have been exposed to carefully designed art. on sample is ments the learning effects of Such a visual school. a single comprehensive larger than much not high of carefully One is response to decry obvious the lack not to unreasonable It is also this field. in research designed such that small sample hardly qualifies for argue such a sophisticated quantitative analysis. that the med- perhaps, is, point more appropriate The 94

96 STUDY NAME: and Education Reform: Lessons from a Four-Year Evaluation of the A+ Schools The Arts (Executive Summary series of seven Policy Reports Program, 1995-1999. of the Pilot the Summarizing of Four-Year Schools in North Carolina) A+ Nelson, C. A. AUTHOR: for 2001, Thomas S. Arts, the NC Institute PUBLISHED: Kenan Winston-Salem, Questions Research The comprehensive school reform strategy A+ program evaluatlon addresses four key questions arising from its and how students learn. The questions are: and to how fundamental arts are belief that the its teach teachers A+ and how have schools implemented it? What is is different What for communities, teachers, and students after four years? schools, A+ there What evidence effects have been institutionalized? that is these generally? the does hold for effective school reform A+ What lessons experience 11 METHODS Summary reports on the methods used by the research team. These include "varied and The data collection Executive multi-focused'' profile methods: surveys surveys, A+ student surveys, partner surveys, interviews and focus groups; focused case of all schools, parent schools, abbreviated studies 10 all A+ schools, test scores; school-based data from case studies schools (meeting observa- of studies in of classroom instruction and performances, guided tours of neighborhoods and communities. shadowing tions, observation classroom of teachers. and document arts collection meeting of agendas. curricululn materials, plarining webs, newspaper articles, budgets. newslet- docuinentation ters, school irnprovernerit plans. arid of research findings and feedback meetings). interviews with program supporters and sessions. of regional meetings and training state policy-makers, and observations evaluation team synthesized these data in Members of the seven series reports. The reports deal with Context. a thematic policy of Effects, and Identity. Practices, History, Creativity, Resilience, Wise of A be described in the accompanying sec- selection those reports will of review.-TB. this tions RESULTS demon- this elaborate project are numerous. As a synthesis of the findings, one might The that this school reform project results of say that arts do contribute to the general school curriculum, to learning for strates the students, to school and professional culture, to edu- all and instructional practices, and the schools' neighborhoods and communities. It cational to these contributions extend important that is beyond most arts in education programs promise to educators.--TB. what COMMENTARY TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS report this in was a four-year program A+ The described to It is difficult overestimate the contribution that the A+ pilot program in 25 North Carolina schools, spread across fields the to makes report in edu- and arts reform school of is It state. the not an arts-in-education program; is a it project framed its participation in the debate cation. The school reform program that searches ways that the arts for concen- about the role of the arts in education reform by comprehensive can contribute to school change. Although broader a on trating role communities, of discussion with there are partnerships cultural agencies, and teaching professional cultures. and groups, school culture or identity, are employed, artists the major parts instruction of arts pro- inno- uses The report presents a program evaluation that arts teachers. vided by certified and classroom other practices vative research innova- in used be can that through down top from works program A+ the the The to Many identify researchers the need tive school programs. various Kenan Institute for the Arts and the agencies of the of develop methods that are appropriate to the contexts from the of North state up Carolina. It also works bottom settle for individual programs, but most then the traditional local and principals, teachers, parents, through the com- methods and The sociological ethno- surveys. and of testing The school. each to participating munity officials related graphic methods used for this research allow flexible analy- features a role-group, have program set networks of that and are particularly appropriate because each pre site sis regional, and grade-level identities and that meet sum- for unique vari- policy and social, instructional, sents a of set professional participa- requiring sessions development mer ables a single missed methodology. be that would by tion the entire school community. by of large a effort employed research The number The early in the program staff was Institute Kenan warned Executive but the report, as exemplified in the researchers, stay and schools would not that with the project, the to many that Summary, seem so the researchers edited is finely along obstacles an almost including way, the developed contributes with one as voice. The Executive Summary write devastating new state standards mandate that the report summary a stand-alone field.-I8. to report the 95

97 indicates brought participating sites to a halt almost several a stand-alone document. Nonetheless, the scientific ”It is difficult to overestimate the at the end a However, in their efforts. pilot as of the project, of result of flexible evaluation the program findings development support that paint generally report A+ that the contribution positive a to schools allowed reconfigure their activities to account for picture of effective reform, new standards and testing require- and accommodate school to makes a nice is summary the so the fields of out. They two ments, dropped had schools only were of full the to addition set others and by replaced that to wanted schools additional by In addition, other with work join. states have asked Kenan to are when these reports arts in education.” and reform read together.-M.S. them program. the replicate to seem would It an outside observer that the magni- to complexity of the COMMENTARY tude and prohibit repli- would program such seems the be to not states but cation, other as case, policy The A+ evaluation report has many implications for Mississippi as process begun the have and Oklahoma such the describes summary This and practice. of replicating the project. The report the breadth of details school-based of positive educational effects planning and development activities and the by arts-based reform. processes and practitioners who are con- Educational policy-makers adaptation the shape local conditions and needs that which these out- by be may sidering arts-based reform enticed must be comforting to other school personnel considering to comes, would be well-advised they read the entire but replication. It is not how the clear, however, very significant set gain a more complete of evaluation reports perspec- to intermediate and funding agency as contribution of an such of tive the the Kenan Institute can be replicated time, effort, and resources that are involved in in other states. of the The raised by this report, for this questions IV sustaining reform initiatives. (Section and creating most serious of summary does reviewer, derive from the unevenness hint of the treatment at the demands of sustained reform). Some imple- characteristics of the successful fundamental pre- the program does Admittedly sites. in the arts the not the from mentations that emerge separate reports include an as hope would one Yet, program. arts that, in itself sent (1) strong administration and faculty commitment to the will the field future, the comprehensive be enriched as (2) creative bottom-up development of a reform efforts, reform efforts such as A+ find ways the uneven- reduce to local the emphasizes strategic plan that development ness and more arts programming at their replication sites of external plans a will- of process instead (3) products, and fully document ways that strengthening the arts also ingness adapt, revise and to (4) external facilitation strengthens the schools. and local efforts. of reviews are and resources that support a Note also that summary overall Accompanying this do reform efforts even not always pro- the best arts-based A+ report. in the full policy reports included of the sample vide outcomes that state by viewed as “successful” are com- were they though these, wrote researchers Individual accountability legislation. Thus, there is still an imperative in and monly edited, they reflect some of the unevenness for educators advocate for broader expectations and to The research team large, especially by was the report. very success.-M.S. of revised definitions standards. An effort as method- arts education evaluation a large as this could only be done by ologically complex and diversely skilled staff over an extended period. Though such not every program will be able to elaborate afford it support, models.-T.B. is very important to have such CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD The Executive Summary of the A+ Report provides a review the of the comprehensive evaluation of A+ project and Though every report in the set of A+ evaluation schools. reports makes contribution to the research lit- a significant ” summary erature, this message. provides the “take-home “Overview The Key Findings” chart found early in the of summary succinctly summarizes findings on the purity of the implementation; the of the project on students, effects teachers, schools, and communities; evidences of the longevity of reform-based changes; inform that and findings literature school reform. the accompanying The on general narrative further describes each finding. The defines and (1) commonalities and of focus to is restricted summary the of very diverse reform imple- emerging themes from a study mentations, and (2) of the reform initia- positive outcomes tives. The result of these restrictions is more of an advocacy document than a research report, thus limiting the contribu- research the to summary tion of the as when taken literature 96

98 STUDY Placing a National Context: A Comparison to Promising Practices for NAME: A+ in (Report School Comprehensive Reform. of seven Policy Reports #1 a series in of in Schools A+ North Carolina) Four-Year Pilot Summarizing the McKinney Adkins Amee Monica and AUTHORS: PUBLISHED: 2001, Winston-Salem, NC Thomas S. Kenan Institute for the Arts, Research Question does model of comprehensive school reform compare with national stan- How A+ the defined (1997)?' Shields and Knapp as dards for school reform by METHODS A+ the included in the review of the of Executive hnmary). description (Please see study methods RESULTS A+ places high on Shields and Knapp's scale of six national dimensions of effective reform practice: The policy paper reports that Balanced scope. 1. teaching and learning, 2. Clear focus on time long-term 3. frame. A of authority that encourages school-level initiative but embraces support from the top. 4. A locus Opportunities 5. and support for collaborative engagement, and development directed at instructional change. 6. Ongoing professional by the isjudged. The model to be a promising practice for comprehensive school reform. In the end. however, the A+ researchers, a single national researchers emphasize not account for that rnoclel does found in day-to-day school activities and that the all variables must be operationalized to fit the situation.-TB. the work TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS of study great- delivery of North Carolina's standard course ly enriches the and practical tool kit discussions, vocabulary, of program context By placing the A+ larger in the of these strategies, two- of arts-in-education practitioners. Knapp's and standards and practice and Shields national of the way arts, more thematic integrated cur- integration its place by substantiating through multifaceted docu- riculum, increased teacher collaboration, and enhanced the moved mentation methods, the researchers have noticeably partnerships parents and the community go with educational field of playing larger onto the program practices of most other arts-in-education initia- beyond the change. Because they set broader or a wider taken have tives. of performance-beyond of definitions tests and student out The researchers point that there are elements of the expression, and atti- include engagement, grades-to that program A+ go the national standards set by beyond the helped have tudes, they reframe discussion. the To Shields and Knapp. Their national on "school-based" focus that limited extent that the report documents arts con- work A+ the than complex is less for example, reform, with are to the program's overall success, the arts tribute from local cultural resources com- statewide networks and as into discussion, national thereby moved this larger The national standards munities. establish a scale for such a well. For the field, this movement may be seen as "Experience" and as items "Collaborative Engagement." of rudimentary or beginning in the set steps, but placed reform Other effective school in the middle of projects place of context a reform effort, long-running large and such program A+ falls these features. The of scores for the range we might legitimately expect more dramatic movement high scale. of the "Experience" close to the extreme end A+ replication sites.-16. at the A+ staff not to complexity experience with Their led the scope but to find ways of "grounding it" abandon their wider COMMENTARY on instruction. the "Collaborative On focus in their not A+ all in the middle, falls A+ since scale, Engagement" to of the justice to the do is It possible not A+ richness M iinrl P' 1 Shields (1997) "Thn Knnpp whom have resources rich external to part- communities with type. this provides review a in report report an The of 01 Limils anti Promise the ner. of In many was collaboration schools, between A+ for basis School-based much more elaborate symposia, work- excellent Reform National Sn,q>~lm " A school personnel community. education the others in and activities that shops, development and professional Phi Dnlln Kaplmn. practices influenced Changes in classroom instructional 29.1. zaa 7q4) explore its rich details. the to according art performances, the students' strategic The inclusion of seven school reform ele- devel- was researchers. The A+ concept of informance" effort including improve the ments, the arts, in A+'s to ~_

99 oped requiring student perfor- to describe instruction of authority the locus shaped mance in academic content the arts includes both school- "This report illustrates an app- the by that was of the lessons. The educative character of the perfor- driven development assessments for of stu- mances also helped staff use them and roach to evaluating administrative sup- school reform at dent multiple levels. port learning.-Ti3. educa- assessment the beyond goes that arts of Success tion CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD initiatives also of multiple on depends outcomes." student collaborative endeavors school evaluating to an approach illustrates report This beyond collaboration that reform (e.g., of out- student of assessment the goes reform is to posi- comes. Though and community school classroom teachers, and arts the ultimate goal of such part- ners, tively influence student learning, traditional assessments fall also change teachers). Substantive and parents of measuring professional extensive demands short development opportuni- the breadth of the educational experi- focus that A+ ties ence. a multidimensional on project By placing the scale change on encouraging and supporting reform school with of characteristics associated successful the A+ the project).-M.S. summer institutes of (e.9.. efforts, the a able to identify the A+ model as evaluators are comprehensive mode of reform. In so doing, they shift the increase the either to attempts from school emphasis away arts, of the on it instead placing a or the status frequency picture school how focus on developing an arts-integrat- of broad- ed curriculum can serve as a catalyst for developing er richer educational experiences that supplant tradi- and tional views of This otherwise. or any area, arts in learning is instructive cap- for methods seek who evaluators for both for turing the evidence of in-depth school change and poten- are school personnel who considering the scope and initiating such change.-M.S. mediums for tial COMMENTARY This has numerous implications for both policy and study An overriding theme is that the arts can promote practice. positive school change, this is most completely accom- but through multiple plished dimensions of the addressing requires endorsement and subsequent partici- school. This pation by both teachers and administrators. The change is achieve. In fact, the A+ model suggests that to not easy be required invent their methods of change schools to is the of developing and implementing it process because that evokes these of school culture. methods a change to support, rather than prescribe, External resources exist There are specific policy implications for the the methods. dimensions focus scope: six on teaching and learning, of frame, locus authority, collaborative engagement, time of development opportunities. The A+ and professional much about effectively addressing these schools teach this and about what does not work in dimensions, some process. The scope of arts-based reform should be corn- arts both to challenge the practices of enough prehensive area and content must retain focus on teachers, though it and learning, in the specific goals (arts-infused teaching and on learn- teaching schools). focus A+ the of case The is inherent integration, arts ing infusion, or immersion, in A+ model suggests benefits from an extended though the theoretical framework (exemplified by the focus on multiple intelligences). Like efforts, planning must be other reform sustained for enduring change, even in the face of and challenges (such as the state accountability initiatives focus- ing traditional learning that challenged the A+ schools). on It is especially important in arts-based school reform that 98

100 STUDY The Program: School, Community, Teacher, and Student Effects. (Report #6 NAME: A+ Schools Policy Reports the Four-Year Pilot of A+ Schools in of in a series seven Summarizing Carolina) North AUTHORS: McKenney, Dick Bruce George Noblit, Corbett, Monica Wilson and PUBLISHED: Arts, Winston-Salem, NC for 2001, the Thomas Institute Kenan S. Question Research schools program What effects on schools, communities, does the A+ have teachers, and students? METHODS A+ study included in the (Please of the methods Executive Summary). of the description see review RESULTS described-from the entire are set of survey responses and collected data-as those that most prorninently character- Five effects across to what ize be it means an are: They school. A+ and 1. worthy subjects The tools for promoting learning in all students. A+ program legitimized the arts as schools to build new connections between teachers, 2. schools, and between schools arid their cornrnunities. A+ pushed across schools evidence of enhanced organizational capacity to leverage internal structures and manage external environments. 3. A+ provided contributed A+ became a central organizing principle that integration to a coherent arts-based identity. In 4. schools arts schools provided enriched acadetnic learnirig etivtronrnents and opportunities for students.-TB. 5. A+ THE may be that there is such a wealth of evidence available CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD TO this that the researchers were unable to manage it all for report. example, in the section For the on institutionalizing up that hold the A+ across effects five of a set identifying By schools more offered arts the "All reform effort, they report, information and perfor- of documentation report's wealth had at the beginning of the reform." to mance data, informa- students than they the to richness add researchers the implemented Also, the elements most cited as successfully engaged in both school reform those to tion base available by the teachers indicate across generalization for a base and arts development. education program these facts, how- school reform efforts. The importance of to By identifying changing con- obstacles, adaptation in that contexts varied the to relationship ever, stated is not and political factors school a creative process texts, in as might have sit- of interfered with the to the implementation. establishment reform, contributes the program that in-school collaborations points also report The out uational program evaluation, adding important and specif- exter- were strengthened and expanded in most cases, but to say, ic variables researchers the As agenda. research the community nal partnerships with colleges, and resources, one is there not a collection of rather .but ". . here program report causes, of a range to points not. The businesses were A+ 'programs.' "-1 6. example, including, for such of absence relative the marshalling COMMENTARY in rural communities. The challenge of resources external resources in a consistent way for statewide reform be would to has efforts attempt who them. all confronted by the in separately effects the of Treating each the analysis, community A+ turned more to internal school The fact that then and pinpoint researchers specific evidence of impact relationships-cross-discipline teaching, restructured class spite argue that, in of the varied situational elements finding difficulty the to speaks solutions scheduling-as of among the schools, external resources. solutions in reconfiguring these effects legitimized program A+ "The can be the across the data performance academic and Attendance, attitude, generalized non-A+ than better not well (they but as as performed tools arts worthy subjects and as for schools and can apply of the impact the document state) in the schools program to school reform future equi- effects were that the data indicate The students. on learning in promoting the finding all But efforts. students." across tably distributed all the students. These results being is weakened by deserve greater emphasis more than than asserted in the field and in the report receive, revis- they being deserve well the topic could and plenty of documented. Yet, it seems that there are exam- generaliza- evidence relevant to the identify- for ples of ited by the researchers providing more detail and argument the with even tion, factors.-16. at each occur that variations ing related school. It 99

101 CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD THE pragmatic view any educational program maintains A of of the program based that the worth is evaluated on the on learners. This position is cer- program's effects the target policy-makers who demand tainly in that of accountability report (one of a series of resources. This exchange for the A+ program) describes the effects reports on A+ the of only students but also on teachers, the program on not the community. The report might thus school, seen and be the of the as heart of series As they have done A+ reports. in the series, and consistent with the goals in other reports of A+, evaluators the beyond a reliance existing go on school measures the effects of success of in documenting sources of observational, perceptual, program. the Multiple data and used achievement are document the major to five the Together these make case that the A+ effects. strong (1) legitimized the role of arts classes program the role and of arts in other aspects of the curriculum, (2) built new the through planning between the fac- increased connections in changes (3) promoted across schools, ulties within and that enabled schools to adopt new organizational capacity of instruction and promote these efforts within the modes community, (4) provided a sense of identity at a local level as well a sense of community in a statewide network, and as established increased arts enriched (5) opportunities and school learning environments curricula.-M.S. across COMMENTARY the effects described report show that in sum, Taken in this the schools clearly addressed their educational A+ project and realized the benefits of giving the arts a higher goals in the learning process. Whether status true value of the the be accepted and lead to project's initiatives will in public is uncertain. On the one hand, the changes policy of the North Carolina high-stakes goals sys- accountability the not fully recognize do value of expanding educa- tem tional goals beyond achievement in a few selected sub- jects. On other, the A+ initiative was designated as a the reform federal at both the state and valid levels and effort to the budget. Advocacy state funding the added A+ should stress that this study documented cultural, efforts ecological, and instructional improvement in areas that are not typically without compromising those areas assessed, are. that subjects that are the focus of Indeed. even those state accountability efforts may be benefiting. As the fac- ulties A+ schools understand, additional and alter- in the native assessment tools will be needed before the full impact of broad "whole child" educational reforms are regularly documented.-M.S.

102 STUDY The in the Basic Curriculum Project: Looking at the Past and Preparing for the Future NAME: Arts Seaman AUTHOR: Michael College of Education, University of South Carolina, PUBLISHED: Evaluation Report, Unpublished S.C., Columbia, 1999 Question Research Did the in non-arts project affect Curriculum scores (ABC) subjects? Arts Basic in the test METHODS the Basic Curriculum project (ABC) began in 1987 in South Carolina. The program was founded on the belief that the arts are Arts in This important also that they increase student learning potential, complement and in other disciplines. and establish a in themselves learning success in school and lifelong learning. The program includes foundation for in and the development of specialists (artists art residence) evaluation study sought to describe in clepth the ABC schools. state arts standards. This and principals, classroom teachers, and students were conducted in the ABC schools. and observations were made. of arts Interviews ancl observations were used Interviews the program in depth. Standarclized test scores were collected in order to compare to describe changes scores years in ABC schools vs. matched schools not involved in the program. We report here only on the examination in over non-arts outcomes (test of scores).-E.W. RESULTS that the comparisons were carried out, While clearly statistical scores were comparable across ABC and non-partici- no graphs showed ABC the at art on of test scores shows that the increased time spent comparability pating researchers schools. The the conclude that not lower test scores.-E.W. to clicl schools lead Ioo) education is expanded CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD in states-a state grants prograin- enabling a fuller understanding of how programs may such arts the on emphasis the increasing in in This schools study demonstrates that when students spend addi- be helpful net- efforts such how tional time and districts and a wider develop may performance their in other programs arts in decline. The study found also state. Those who to not support arts education across a that work does school subjects wish or ABC program have teachers and administrators rate the very programs to have similar can learn about the and of the operations program as organization well as its support strong was positively There education for arts in and education arts state the community. schools effects on schools.-E.W. the ABC how a better The evaluation also enables of understanding COMMENTARY programs arts strong have that districts and schools dif- are ferent other schools and districts. The recommenda- from tions also suggest trade-offs in such approaches issues and founded in ABC program was the While the belief that the need that may arts would enhance learning areas other in to be anticipated in implementing a similar curricu- the of lum, this evaluation presents no for this hypothe- grants program.-G.N. evidence stan- sis. The ABC program neither enhanced nor lowered COMMENTARY important scores. It is dardized test to note that the researchers appear hypothesis to have begun not with the evaluation documents and This organization the assesses enhance that the arts would test scores, but with the oppo- grants education arts a statewide of operations and pro- lower arts the site hypothesis-that test scores might important had that gram effects availability on the and because students arts-rich schools would spend time less in of available arts education thus in and sites, project quality not occur is this academic subjects. That on itself did assesses also It state. the in to educators striving to achieve- arts the include for their significant most the important project the of ment own sake establishment the be to of their against worries defend them to having but a statewide network inclusion educators, arts artists, administrators, of school students' in compromise student schedules may and arts administrators, classroom teachers, This others. academic on performance subjects.-E.W network a series was largely developed through of profes- CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD sional development forums and workshops. The ABC pro- of conceptions education from per- arts ject also shifted the visual dance, drama, regarding to and formance products addresses ways This evaluation one of the common arts

103 art, and academic disciplines, in part by creating music as was “While an expressed concern that there guide the state. Investigations the for of an arts curriculum schools revealed school sites matching non-project and increased the arts could detract from for time teaching the to devoted had more time schools ABC that ABC Those integration. arts more arts and that schools achievement test student subjects, core in had arts) four courses immersion (required arts were in all more collaboration between teachers, better student data revealed no in in achievement decrease and more parent involvement. This meant that behavior, climate the school ecology and were altered by the arts with arts schools immersion compared programs in arts schools. immersion While there was an expressed concern that increased schools.” non-ABC matched time arts could detract from student achievement in for the test data revealed core no decrease in achieve- subjects, ment in arts immersion schools compared with matched tests non-ABC schools. This was true despite the fact that in school policy arts seen were as less important of immersed the grant study concluded that schools. The program itself creates sense of ownership for program a improvements and increases morale. arts programs had adminis- Schools with the strongest trative support, adequate and additional funding, more pro- parent support, district fessionally involved teachers, sup- support arts of community The and port, organizations. ABC project also had school district projects, notjust school sites. breadth resulted Such programming of grants in increased curricula. the development of district-wide and District sites education had more arts coordination.-G.N.

104 STUDY NAME: Those Claims: No Evidence (Yet) for a Causal Link between Arts Study and Mute Achievement Academic Winner and Monica Cooper AUTHORS: Ellen of PUBLISHED: 34 (3-4): 11-75 Aesthetic Education, Fall Journal 2000, Questions Research and academic achievement? there a correlation between Is arts study students exposed to the arts? when achievement improve Does academic are METHODS search was conducted for studies investigating the relationship between A study and academic achieve- comprehensive literature arts reduced the number studies harvested to ment. Selection criteria of (1) if they were selected of four criteria: met consid- 31. Studies each ered the as opposed to learning within specific arts disciplines; (2) arts or control groups: (3) had an outcome in general, had comparison upon and based acadernic achievement: sufricient (4) compute an effect size. The studies were then categorized data presented had to experirnental groups. into correlational and performed Three meta-analyses were group correlational first meta-analysis considered five studies where academic out- the on The presented comes were or as inath and verbal scores. The second meta-analysis investigated the relationship between composite summed and and skills, while the third investigated the arts verbal math. Two rneta-analyses were perforrned the arts the experirnental group, on investigating other, verbal outcomes and the one outcomes.-R.H. math RESULTS The meta-analyses found significant associations between arts study and acadernic outcomes. Effect sizes in the corn- three correlational and meta-analysis ranged from academic (verbal math) posite .04 to r = .08 with a mean of r = .05. Stouffer's Z and a t test of the mean r = = both (Z = 50.89, p < ,001 and t = 5.97, p significant ,004). The arts and verbal meta-analysis found effect sizes ranging from r were Zr .14 to 25, = a mean of r = .19 (Stouffer's Z = 333.43. p < ,001 and t test of the mean Zr = 16.52. p = .0001). The arts and math with analysis studies with effect sizes ranging from contained = r to r = ,17 with a mean effect size of r = .lo (weighted r = .11). These effects .OO were also to be significant (Z = 189.73. p found ,0001 and t = 6.936. p < .OOOl). < Twenty-four effect sizes were derived from the experimental studies for the meta-analysis of the effect of arts on verbal performance. The sizes r effect ranged from (weighted r The mean un-weighted effect size was r = .07 .66. r = .Ol). Although the Stouffer's to = = -.25 significant (Z = 3.82, p < .0001). the t test of the mean Zrwas not (t = 1.66, Z = .11). Similar results were obtained from the arts test was p Effect ranged From r and math meta-analysis. sizes = r .34 (mean r = to weighted mean = r = .02). The Stouffers z test was sig- = -.14 .06. nificant 3.10, p = ,001). while the t test of the mean Zr was not (t = 1.63, p = .13).-R.H. (z = ing patriotism), and so on. It's not surprising that now many FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE of artistic learning pro- special experience the that believe skills and school performance, improved thinking motes to The study demonstrates an approach sets synthesizing past in higher esteem than these held now qualities extra- The correlational research of studies. and experimental artistic outcomes. applied this meta-analytic approach studies to authors less expect we anything, one (if today arts the from If learning and investigating the relationship between arts that arts programs over the past in cuts accepts years 30 associ- academic achievement. The findings confirmed an expect more reflect public expectations). But we seem to but academic achievement and arts study ation between particular- from certain methods of research, social science the establish to not did a significant arts causal link from richness the artistic experi- of the and complexity ly that academics.-R.H. employ sufficiently captured be will ence a sound exper- to learning from investigating when imental design transfer of COMMENTARY That belief underlies study. The present the the arts. significant correlations between multi-arts found authors Although the rising claims" of authors refer a "climate to and a experiences measures. outcome of set synthesized arts, of effects the about the it is doubtful that we claim statisti- of they describe mixed results from tests However, more for the arts than in times past. The arts have long meta-analysis significance in their cal of experimental stud- have thought been extraordinary powers, to and unusual evidence is enough yet not ies, and thereby state that there influenced moral develop- Plato's belief that music from to claim arts academic that the have a causal effect on supernatur- beliefs that promote to mystical, arts the ment achievement (although the mean effect sizes were positive). identity (includ- or religious experiences, motivate al, group 103

105 They conclude But one must that more research is needed. more highly valued by the .researchers have focused . . " and have the time effort would been wonder if better spent employers for Most world? considering the best approach to reviewing the literature, can that value staff example, too narrowly on test scores reflecting limitations on and of the benefits and ultimately problem-solve, reason clear- approach they meta-analysis The particular pro the took. com- others, with ly, work well and grades outcomes. as here experimental of pool a requires cedure employed municate clearly in public set- the studies that validly measure transfer process ques- in tings, etc.).-6. W. to begin need to Researchers at tion, terms of treatment, process, outcomes, while in and the same time controlling for extraneous variables. The COMMENTARY inconclusive findings in the causal analysis illuminate the look at transfer outcomes need for in appropriate particularly measures, better out- canons a research the By of authors points out, As one of the comes. ". . .researchers value the steeped in tradition are that, while relevant, more and scores as have focused too narrowly on test grades carefully controlled experi- of Researchers outcomes. need to transfer to look at appropri- it is certainly ments, begin more dif- be to going certainly certainly relevant, are more outcomes that, while going to call for a to ate the of muting more "The and Hetland, measure." (Winner be difficult to the connection for claims measure." to ficult Arts in Evidence for the Education: Evaluating a Causal and student arts the between 6) of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4), p. Link, " Journal achievement. But educational not that we should be The learned here lesson may is research domi- no longer mute and through of manifold of claims in learning effects by this view of acceptable research. Consequently, one nated and to try arts. Instead, researchers should continue the from any muting must also await a careful review of findings various outcomes and experience artistic its understand the science. acceptable of alternative conceptions for in ways beyond experimental means. There is room a Furthermore, limitation of meta-analysis is an important approaches, and there is a need for of multiplicity reliance almost entirely the on strength standardizing its of ways.-R. innovative in findings synthesize to researchers H. outcomes (i.e., carefully measuring what students learn) without also taking equal care to describe the process by CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD THE arts) may the case, this (in intervention which an con- have the to this learning. so, for example, with more tributed value The and comprehensive careful its is work this of students than three involved were who million school high review and published (including field research entire the of know had the correlational analysis we in that some of them that but years) four as uncovering 1,135 studies we investi- instruction (defined extensive arts work), unpublished instruction. In the on academic achievement. the nothing about the quality of that arts gated the of effects know meta- technique, a widely accepted used The research than more experimental of studies with a total sample assess to the aggregate con- students analysis, allowing the authors elementary school very know 30,000 little we tribution intervention. or duration of the arts of Until multiple studies that employed a range of stu- nature about the achievement tests tech- statistical varied as well dent as to complement this have more qualitative we research focus, mys- to the be will never we unravel quantitative able niques. The a more supplemented with was meta-analysis 27 arts con- may the or under what conditions how of tery appropriate con- lacked that studies review of traditional statistical evidence trol groups or enough to to calculate an tribute learning. studies 17 size effect and This research ends on an important note by calling investigated motivational that outcomes of than achievement outcomes. attention to the limitations holding rather arts for accountable studies identified, studies originally 1,135 the of 66 mathematics same the as learning of outcomes lan- and guage The the authors point out, contribute arts, arts, thus (actually 31 studies with multiple than more outcomes, difficult-to-measure learning outcomes. unique and often doubling the met the authors' criteria for inclusion sample) Yet, authors are guilty of the what they ask other in the meta-analysis. The summary of these,studies pro- all of not to do: their data researchers and policy-makers cautionary for vides but compelling evidence the correla- upon only draw relationship the investigate that studies academic and the of study between tional relationship arts the between arts instruction and student achievement on stringent test with the more However, achievement. of skills. and math verbal indicators quantified readily more of experimentally designed relation- (where causal studies at studies Why were there not any reviews of that looked be association the delineated), clearly more ships can other outcomes?-6.W instruction and enhanced achievement arts between almost disappears. this work biggest contribution of pro- is that it should The mote more creative thought about the relationship between instruction arts and academic achievement (What are the into important intermediate links? How does culture play the contribution arts to academic achievement-the the of well defined by this study?), as dependent as how variable we conceive of achievement (How can we push the defini- into attributes tion beyond narrowly defined test scores



108 STUDY SAT Students Who Study the Arts: What We Can and Cannot Conclude NAME: Scores of Association about the AUTHORS: Kathryn Vaughn Ellen Winner and Aesthetic Education, 2000, 34(3-4):77-89 of The Journal PUBLISHED: Fall Research Questions between SAT scores and the number of years of arts study? What is the relationship is more the with studying test arts: the verbal or the SAT strongly associated Which the different arts disciplines? Are relationships stronger for math? METHODS were asked to voluntarily respond Students taking a questionnaire indicating the riumber of years of arts classes they took or the SAT to take. These responses were compared to verbal, math, and composite SAT scores. planned to of meta-analysis the A data investigated relative relationships between math and arts, and verbal SAT and arts. Additional analysis sizes the SAT differences in effect investigated different classes with SAT arts of the performance.-R.H. RESULTS * who take arts classes have higher math, verbal. and composite SAT scores than students who take no arts classes. Students * scores increase with the addition of more years linearly SAT that is, the more years of arts classes, the higher the SAT of arts classes, scores. * SAT scores was found with students who take four or more years of arts classes. The strongest relationship with - report "effect math scores are consistently smaller than those for verbal scores." The sizes authors for * appreciation had SAT scores. Acting classes and music history, theory, or verbal the the Acting strongest correlation classes with had However, strongest relationship with math SAT scores. were arts to have significant relationships with all classificatiorls found of classes scores.-R.H. SAT math verbal both and TO THE FIELD classes and compare this with a performance measure. arts CONTRIBUTIONS become more future in the useful will this as Studies such an arts of or quality the measure when they characteristics between relationship oft-cited the confirms study This arts or, preferably, themselves. learning of arts program SAT scores. and Significant relationships were found study caution when Although the authors repeatedly urge arts disciplines the and all between ver- math both and of serves as a forum for the authors to bal SATs. The article claims for the arts, the consistent positive making causal participation that the remind correlation between readers be easily correlations across all of the studies cannot sufficient scores is SAT and programs school arts in high not have ignored. access students higher-performing Evidently, itself in well. as them, and participate in arts classes, to to claim that arts study leads to improvement in very the At inter- to denying research is needed More performance. academic a relationship, this indicates a causal least, even students. demand for arts classes from highly motivated pret the relationship.-R.H. arts of Availability characteristic classes is a of high-per- out, indepen- many point the authors schools. forming As COMMENTARY as dent schools have retained have their arts programs, often affluent suburban school schools, The study highlights the need for more focused investiga- districts. Inner-city well as and not students, have lower-performing with tions to understand the relationships between arts in aca- fared their stu- programs, thereby denying examine should arts Additional performance. demic retaining their studies education.-R.H. a complete dents specific relationships, such those between acting and as is reasonable to assume that some acting verbal ability. It FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE found in similar skills as classes concepts and those teach English classes. These skills and concepts may transfer The value of this research is in the large sample (more than they or disciplines, across wings related two represent may used 10 million American high schoolers), the methodology of the same overarching discipline. (meta- to assess the consistency of findings across time of A limitation the SAT studies is that we know very little variables of nature and the analysis), the assessed being or school arts characteristics the high of the quality about (i.e.. courses arts between correlation the in high taken instance. for programs, drama of kinds Which programs. to correlate school SAT performance? Most performance on the SAT). and with likely most are findings The equiv- the given are remarkably consistent, count spent tend to simply studies the amount of time in

109 ocality of social science research. Increased years of most "Although the authors repeatedly urge arts courses are enrollment in with positively correlated It is difficult chal- scores. to math higher SAT verbal and the lenge the strength of this relationship, given careful caution when making causal claims for in this research. The problem, though (as documentation is that correlation does clear), abundantly authors make the the arts, the consistent positive corre- It is not sound science to rush not the mean causation. to conclusion that the best way to enhance SAT performance all cannot studies the of lations across be would arts offerings. But this to research increase pro- important springboard for an vides future that research be easily ignored." asso- should address the question of whether the positive will ciation between arts enrollment and SAT performance scrutiny to up hold of variables.-6.w. the additional COMMENTARY it helps refine An important contribution of research is that in the be to need that questions the redirect or asked asked be to need future. What questions to whether test and enrollment class arts between positive association the one? An obvious place to start SAT performance is a causal the of experience educational is to look at the quality of fell arts students who more or having four of category the in in their the school cat- high careers classes since they are in SAT other than the on better much performed egory that 14 sam- of the percent total students. They represent only core their opportunities to study advanced Are subject ple. courses (e.g., math, science, English) different from other these students students'? Are family or school resources for does the arts an of what role different? Furthermore, quality add (as opposed to just the quantity) experience the to and other These relationship? questions are made more researchers to of future the because intriguing and relevant research.-B.W this in strong findings

110 Promising Signs Positive Effects: Lessons from the Multi-Arts Studies of Horowitz and Webb-Dempsey Rob Jaci multi-arts The selection in this Compendium is diverse, in terms of studies of collected learning arts both the and the particularities of the research they report. These selections explore learning in they describe experiences and in that range forms from whole-school and school district renewal efforts to communi- multiple art contexts classrooms. This to integration efforts in individual elementary school arts body of work arts ty-based programs that look closely at what happens in a small sample of classrooms, as includes as studies conducted studies well to ethnographic. Some were designed of approaches from correlational a national They include a range on level. school change, on of the arts on children's learning or impact while others are evaluations as basic research the programs. particular of a collective they fundamen- as context, specific to their related While includes particular study each variables that contexts, (1) describing the processes, arts and environments support promote or on: share a tally focus learning, and documenting the impact of arts learning on other kinds of (2) (however those "other kinds" learning of may be defined or measured). It is these central questions about process and context, outcomes, and learning that are critical transfer identification the of a research agenda that will establish the future role and refinement to in education. arts of the Three Critical Issues to understand the Certainly, of multiple-arts experiences on children's learning is a daunting the attempt effect taken this challenge in various ways, with up ranging from meta-analyses of quan- task. Researchers have designs studies through ethnographic approaches. Several of these approaches are represented in this collection. titative to researchers While should debate the merits of particular lines of inquiry, other issues fundamental and may of the arts arts research loom. First, what is the nature and arts learning experience, and if we can both learning art, music, of disciplines learning the to capture or measure it? Second, are we sufficiently how it, understand are merit and similar enough to dance, other to drama being grouped together as "arts education," or are we each a result better off dissecting each discipline separately? And finally, what kinds of outcomes should we expect as of arts learning, put another way, how do the arts contribute or, human development? to aside the first two questions for the moment, and turn to put third. (Debating the nature of arts learn- Let's the is an eternal challenge!) Researchers investigating outcomes of arts learning often make a fundamental ing as reading focus on specific academic skills, such to those reflected in standardized measures of choice: are they capacities more general they look towards broader, do of the mind, self-perceptions, and social rela- or or math, p' tionships? The collection work presented here offers progress in both areas, the specific and the general. Catterall's of provides significant of a link between arts participation and improved academic performance, research evidence to discuss the causal implica- continue researchers test by measured in specific academic subjects. As as scores of this work, they should note the remarkable similarity of tions across this set of studies-by researchers findings working general cognitive, personal, and social domains of learning. For instance, independently-within a sense and the College Catterall, Harland, all found that drama experiences develop Teachers of empa- group on creativity, expressive thy for others. Harland's findings with the remarkably consistent are self-confidence and skills, so cia^, and ... ~ personal, j'-~he-posi~"ecoynitlve, ~ College Teachers well as Catterall's work. findings, (TC) as - I Positive as an outcome of arts experiences, risk-taking, from this collected research repre-: emerging emerged independently in the of Heath, Baum, and work I attention," "self-initiating" "paying of (Baum's definitions I. public education.. ." articulates for behaviors, and "persevering" in have natural counterparts "task persistence," and "owner- " perception, "focused TC's in cogni- CAPE evaluation also reflect similar his Catterall of learning.") The ship workforce skills cited by SCANS tive and social capacities worthy of continued investigation, such as motivation, decision-making, creative think- ing, and skills. speaking education in the search for identifying outcomes of arts research Therefore, this indicates collective progress General capacities beyond the arts disciplines themselves. within of the mind, social competencies, and per- skills sonal dispositions developed through arts learning may have wide application in a variety of academic and life experiences. There are ample here for researchers opportunities build to this work. Researchers, and those upon this collection are in personal that habits of mind and the dispositions explored consider who fund them, should

111 than those competency skills measured basic 1 standardized math tests. There by and reading and partnership, development, professional curriculum, for instance, experi- of here, drama is evidence for supporting of self-con- the development ences risk-taking, and empathy for learning. and policy-makers can be secure in fidence, positive Administrators others-valuable and but desirable outcomes, verbal and math skills, there for improving basic little doubt results from these tests can be that to of concerns,' a prominent example being the use misapplied student test results have other educational been misapplication has led to school environments where "what gets tested gets quality. This as a proxy for teacher narrowing of curriculum, taught," a limiting of the quality of learning opportunities for young a subsequent and Innovative programs are sometimes thought people.' arts at risk unless demonstrate their value with- to be they able It calculus. researchers will be is doubtful, though, to successfully standards-and-accountability in the that testing results as credible outcomes of arts programs except employ high-stakes instances where pro- in those such tests. Even to achieve results that can appropriately be measured by then activities are clearly gram intended critical of standardized testing would prohibit the documentation of traditional and broadly trans- the limitations arts outcomes. The positive cognitive, personal, and social outcomes emerging from this collected ferable represent capacities central research the goals society typically articulates for public education-productive to membership, critical and and commitment to the skills for lifelong learning. social higher-order thinking, address promising findings here, more progress is needed to outcomes presented the first two the on Despite identified at the outset of this essay. As a field, we still can't identify, define, and measure the issues we collective or integrated learning experience very well. Because of this, most arts transfer studies measure par- multiple arts then in arts a surrogate for assessing arts learning, but as measure learning outcomes directly, ticipation classes they creativity, self-concept, or math performance. Transfer studies in arts education will always be somewhat be insufficient until can more effectively measure arts learning. The quality of arts programs should be consid- we is a properly as can't predict a transfer outcome unless we are first confident that there We defined ered, well. event: in this case, arts learning. causal should also continue to develop better and more creative research designs, considering the com- Researchers the'answer experimen- the arts experience in schools. Is of to be found in better-controlled and plexity richness least studies, some have suggested?' Perhaps not yet, at tal until we can better define the arts learning as process. Systematic. well-designed qualitative studies can help us understand what the arts learning experience is for children, what characteristics that experience are likely to travel across domains of learning. Such and of that reflect appropriate forms of measurement-assessments develop the rich nature us also help research can learning experiences and the complexities of arts learning outcomes. of the future, researchers can devel- arts In and measures based upon solid qualitative validate op work. Processes and Environments Describing S. Ooantunl Ihe- I Was

112 desirable pedagogical approaches to devoid of both the arts and good teaching. Otherwise. we will programs the value sound teaching practice, and not the arts. merely demonstrate of effective arts as reported in the larger-scale evaluations such as the Characteristics of learning environments, in Great of include standards and expectations that focus on the value conducted the arts. NFER study Britain, art forms, and sufficient resources to support quality arts experiences, accessible and adequate offerings in all teachers. Again, these kinds of characteristics are as such supplies, equipment, and, most important, qualified effective learning environments, regardless of the core focus of the curriculum. Seaman's The generic to in Arts Curriculum Project: Looking to the Past and Preparing for the Future provides insight into how schools the Basic viable have these evaluations, arts and school districts that programs differ from other schools and districts. In understanding of, and to, the shared similarities in environmental factors emerge-including a commitment arts across the larger school community, administrative support, adequate materials and space, importance of the adequate and support, and networking among educators and mem- additional funding, district support, parent and the of These factors reflect differences in school culture arts climate. Studies that systemat- bers community. describe the change process as schools adopt an arts focus, integrate the arts across ically curriculum, make the the accessible to all students, invite the arts community into the educational process, and make quality arts arts teaching a valued activity to the broader national conversation about school renewal. can contribute Transfer and Documenting Impact multi-arts selections include studies designed and implemented as evaluations of arts education initiatives, The involvement as a mediating factor in the lives and learning of "at-risk" youth, and stud- studies that explore arts to ies the relationship between arts involvement and general academic achievement, both designed investigate collected narrowly There are positive findings and here with implications for curriculum, profes- broadly defined. development, partnership, and learning. Administrators and policy-makers can be secure sional in supporting strong programs based upon the evidence presented here. arts should be secure in resting Researchers, however, less laurels. Questions remain, indicating the need their on much work ahead. For example, for researchers we must take the issues of quality and quantity of arts as pro- grams How "good" (or effective) are the programs we are evaluating or researching? How head-on. is "good" "good for enough" to us teaching and learning from one domain to another? track In the same vein, how much arts is enough arts? Is there a point, below which an arts program will have tipping extrinsic effects, beyond which these programs have significant impact on children, teachers, and little but would welcome our to these questions. As researchers we schools? answers Administrators and policy-makers to design better studies. in order need better answers should pursue more precise identification, definition, and measurement in three areas: We also arts learn- (1) of arts learning, including cognitive and outcomes competencies, and personal dispositions; and (3) (2) social ing; arts teaching and learning. But of processes, and environments of contexts, assuming we can characteristics the measurement in these areas, what improve We need to develop better models for understanding how then? learning within artistic domains interacts with learning in other disciplines. Are to think of the relationship of we is overly simplistic It to assume that and as parallel, symbiotic, interactive, or multi-layered? arts other learning in one complex domain (such as the arts) can be sufficiently isolated within a school context and then be learning to subjects shown in a linear fashion without regard to the context of schools, families, culture, and affect other transfer nature the learning process itself. The directionality of the effects must be explored. as we try and of understand how learning in one discipline influences learning in others. Issues of also should be addressed. Future research should examine the paths by which young people equity is to in the arts-and how some are systematically excluded. How and learn" access to the arts medi- "live come race and class, both in terms of school and community offerings and in terms of who self-selects to par- ated by as a in this area looking at youth categorized as "at risk" points to arts learning experiences done Work ticipate? powerful factor influencing personal, social, and intellectual development. for should be focused on the Research identification of the barriers to access, while more clearly articulating the process of how the arts might intervene on behalf learning. of of experiences direction for building quality arts learning In closing, this selection multi-arts studies provides documenting the unique and for the design research efforts aimed at future impact of arts learning-both of learning that enhances the artistic endeavor and learning that transfers to other disciplines and other contexts. us to garner support from funding agents, policy- what this work tells is to The follow through and use challenge makers, educators, and the public for the design and implementation of quality arts programs and a relevant research agenda.

113 0

114 STUDY NAME: of an integrated Reading and Music Instructional Approach on Fifth-Grade Effects Reading Students' Reading Achievement, Achievement, and Attitude, Music Music Attitude Andrew Jean Laura AUTHOR: Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, of North Carolina, Greensboro, N.C. 1997, University PUBLISHED: Questions Research integrated fifth-graders' reading the are What effects curriculum and music on of an reading attitude? and achievement, music attitude, achievement, reading music Do and music gender and/or music backgrounds influence the effects of an integrated reading and attitudes music and achievement? fifth-graders' instructional approach on reading METHODS classes of Two students, balanced for gender (1 1 females. 18 males in each class) from one North Carolina school par- intact fifth-grade in the A strength of the study is that criteria for subject selection (a "sampling frame") are stated. Thus. the study used a ticipated study. not specified population, and a convenience sample. a to sample selected represent integrated 29) = at the end received 20 minutes of (n reading and music instruction delivered by the researcher integrated The class class reading during instruction integrated class received 11 weeks. The control time. (n = 29) no for classes regular reading two of a week 1 Both had regular reading classes (50 minutes x 5 classes per classes and both classes attended a general music class led by the week), researcher (30 minutes x 2 classes per week). Subjects were pre- and post-tested. The music integration program, designed collaboratively by the and the classroom teacher, focused researcher on specific higher-order thinking skills such as comparing and contrasting. under- standing text organization, and identifying musical forms. Children were engaged in these challenges through reading, discussing, L In addition. instruction linked reading and music to social, cultural, and historical contexts. singing, listening, and creating. performing, integrated of unit focusing on American Indians. a instruction involved listening to and discussing music the Navajo For during example. and Zuni tribes. listening to and reading about the American Indian flute, and chanting rhythmic patterns using vocabulary words like B- "roadrunners" arid "caravans." 1 were The Four measures Music Attitudes Profile (assesses attitudes toward learning about music by having students indi- employed. "1 in music class" like what we learn and "I am afraid of not doing well in with statements cate whether they agree disagree as or such by having students indicate reading attitudes a 5-point Likert scale): the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (assesses using music class" they about by circling one of four cartoon drawings representing different emotional states); the Silver how feel various reading activities skills such 5 multiple-choice question format to assess basic music differ- as discriminating (uses Book Jests, Burdett Music Competency Reading and sounds and notation): and the Vocabulary musical 'ences in musical style and recognizing relationships between Compreherision subtests of the Jests Iowa that of using items Basic Skills emphasize word analysis. vocabulary. and (assesses reading skill identification numbers to assure anonymity. Reliabilities were checked for all measures and reading comprehension). Subjects were issued = 50). but no other standardized test was was quite low (r to be acceptable. The reliability of the music found (SBMCT) achievement test available. treatment addition, the the Music Background Questionnaire to all children prior to administered to evaluate chil- In researcher previous music training and inusic environment at home. dren's 2 x 2 x 2 (instructional approach, gender, music background) multivariate analysis of variance All was used for analysis. (MANOVA) A variables independent potential interactions were also examined through univariate analyses ancl post-treatment reading and of subjects' music achievement and attitude scores.-L.H. RESULTS With significance set at p < .05. both the integrated and non-integrated classes improved significantly from pre- to post-test in reading and music no significant differences between groups. Attitude scores did differ by group. Music attitude increased from achievement, with = (p = ,001) and decreased for the non-integrated class (p ,026). For the second research ques- for post-test to class pre- the integrated gender and background. girls demonstrated better attitudes toward reading than boys in both experirnental and Control tion about and boys had greater achievement. groups, music were significant effects to music background.-L.H. No related that music and reading The study attitudes found CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE TO integrated music instruc- improved was reading into when music in reading not achievement However, were tion. and achievement and atti- This study assessed the effects on affected.-L.H. in both tude reading and music that resulted from integrat- a reading program. ing music of into both Testing types COMMENTARY outcomes honors the value of music learning and gives music any in the integrated (or art form) full partnership This study suggests that improved attitudes do not ensure course study. of

115 better achievement. as it is to engage stu- relationship between reading As important classroom in their dents' positive attitudes learning (and skill and .music and reading attitudes is music not surpris- ". . superfi- ing given the relative music effect), integrated arts curricula that apparently had of the integration improved when music was in&- ciality also advance learning case, of should both the art (in this reading). case, this the target discipline (in music) and the length approaches taken, the experimental Because integrated) and con- (music time Of grated into the instruction." reading Of experimental the confounding effect, and of in level similar were groups not integrated) (music trol general effect of applying results achievement, these support not do conclusion that a music to both control and experimental groups. lessons integrating into reading instruction a module music lesson transcripts included in this study provide The a Results or music. achievement in reading improves do sug- of methods that may be counter- teaching some glimpse and fifth-grade gest that students' attitudes toward music of integrated to productive These learning. aims the positively an integrated reading by reading affected are range small a on rely lessons the musical skills, of reinforced music cautions researcher the However, and curriculum. is teaching inquiry of method only posing by dominated that students in a "Hawthorne effect" (higher scores for the wrong" or "right with filled lessons are the questions, and music integrated group resulting from their perception of attitude kind positive statements rather than modeling the special the to exposure increased and treatment and impact of sustain of deep inquiry needed to interest in researcher) may have the results of the present influenced learning. integrated the control for "resentful demoralization" Similarly, study. Research in this study Compendium (Lowe 1995) cited account may post-testing (result- scores for lower group on shows, for example, how vocal song rehearsal combined from special treatment). ing from feeling excluded better yields examination results with close of the text in studies that future suggests researcher might obtain The may have The achievement. reading language author got- significant results for achievement if a longer treatment ten better lessons integrated the strengthening by results investigate also should used. Future research were period music in ways draw on deeper connections between that the relationship between attitude and achievement. processes reading and suggested the general guide- as by the identifying to Attention specific elements of the cur- lines issued from state boards supported of education and for observed differences would further riculum responsible research.-L.S. earlier by the effects of integrating arts with instruc- understanding of in other tion subjects.-L.H. TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS problem of illustrates study This differentiating the the music of effects classes music-integration and instruction identi- on That is, since the music instruction was reading. cal for both the control and the the experimental groups, differed group music-integrated reading experimental only drawn in to which explicit connections were degree the music, between and lyrical content. Transcripts text setting, of the music lessons themselves (included as appendices to study) suggest how "traditional" music lessons can con- the language to tribute development through its integration with music. reliance on rela- Results from this study show that the tively broad or superficial of integration designed aspects as liter- association of music with the into study-such this of ature or the presence specific vocabulary in songs-as concepts underlying on focus specific a to opposed shared music and linguistic processes (phrasekentence between attitudes structure, etc.)-is more likely to affect diction, about reading than ability in reading skill during an 11-week of instruction.--1,s. period COMMENTARY As the cites from guidelines for integrated studies in author Carolina. "integrated instruction approaches use the North language and methodology from more than one discipline and focus unifying themes, issues, problems, concepts, on and experiences shared between the disciplines." That the results of this study do not strongly support the

116 STUDY NAME: The Early Music Training on Child Cognitive Development Effect of A. Bruhn, and Judith E. Olson D. Bilhartz, AUTHORS: Terry Rick 5-636 Applied 2000, 20 (4): 61 Psychology, of Developmental PUBLISHED: Journal Question Research involving the keyboard enhance spatial-temporal, mathematl- Does music training not verbal reasoning? cal. and METHODS both and high-Income families participated. All children were pre-tested on six sub- Seventy-one low- and 5-year-old preschoolers from 4- Stanford Binet. There were two visual tests: Bead Memory of tests the memory test in which one must recall and reassemble (a visual beads of different colors and shapes) and Pattern Analysis (a visual test in which sequences of use one reproduce patterns). blocks must to And there verbal VocabLtlary, and two for Sentences. tests: was There were Memory test: Quantitative. math one assigned to experimental ancl control groups by Children were of a assignment and block assignment by Class. combination random The Young received a 30-week music program 36 for the group Child) consisting of 75 minutes children in the experimental (Kindermusik weekly instruction of home assignments including singing. instruments, exploring and notating rhythms, learning to read and write and composing. and movement. music, The in the control group children special instruction. After the 30 weeks, the same tests received 35 no post-testing).-€. post-tests. children were unavailable for as W. (Five given were RESULTS on the Bead Memory test, but not on any of the The rnusic However, this difference group outperformed the control group other tests. p<.016. Low-income children in the music group F(1.43)=6.29. significant only middle- and higher-income children in both groups. was for was program completion of home assignments (attendance. parental involvement, and low). and this may explain did not comply with the these children did not outperform the control group on Bead Memory. Children in the music group who were most involved in the why the program (showed highest compliance) improved Analysis there than did the other music children (p< ,01): however. Pattern on more difference between the music and control groups was no on this test.-€.W. THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD This additional between a link of evidence study provides adds to study the body of research examining a possi- This music training spatial-temporal reasoning. Preschoolers and thinking. ble link between music training and spatial recognition, nota- pitch in singing, received instruction who study train- music get preschoolers The who showed that than tion, composition, and other music skills scored higher ing improve more than those who test in a visual on do not Bead control a group on the Memory subtest of the which of reassemble sequences and recall must one beads Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. This subtest measures shapes different of Children colors Memory (Bead test). and abstract reasoning abilities, including visual memory, with did training music and imagery, sequencing. not improveonanoth- additional "This study provides evi- because is notable study The (Pattern er visual test it employed a multifaceted approach most to music instruction. Because research in this Analysis test)* and link a of dence music train- between based findings upon the training, area has been keyboard not did on improve between causal a general for support add music connection verbal I, and mathemat- reasoning. spatial-temporal and ing and aspects ical tests,--E,w development.-R.H. cognitive of COMMENTARY COMMENTARY The study be should of characteristics included design that advance clear hypotheses about should which Future studies researchers the one, For investigations. future to interest expected should be tests train- to improve as a result of music measured achievement were and abilities music of thereby ing, hypotheses a plausible explanation for these and should to music group that received determine that the able helpful be developed. It would be for provide to a suggestion pitch- and rhythmic improved significantly had instruction of Memory Bead in the used skills visual-spatial why kinds the more can they skills. Thus, matching easily attribute were sensitive subtest music training, to while those required musical to growth. changes in cognitive skills subtest were by the Pattern Analysis not.--E.w

117 The researchers strengthened their study by adding also they "compliance variables." They observed what termed in the level of participation in the treatment group, variance thus to and measure the degree to which children sought program's their parents with the music and complied requirements. Compliance variables included parent atten- dance, children attendance, and completion of out-of-class assignments. In analysis, they examined the relation- their ship of participation and outcomes between patterns on the Stanford-Binet scale. This enabled the researchers to provide analysis than if they had simply a more detailed compared overall results from the treatment and control groups.-R.H.

118 STUDY NAME: Music Be Used to Teach Reading? Can Ron Butzlaff AUTHOR: of Aesthetic Education, 2000, 34 (3): 167-178 Fall The Journal PUBLISHED: 7- Questions Research a relationship between music instruction and performance in reading? Does Is there to music instruction enhanced lead reading ability? METHODS reading research studies that met three criteria: they used a standardized measure of of perfor- performed on a set was A meta-analysis followed music instruction test reading mance, the a causal (a and sufficient statistical data were precondition for establishing relationship), estitiiate size. These criteria yielded 30 studies. Twenty-four of these were an effect as correlational because the stud- to provided defined provide pre-test reading data and students were not randomly assigned. six studies were defined ies experimental. with ran- did not as assigned and control groups, and both pre- and post-reading tests. domly music 500.000. These sample by the College Board. with were sizes over in the correlational-study conducted far group The largest studies by 1988 to 1998. showed associations between verbal SAT 10 and participation in one or more high school music per- studies, frorn scores classes. The studies reported positive correlations ranging from .16 to SAT formance scores on other The other studies considered .22. as the Stanford Achievement Test, and classes in instrumental music, Suzuki violin, and other music classes taught by measures, such either classroom or music specialists. The reported ages of the other students range froin first to fifth grades. The specific instruction- teachers of al content well as their duration, intensity, or quality-is unspecified. at least in the meta-analysis article. these classes-as experimental included sample sizes ranging from six The stuclies 46. The author does not report their ages. None of the studies 12 to the same as a dependent variable. The music treatment across reading test six studies is described differently. as well, and used the effect the for -.34. from varies on a keyboard instrument. The ther- size (r) music reading and songs, singing music therapy, includes note .Oo (p = SO) because for researcher set the effect sizes for two of the studies to to an instrumental music program. The apy program, .64 reported no significant difference or gain between the control and experimental groups.-R.H. they RESULTS The meta-analysis a strong and reliable association between music instruction and standardized of the correlational studies demonstrated significant mean = .17). Stouffer's Z and a t test of the P Zrwere both 4.2. (z = 301.38. p < .0001 and t = reading ability (r measures of < ,001). The study confirms a consistent relationship between music in schools and reading ability across the 24 studies. or size). The StOUffers positive effect size (r = ,18. a .11 weighted according to sample Analysis yielded experimental the of group also consistent between = 2.38, p = ,009). providing some evidence of a causal relationship also music and reading. at least Z statistic was (Z based is not small set based on other significance and reliability tests, the author concludes that there studies. Suf- of upon this However, (such as the support that claim to ficient evidence here the mean Zr, t = 1.06. p = .34).-R.H. t test of between and reading was music not found, however, THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO mean effect a positive still found within size was although the the experimental The inconclusive findings in group. study found a meta-analysis Through other research, the of examine if we surprising not causal meta-analysis are the a consistent music correlation between reading ability and were The studies contain widely they studies based upon. between the Although instruction. in-school connection uses each and interventions, musical divergent a different verbal test music programs and performance on the SAT It is unclear music the consistent how ability. reading of test this study widely publicized. has been already similar found only instruction is among the different studies. The study other results across a larger set of studies standard- using upon music therapy, a negative size was based effect with in the confidence build to reading tests. This ized helps used instruction of the all while musical of kind some others more to the way music-reading relationship and points variable. of studies the two Moreover, independent an as focused research.-R.H. effect reliability. or sizes data on did not provide specific are too few studies There apparently with work to the in COMMENTARY experimental showing need for a clear a larger base group, meta-analytic kind this pursue of are if we research of to there is a "strong and reliable associ- The author states that the approach. Other researchers could differentiate among stan- ation between the on performance and music of study the besides ways other in correlational and experi- studies causal dardized readingherbal tests". A reliable link

119 ation with language mental groupings. consider, for instance, Researchers might " , . .confirms a consistent relationship reading processes and a similar of the whether correlational studies employ all the increasingly posi- or whether into reclassified be might design, some of them between music in schools and read- correla- in findings tive exper- several the a quasi-experimental of group, along with tions between music imental studies. studies." 24 the across ing ability in S.A.T. and More reflection on the limitations and lessons learned reported in language the from meta-analyses would be helpful. the this best Is of is possible. study, interpretation this these data another synthesize available literature on available to the method in That is, increasingly positive trends recent research sug- between complex relationship like disciplines music and enhancement achieve- that gest instead the of language reading? Where does the method fall short, and when is it may education music of result forms ment through of the be best applied? integrative teaching and learning in more sophisticated, a flaw inherent in Future researchers should address language the both music classrooms. and We know very little about the transfer most studies. arts of of interpretation of these data, Regardless differences music time seat tallying and experience, learning a class in the trends reported in this study support both need for the is a substitute richness and com- poor the for investigating educators and researchers to look more closely and deeply musical development.-R.H. plexity of into the integration reading of language and music and processes context of both academic classrooms in the CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD studios. rehearsal to design future be in the Researchers well advised would educators should be reasons why study provides four This experiments that take of account musical measures into interested into the potential benefits of teaching in looking (as interactive the into looking while skill and learning as well music language in the context of studies. The rationale studying the effects of for the one-way causality) methods stems from four ways to approach conditions for learning well as the transfer current long-distance integration (as music transfer that may exist between and language: (1) music and language instruction.-L.S. of model) music and employ highly differentiated written language systems symbol both involve analogous decoding and yet reading comprehension reading from as processes (such content, right, (2) there sequential to ordering etc.), of left shared parallels interesting are also in underlying concepts skills (such as sensi- music and between reading language i- tivity to tonal distinctions), (3) music read- or phonological the simultaneous incorporation (and reading) involves ing written text with music, and (4) learning in the context of of motivated context such as music ensembles social a highly lead to "heightened academic responsibility and per- may that achievement. may enhance reading formance" Results from in this meta-analysis correlational studies "highly significant" strong a are relationship suggesting exists music and reading. Experimental studies between that randomized the selection of subjects and employed pre- and post-reading also provided statistically signif- tests icant, if not as robust, positive results.-L.S. COMMENTARY the While the author mutes positive findings in this meta- effects shown robust less the to referring by analysis in the small of nonetheless, the number experimental studies, results are clear: measures reading skill and of the trends of share a strong positive association. This music education and language educators music finding should encourage alike pursue the integration of these subjects into one to entry points in that may serve as ways for more another to discover underlying connections school students public between and arts pursuits. their academic While has magnitude of the positive effect sizes the time, increased in research studies the author is suspi- over out cious that, more recently, experimenters have "set to impact that students' academ- music had a positive show on ic performance." Given rationale for music's close associ- the

120 STUDY Effects Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Cognitive Development NAME: The of Costa-Giomi Eugenia AUTHOR: Research PUBLISHED: of Journal (3): Music Education, 1999, in 198-212 47 Research Question children's spatial, verbal, years of piano instruction on of and three is the What effect skills? quantitative METHODS three years of private traditional piano instruction (30 Forty-three fourth-grade children per week in years 1-2. 45 miri- were given minutes control group. Children 3) and were compared with 35 children in a quanti- were pretested on measures of verbal. in year per utes week any on no control group and music the between mea- difference was ability, motor fine and ability, musical spatial and tative. ability. There pre-test. Children sure after one. two, and three years of the program on the were post-tested at and spatial, same quantitative. verbal in the usecl W. as pre-test.-E. measures RESULTS of variance showed that after one An years of treatment. children in the music group scored higher than those in the con- analysis and two Test) the one spatial test given (from the Developing Cognitive Abilities on (p = .05). There were no significant differences trol group subtests. of the music and control groups on any of the quantitative or verbal scores between third year the Following in group no longer ahead of of control group was spatial scores. This occurred music treatment, the the a dramatic increase in control children's spatial scores. Comparison of group means over the course of the three-year period of because children's spatial scores steadily increased each year, while control children's spatial scores remained con- revealed that the experimental by very the first two years, followed little improvement during rapid improvement during the third year. stant or showed multiple regression analysis revealed that effort to learn piano (as measured by weekly practice time and number of lessons missed) A explained This variance in spatial abilities of the experimental group following three years of treatment. of the suggests that 21 percent to piano affected the learn of spatial gains.-E.W. extent motivation THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS This study of adds to our understanding of the effects study longitudinal study of This effect of the the only is skills. music instruction on non-musical cognitive on in music training research other spatial abilities. Unlike examined effects this that this area, is a longitudinal study of piano, children scored higher one and two years After than those verbal not but spatial or group control the in on over a three-year period. receiving weekly piano instruction scored high- Children the however, years, After three measures. con- quantitative for the first measures on group a control er than and spatial music thus the up in spatial scores and caught trol group had was group reasoning.-E.W. no longer ahead in spatial of the years second study. This adds support to the findings other of researchers that music training has at least a tem- the the year third of spatial reasoning. In on effect porary COMMENTARY spatial the control and treatment groups had similar study, that author suggests The scores. differ- due be this may to why It is not clear the spatial gains of the music group did motivation ences in students, of the persistence piano and not last during the third year future and instruction, piano of on task spatial of effect or the in levels hormonal changes to issue. explore this research is needed performance.-R.H. spa- group stopped music the that is possible It making students the year because not all third in tial gains of the COMMENTARY piano. attentive were enough at learning the This explana- finding that effort to learn piano the tion is suggested by makes study This an important contribution by adding to the score about a fifth of the variance in spatial accounted for keyboard training spa- on of work suggesting effects of body three. year at because in part, skills. The study tial is significant, found it that also suggests Costa-Giomi that children the fact a laboratory effects within intact school groups instead of entering might have affected year third the puberty in were of quasi-experimental approach be may setting. This kind (due the results on spatial ability). hormonal influences to necessary study the a longitudinal Perhaps duration. this of in repeated with be could The study younger children to test of uncontrolled introduction the to study led the of length this hypothesis.-E.w

121 variables explain the that influenced the results. This may is significant.. .because it "The study particularly reasoning the spatial beyond effects of and lack phenomenon interesting of the flat effects in the year. third school found effects within intact on practice times to The records helpful lessons are and the interpretation. In retrospect, it is clear that more data laboratory a setting." of instead groups treatment would the music to substance depth and add that after three results, particularly drop-off explain help the the designing similar studies should years. Future researchers on more comprehensive data gather characteristics group This experience. of the nature the and to could lead musical nuanced interpretation, connect the a more research and classroom practice.-R.H. to conclusions ' . i' .' ,

122 STUDY NAME: Training Enhanced Learning of Proportional Math Through Music Training and Spatial-Temporal AUTHORS: Amy Graziano, Matthew Peterson, and Gordon L. Shaw 6. PUBLISHED: Research, Neurological 1999, 52 21 139-1 : Questions Research ratios be enhanced by a training and consisting of a Can fractions understanding of method math video combination of and piano keyboard training? a spatial-temporal game Does the addition make a piano keyboard in math outcomes? of training difference METHODS basis designed a researcher-designed spatial-temporal math video game Of to train understanding of the spatial use of This study made images mentally. consisted stages. In the first stage, children manipulated two For example. they game of fractions and ratios. The video given shapes would look like if they were turned upside down, and they were shown identified and asked to imagine them what shapes fractions and the second stage. children worked on spatial presentations of In proportions. For example. they were shown folded in half. take paint it would of buckets many how They asked were to of the other. area twice into fitted be could which one of shapes, two the the larger if paint shape were two paint the smaller one. All instructions to presentecl through computer animation and it took buckets reading. no required One thirty-six second-graders from hundred and One group inner-city scliool participated. received a combination of spa- an (rr=26) math video game training (one hour twice a week for a total of 61 sessions) and piano keyboard training (over the course of tial-temporal same music to read the and play simple melodies. A second group (n=29) received the time). Keyboard instruction consisted of learriing on a computer (reacling, pronunciation. spelling. got instead of Ipiano video English-language training amount game training but same of Both piano and English training were given three times a week for a total of sentence structure). one-hour 42 A third group (n=28) sessions. the video no at all. There were two additional groups who received only special training game training. for three months. three received months, and orie month, respectively. Children were pre- and post-tested with three tasks from the WISC-Ill: Object Assembly, Block Design, and 'Picture Arrangement. same post-tested Math Video Game Evaluation Program, which presented the with the Spatial-Temporal kinds of spa- also Children were training.-E.W. tial problems used in the RESULTS and piano group that received a combination of video game The scored Video Spatial-Temporal Game Evaluation Program: Math 15% a combination of video game and English (p<.05), higher than the of these groups scored dramatically higher group that received Both video at all. demonstrating that the video game training on the kinds no game training enhanced performance than those who received it was designed to train. Those who received only the video game of a positive association between length of training and skills showed on the Evaluation Program. score Tasks: were reportecl to show about the same level groups improvement (approximately 1.5 points) on the Object WISC-Ill Both of Assembly. tasks.-E. Block Design. and Picture Arrangement W. (a jigsaw puzzle task), Block task (a CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD Design Assembly Object in which one must reproduce a design using 3-D col- 2-D blocks), and Arrangement ored Picture (a one in which task study of the relationship understanding our advances This sensible story).-E.V\! a series of pictures to tell a order must music, spatial reasoning, and spatial aspects of between mathematics. COMMENTARY a combination of piano keyboard lessons given Children and experience with a video game designed to train spatial combined Future research should examine whether piano ability spatially presented math concepts proportional and only and video game training enhances performance not higher scored those math concepts than proportional on to those actu- similar math problems spatially presented on with English- who received the same video game training on traditionally pre- also but game in the video used ally instruction language instead of piano. Thus the combination also make sented math problems. Future research should game video of of plus learning enhance to seemed piano to only game evaluation video program the not use sure at video game. Both groups, the the concepts taught by how- but post-test be to pre-test that abilities at are sure also from three on amount same the improved about ever, tasks matched training.-€.V\! to prior Children the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for (Wlsc-Ill):

123 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD our under- advances "This study study our understanding of the relation- contributes The to the of relationship standing music reasoning, instruction, spatial-temporal between ship who key- Children skills. proportional math and received reasoning, music, spatial between with board instruction spatial rea- in combination training in exposure (through concepts math proportional and soning mathematics." of aspects spatial and scored to a researcher-designed video significantly game) who higher on measures of proportional math than children a or combination English and piano, either studied of received no instruction. These of evidence findings provide additional link a spatial-rea- study music between and the development of study, The skills. findings also indicate that music soning learning combined with spatial-temporal training, enhances some specific math skills.-R.H. of COMMENTARY ingredients music-and-spa- to the new two study adds This For stew. in spatial- one, instruction tial-temporal-thinking was directly provided, in addition to key- temporal skills as part of the experimental treatment. It is training, board reasonable increase to assume that this instruction would scores, and signifi- Perhaps spatial-temporal more it did. researchers cant, the determined that the combined music perfor- enhanced to led spatial-temporal instruction and on mance This helps math to develop proportional tasks. a math to music from skills, of chain concrete more causality at least when combined with training in spatial-temporal is indicated vari- to test task performance. Further research music as such instruction, approaches to ous requir- those movement, skills.-R.H. with math their relationship and ing

124 STUDY NAME: Effects of Background Music on Studying The Susan Hallam AUTHOR: Paper, Unpublished Education, Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley School PUBLISHED: of Campus, UK IHX oxford, Wheatley, OX33 Research Question when listening to either calm or exciting music than when they Do children write better silence? in write METHODS sixth-grade) one control were divided into two experimental groups and Fifty-four children from two classrooms mixed-grade (fifth- and asked to write were group. All children were given one an Children in one experimental group wrote while lis- exciting story and hour. to music. Those in the second experimental group wrote while listening to exciting music. Those in the control group wrote tening calm in terms of whether the was had a beginning. middle, and end. flowed. held one's attention, scored exciting. in silence. Stories were story it, thought grammar. After writing, children in music clear also asked whether they were aware of the music, liked the and had groups were them, and how it made them feel.-E.a it helped RESULTS scores did not differ for the silent and the calm music groups. But scores in the exciting music group were significantly lower than Story in the other groups. scores The difference occurred because those in the exciting music group scored worse two criteria where on high- involved (whether story had er-level thinking exciting: held attention). a climax: was was challenging, less elements that were perhaps On was there groups (whether story had a no and end: level of detail; flow). Observations revealed that difference among beginning, middle. exciting music had negative effect behavior: children in this group were more likely to be off on arid ask non-work related ques- a task tions. Despite the difference in scores, children iri groups were split 50/50 in terms of whether they thought that the all was helpful or dis- music tracting. in the exciting group were more likely to report liking the music Moreover, those percent) those in the calm group (22 per- (72 than cent). finclings show that exciting music can interfere with school-related tasks, as might be expected. These this finding should be (However, replicated less we be sure that the children in the exciting condition were so can skilled to begin with). Contrary to expectation. calm- not ing music did not have a positive influence on performance. Self-report questionnaire results showed that criildrenb perceptions of how they music often incorrect. Children believed that the music they liked was helpful, and music are did not like was dis- work affects their Most children in the exciting group liked the music and half perceived it tracting. helpful even in fact it was hurtful.-E.W though as TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO risks the illustrates clearly study This back- employing of study the literature investigating the body of to adds This various forms into of activities study ground music listening music effect of background school The study tasks. on a conceptual without for evaluating the context framework is exciting, it inter- music when background that showed of intended impact its use and The finding tasks. study on writing, even feres with creative though students like the various on that a negative impact have can music of kinds music and perceive not Calm music had as it do distracting. writing educators concentration should alert creative or to no or negative.-E.W. effect either positive a deeper for the need consideration a possible as music of "This study clearly the COMMENTARY illustrates for multi-tasking. support or tool This study a broad conceptual of frame- reviews elements effects of back- for work the predicting positive or negative risks of employing background Future research should ground music on (1) that tasks cognitive gauging includes dimen- investigate which or whether music, it is stimulating of nature the relaxing, the music make MUSiC listening activities into sions of exciting, music calm vs. music of characteristics the (2) as the determined by effects age, musical expertise, familiarity their individuals, of the with various of study without a and should forms music, the which the studying is within environment the (3) calm and how exciting taking place, and (4) task studying the characteristics of the tasks Other affects conceptual framework for eval- itself.-15. creative writ- besides 11 ing.-E.W uating the context of its use.. .

125 COMMENTARY "The investigation of metacogni- for care lit- This the related with is valuable study which the new a line tive up strategies opens factors of that are inves- the range and is reviewed erature This tigated. developmental provides and cognitive a prove may to be of inquiry that seek when they scope that educators lack to apply back- academic music ground as a positive perfor- influence on useful the when considering very mance. metacognitive strategies opens The investigation of up in learning music plays role dif- at prove when useful very be to a new line may that inquiry of at considering the role music plays in learning different ages." ferent ages.-L.S.

126 STUDY Learning Make Music Enhances Spatial Reasoning NAME: to Lois AUTHOR: Hetland PUBLISHED: The Journal of Aesthetic Education, Fall 2000, 34 (3-4): 179-238 41 Question Research Does active instruction and enhance preschool music elementary students' in performance tasks? spatial on METHODS for published arid unpublished studies that examined The researcher relationship between music and conducted a literature search the studies were selected for rneta-analysis according nonmusical these criteria: (1) they were reported in cognitive outcomes. Fifteen to participants were English, (2) taught groups. or (3) they instrumental one or more control vocal music, (4) they con- make to contained effect 011 mental rotation or spatial visualization. (5) sufficient statistics were provided to compute size. an measures tained outcome ranged Sample from sizes 12 from N=78). ranged from ages 3 to 15. The (mean treatments varied Subjects four weeks to to 219 musical years. two Three meta-analyses were performed studies. The first analysis tested the hypothesis that active music instruction enhances on the in two or three spatial-temporal steps for solving problems performance required either mental rotation or several on tasks. These tasks reasoning in the a physical model. The outcome measure for spatial-temporal of was most commonly the ObJeCt dimensions absence of the WPPSI-R. although several other tests were used as well. Contrast analyses investigated subject variables (age Assembly subtest non-keyboard. SES) lesson format, parental involvement, keyboard vs. (duration, piano vs. xylophone. nota- and program variables and characteristics. or other contrast analyses tested research design Several improvisation). composing tion, movement. and investigated the effect meta-analysis The second making on a measure of general intelligence, of Standard Progressive rnusic Raven's third studies that used spatial tests other than spatial-temporal reasoning measures. These included tests analysis examinecl Matrices. The recognition, spatial memory, and spatial visualization.-R.H. spatial of RESULTS were found across the studies in the first rneta-analysis. According to the author, "active music instruction lasting two Consistent effects or less to dramatic improvements" in spatial-temporal reasoning. There was a mean effect size of leads years .37 with a mean r = .39 = r < p 8.74. = z indicated that these results are clue to chance or error (Stoufferk unlikely tests Significance size. sample very weighted for and t of the mean Zr = 7.50. p < .0001). Contrast analysis indicated that individual lessons were more effective at increasing spatial- .0001 also found to be more effective than music instruction with- notation was temporal reasoning scores than group lessons. Study of musical out notation. remained robust with group lessons and instruction without notation. The other contrast analyses did not However, effects significant or results, indicating consistency across subject. program, and design characteristics. provide practical music small, Progressive but not significant, relationship between a making and Raven's Standard meta-analysis The second found Matrices test = .08. weighted r = .03: Stouffer's Z = 1.32, p = .09: t of the mean Zr = 1.23. p = .29). The third meta-analysis (r demonstrated that of music making are not limited to spatial-reasoning performance, but may include other spatial tasks effects well. However. few as meta- the to include in this meta-analysis. and they employed different outcome measures. Nonetheless, according to found studies were (r = 26. by the authors, a causal relationship analysis found between active music learning and spatial reasoning design as defined was weighted r = .20: stouffer's Z = 5.27. p c .0001; t of the mean Zr = 6.11. p = .0003).-R.H. CONTRIBUTIONS TO COMMENTARY THE FIELD the across consistent results are the Because analyzed stud- mak- The study provides confirmatory evidence that music there ies, that evidence presented a particular little is ing leads to enhanced spatial reasoning skills. Through a approach is instruction music to to lead to likely more causal relevant meta-analysis studies, consistent of effects is learning traditional enhanced spatial skills. The exception on spatial-temporal were of reasoning. measures found effects. stronger to music apparently leads which notation, making Music was also shown enhanced perfor- cause to However, results are sufficiently robust with or without nota- mance on other spatial tasks besides spatial-temporal rea- tion The instruction. music of points part author as out that the and spatial measures of diversity the However, soning. instruction music to analyzed in the different approaches the that suggest result this studies) (of size small sample second the of many of representative standards are national studies is further study interpreted and easily not is needed to educators not Therefore, music need in music education. finding.-R.H. this understand promising

127 fear will instruction here that the findings presented distort Hawthorne effect, the of increase favor a particular to music pedagogy found in provides confirmatory expectations of the "The study or music teachers Program administrators skills. spatial pre-existing authors, use not results should these to to making music that evidence in the differences alter their instruction in favor leads groups, even of an approach believed to be more the effective in promoting and policy- spatial thinking. On the other hand, advocates and research quality of the skills." enhanced spatial reasoning the designs chosen for music to results can use these makers support strong edu- study. There is no without looking cation programs concern that they only are as to the causal effect of music nonmusical toward "secondary" doubt in the but author's mind outcomes. instruction In spatial reasoning. in interest Nonetheless, addition, there is little researchers an should maintain on differentiating among various approaches making to music that that these findings pre-wired support the view doubt and by are brain the in in analyses contrast triggered their effects on thinking skills. The connections to spatial thinking music instruction, to study teasing out this differ- this active engagement with traditional indicate an approach teacher. lack from the contrast analy- entiation. The of useful results music the of intent the of regardless ses the of Because (beyond demonstrating the small in the included studies of number consistency of the findings) this explo- of should not deter future researchers from kind meta-analysis, however, not possible conclude is it that to It is likely that there are ration. few studies too will achieve these programs music all future Same results, with, work to to per- that the studies don't contain sufficient data and is nor these results will assume to possible it last that valuable contrast analysis. studies can Future form a beyond the two of instruction. years treatment, the illuminate that variables embed musical so If music can be regarded, as this study suggests, as fer- can understand musical instruc- of kind which analysis later increas- for "teaching for transfer," educators tile ground skills. enhanced It may to lead to spatial likely is most tion a greater range of to provide opportunity ingly will have the the linear model of be transfer pre- also useful to rethink instruction teaching strategies geared toward transfer. and It seems more than coincidental, for example, the that spatial one as skills instead conceptualize and here, sented musical in thinking. Can of mental operations inherent set produced study that strongest spatial outcomes in this the as is also only study that analysis the combined the reconsidered be spatial tests the estimated by skills the examined musical thinking, rather than simply as teaching together music and skills of effects spatial reflective, in part, of (Graziano, an summarized in this volume). It is outcome effect?-R.H. 1999, al. et whether determine future studies therefore important that CONTRIBUTIONS THE TO FIELD such deliberate integration of music instruction with other the combining domains, such as of spatial-temporally and passive from the "Mozart effect" listening Distinguished grounded math comprehen- instruction with authentic clearer, to even stronger, and provide sive music more even programs will meta-analyses three these studies, lead transfer across learning of outcomes these longer-lasting active evidence that musical training-especially robust coupled with music notation-enhances when performance disciplines.-L.S. and other on tests of spatial reasoning over at least a two-year period. Surprisingly, the data across these 15 studies are consis- educa- tent the point that varying conditions of music to involve- parent of amount in the differences as tion-such ment, of keyboard or not, length of program, use of use expressive movement, of composition-do not inclusion change the there are some significantly results. However, that inclusion of notation and the use of indications one-on- increase effect the do instruction) instruction group (vs. one size significantly. suggest also that offer- Results from the meta-analyses ing a wide range of music programs in preschools and ele- reviewed to the ones in this meta- schools similar mentary predict that analysis will nearly young of percent 70 chil- dren of the a result as improvement spatial will "show the the- music program." Furthermore, this study supports might enhance other ory music spatial non-temporal that visualization, processes such as those that require spatial memory.-L.S. rotation, or COMMENTARY The strong, positive findings here have been reported ana- lyzed meticulously for bias to control for a wide range of methodological threats to their validity. These include the

128 STUDY NAME: to Music Enhances Spatial-Temporal Reasoning: Evidence for the "Mozart Effect" Listening Lois Hetland AUTHOR Journal The Fall 2000, 34 (3-4): 105-148 of PUBLISHED: Aesthetic Education, Research Question listening on spatial-temporal tasks? Does music enhance performance METHODS conducted for published and unpublished studies on inusic and spatial skills. The initial harvest of A comprehensive literature search was this fourid include 76 with spatial outcomes. Strict inclusion criteria further reduced to set to 26 studies reflecting 36 exper- was 553 studies the author determined if the studies were relevant to the research questions of iments. meta-analysis. Additionally. the studies First, the to: had subjects only (2) have at least one experimental condition when subjects. listened to a musical stimulus. (3) have at human (1) use least condition predicted to not enhance spatial skills. (4) include an one measure on at least one spatial task. (5) provide control outcome statistics compute an effect size, and (6) control to effects. sufficient for practice for Two Pianos in Mozart's Sonata major, K. 448 was the most frequent musical treatment in the collected studies. Other music by D Mozart (K. Schubert. Mendelssohn. and Yanni. as well as rhythm and melody alone, were also hypothesized to have spatial effects. 488). silence, relaxation tapes, noises. inusic by Philip Glass. Pearl Jam, and others hypothesized Control conditions included and "non- to be reasoning. of Most spatial enhancing'' measures were of of tasks, while some measured non-spatial tem- the outcome spatial-temporal Effect sizes (r) poral for each task within the selected studies. tasks. were calculated preliminary compared control conditions to determine if they could analyses combined into the overall meta-analyses. These Six be analyses exatnined relatioriships between: (1) Mozart preliminary 448 music silence, (2) classical K. and relaxation instructions, (3) and non-enhancing and (4) silerice and noise. (5) silerice and instructions, music, and (6) relaxation and non-enhancing music. silence relaxation meta-analyses were then performed. The first nieta-analysis examined whether music listening enhances performance ,Two all types on of tasks. The second focused on tnusic listening and only spatial-temporal tasks.-R.H. spatial RESULTS could the preliminary analyses Results studies with different control conditions from be combined for the final two rneta- indicated that analyses. The 36 experiments in the first meta-analysis-that contained music thought to enhance various spatial outcomes-had a mean rof .22 (weighted = .18). indicated that it is highly unlikely that these effects were due to chance. and that similar reSUltS r Significance tests likely are in (Stouffers Z = 5.77. p < .0001: t of the mean Zr = 5.34. p < ,0001). A linear contrast analysis found that music lis- studies. future performance enhances tening .04). tasks = 20) more than on non-spatial temporal tasks on = (r The second meta-analy- spatial-temporal (r found a significant effect of music listening sis spatial-temporal outcomes on = 24; weighted r = .19). This was also found to be signif- (r icant gerieralizable (Stouffer's and Zr, = < .0001: t test of the mean p t = 4.84. p < .0001). z 6.74, linear contrast arialyses were conducted to determine the effects of specific moderator variables. Eight Mozart was Music other than found also enhance spatial-temporal performance. to significant effect differences were between males and females. or No found published and unpublished between Certain laboratories were found to produce stronger effects. which may studies. be due to the qual- ity other uridetermined conditions.-R.H. studies or the of research this of studies. Music listening appears set to enhance CONTRIBUTIONS THE FIELD TO spatial-temporal reasoning skills, defined as mental rota- a physical tion or spatial visualization in the absence of available litera- of provides The researcher a useful review model.-R.H. ture the "Mozart effect," that is, on the effect of listening to on spatial-temporal reasoning. Prevailing theories music COMMENTARY as such model trion the accounting for this phenomenon, of musical preference, are and arousal, cortex, the This meta-analysis, music on collective work the along with gathered research studies pro- A coded list of reviewed. spatial-temporal reasoning and points reflects, it to several for additional investi- with researchers future vides a base additional research. Effects do promising areas for not itemizing the musical treatments and the gation, through 448, of the to even or music appear limited to Mozart's K. outcome studies. various by the employed measures research isolate help may music with other Mozart. Further The meta-analysis supplies confirmatory evidence that or the most significant musical qualities that influence, consistent across and is robust Mozart effect so-called the

129 operate alongside temporal We still of, spatial author points out, because findings from these meta-analy- thinking. don't prevailing musi- two in learning of views contradict areas: know the particular characteristics of music, or ses capacities enhance, that that modularity (the assumption brain cal thinking, interact, or have common ele- cognitive of are located in discrete Additional skills. reasoning ments spatial with areas learning and brain) the temporal assumption (the transfer difficult and is unlikely transfer that these study is indicated to tease out musical characteristics. domains). disparate cognitive across facilitate to As research continues in this promising area, we may be The listening that passive fact to appears music to further to able and define the cognitive operations identify spatial indicates that neural networks nor- "prime" thinking thinking and then understand how these within musical mental can activity readi- of kind one with mally associated across domains. mental function other a prove that may It activ- ly share the cognitive processes in a different involved and spatial categorization scheme segregates that musical or thinking learning Thus ity. not be may discipline one in in phenomena observed the oversimplifies thinking these another. completely independent of cognitive operations or brain functions may studies. Similar be within play in that transfer a learning domains.-R.H. of both these with occurs The significance of be other priming is that there may also unconscious neuro- logical avenues and facilitative pedagogical strategies for THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS FIELD educators and researchers integrate learning by identify- to thinking common to more than one disci- modes of ing confirm of existence the the studies of meta-analyses Two pline.--L.S. of listening to certain kinds on music of positive effect immediate follow-up spatial that involve the transfor- tasks of (first a physical model mation mental images without Rauscher, published by et al. in Shaw, 1993). This phenom- enon, called the "Mozart effect," has frequently been chal- lenged the basis of its difficulty of replication and on because there are competing explanations for the phe- nomenon itself. "This meta-analysis supplies confirmatory evidence that the Mozart effect so-called across consistent and robust is of this set studies. 'I This analysis, based a more comprehensive and on of the than inclusive set most recent meta-analysis studies C., Nature 1999 pp. 826-27). the of (Chabris. Mozart effect reports the highly robust effects of listening to Mozart on various of spatial reasoning tasks, especially spatial- types temporal problems that require a sequence of mental images necessary to solve object-assembly tasks. The data suggest that the effect is real, yet it can occur with other of music beside Mozart. However, kinds researchers do not yet know conclusively why the effect occurs. The trion model of the cortex (where neurons sup- are posedly primed by musical processing for spatial tasks) the scores test enhanced explain to likely more appears and brain imaging patterns than the competing "arousal" theory suggested the in previous meta-analyses. Yet author depicted the rhythmic aspects of patterns either considers aural through yet related, or visual stimuli as an alternative, effect.-L.S. theoretical explanation for the COMMENTARY The effect is important for educators, Mozart not because it provides another reason for music educators and parents to entice children to listen to classical music, but, as the

130 STUDY NAME: of the Effects of Music on Two Emotionally Disturbed Students' An Investigation Writing Writing Skills Motivations and Cindy Honeycutt and Patrick Kariuki AUTHORS: the Annual Conference at Mid-South Research Association, presented of PUBLISHED: the Paper Orleans, New 1998 4-6, LA, November Research Question help motivate emotionally disturbed listening to improve their Can students to music writing skills? ~~ ~ METHODS of case boys in a special education class of students classified as "emotionally disturbed" was conducted to A study two fourth-grade music listening motivate these boys determine whether could divided was four time periods. each improve in writing. The study to into four weeks. In the first and third periods. the boys completed weekly writing assignments without listening to lasting about music. During fourth cornpleted weekly writing assignments while listening the second and periods. students (through headphones) a wide to rnusic in The related assignments in the music sessions were styles. range of writing music heard. Writing was scored for technical the type to of Researchers also observed the students while writing, and iriterviewed them about their reactions to the skills, creativity, and volume. given a questionnaire about their attitude about each assignment.-E. assignments. Students were also W. RESULTS Both their writing skill by two letter grades when listerling to music. Unfortunately. however, the grades were not bro- improved students creativity down by technical skill. Students wrote more words when listening to music. ken vs. instance, student increased his word For one count from to 40: the other increased his count from 9 to 92! Students also felt more positive about writing when listening to music, and 5 to be focused when writing were observed inore writing without music. Students that the music made the reported to inusic than when focused.-E.W stay writing exciting and helped them 1 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD 1 ' I I employs a design valuable for the study of effects This study help emotion- may listening music This study suggests that It language of context in the listening music of activities. arts more when disturbed, special-needs children ally focus to value of is that by listening heightened music various see a writing assignment in school.-E.W completing such the to a contribution qual- made activities and quantity emotionally disturbed students. of the written work of two ity COMMENTARY tool of The music listening for use effective an as improving emotionally disturbed attitude toward children? clear who students' It scored writing, nor if the scor- is not the suggests writing levels allows children with low music that was ers knew whether the writing they were scoring carried motivation of serve rather than tasks on focus to as a dis- did researchers themselves the If without with or out music. the traction process itself.-L.S. writing to to the writing blind score did not they and if scoring, the it is whether the writing was accompanied by music not, or COMMENTARY possible that experimenter bias may have affected the results. writing were write to asked students music, When to in supports This study suggests the a cognitive framework that writing reaction to the music. When in silence, students had a resource as music of use listening develop- skill writing for It is therefore possible that to. react to no outside stimulus lan- of listening brings "interwoven ment when facets critical due listening music during improved writing the to hav- was facets Interwoven process. in the writing play guage" into rather than due react to, to music. Future to a stimulus ing listening, speaking, such reading, and writing are, in the as assignments should compare music-linked research with the having by stimulated authors, of the opinions participants given something are in which students assignments else music. of the parts In other the various and lyrics, music, learn autobiographical memory). to to (such as specific react an music words, music education focused on effective listening should examine whether research Future positive the utility in the appean a salient factor that supports its to be effects associated with writing found in this case study of academic work. context of other to students generalize two other emotionally disturbed stu- important is missing that details Unfortunately, this paper to dents, or research should exam- typical children. Future For significance more. its readers understand would help kinds aspects ine of of music work best, and which what differences example, we don't know what the qualitative look most are writing music.-E.W. by helped like samples. Nor do we know what was taken in the writing as evidence of the "more creative" writing. These examples would help teachers apply this framework with concrete qual- itative results in mind.-L.S.

131 STUDY NAME: of Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Vicarious The Effects the Experience Juvenile Delinquents and Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem on of Disadvantaged Children Roy AUTHOR Kennedy John of University and Dance, PUBLISHED: of Kansas, Music Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Department 1998 US, Lawrence, Question Research on songs boost self-esteem and self-efficacy in at- Do performing guitar and singing comparison therapeutic treatments that do not include performance)? youth (in risk to METHODS to 19-year-old males living in residential homes and juvenile detention Forty-five participated. All were either 8- centers for at-risk youths identified students or had been arrested for petty or serious offenses. Norie had experience with the guitar. Five groups were as "at-risk" Performance/Cognitive Cognitive Strategy. Vicarious, and Control. Only. formed: Performance Strategy, weekly gui- All received 30-minute the all the control group. then received 30 minutes of adclitional instruction depending on but group instruction, and tar Those in the Performance group received 30 minutes of instruction performance etiquette, strategies for achieving peak performance. and musical expression. Following this. they gave inemorization. performances solo to their peers. Performaridcognitive Strategy received in the Those group cognitive instruction (instruction of in mental strategies for 30 minutes performance instruction (how to deal with performance anxiety). Following this, they gave performing) and musical to performances solo their peers. 30 group but minutes of the same cognitive instruction as the Performance/Cognitive received group Those in the Cognitive Strategy performances. rehearse these techniques nor give solo to no were given chance Vicarious Experience group received Those in the minutes of watching performances followed by discussion of successful and failed 30 performances. self-efficacy (how confi- musical on self-esteem. using the Roseriberg Self-Esteem Scale, and post-tested Participants and were pre- feel they their musical ability).-E.W. dent about RESULTS in the Performance and Performance/Cognitive groups improved significantly, but scores in the other groups did not improve-E. W. Scores TO FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS THE the effect of self-esteem (concept of self-worth) whereas sample to significant (perhaps not was size). due the use of cognitive strategies alone had no Surprisingly, study examines social outcomes of music instruction This on per- musical ratings, suggesting that self-efficacy effect study demonstrated that guitar train- at-risk youth. The with in the music of and is a powerful idiom popular formance experiences ing coupled with repeated performance tool for underused improving at-risk well-being of the improves both musical self-efficacy and self-esteem of youth in our public schools. these youth.-E.W mastery subject matter in This study suggests that of COMMENTARY musical performance is therapeutic, because it enables the and environment with the cope to patient more effectively acquire social competencies. Consequently this study illus- to solo Only those students who learned give perfor- mances showed improvements in self-esteem. This inter- of "efficacy trates the musical therapeu- the on education" the selected at-risk students. of population of tic goals esting finding suggests that music training improves self- addition, this study In the opportunity esteem because to perform helps youth ,musical performance of 'I,. that they can succeed. and helps see fears overcome them significant that reveals therapeutic occur changes that the instruction not research Replication ensure should avoid any the experimenter, in order be delivered by to through musical perfor- music in the popular idiom is a not do that mance require W. bias.-E. experimenter unconscious knowl- powerful and underused tool for Previous THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO edge of music or music aptitude. improving the well-being of at- ther- The areas of music that This performance and study musical shows musical apy techniques related to performance cognitive strategies improve coupled with risk youth in our public schools." emotional and cognitive of self-efficacy (concept self-capacity) in at-risk youth,

132 aspects of in this study need to be performance described by music for the purpose of enhancing the studied educators their programs value of in schools.-L.S. COMMENTARY tasks cognitive strategies The performance and supporting outlined in this research should be stud- for performances their to carefully for music education and any ied value of performance rely on aspects values. other education that only the musical performance tasks sequenced Not are but also the cognitive skillfully employed in the strategies study suggest self-efficacy of any music student would how improved by cognitive strategies as "having the be such and in staying the music exact its physical mind step with execution." of performance strategies that limit The use destructive tendencies negative self-evaluative judgment would of contribute school music goals of to in public the inclusivity out students who programs that otherwise normally weed suffer from performance anxiety. This study that improvement in self-effica- suggests also relies also cy thinking and not on optimal thera- on critical alone. This study clearly suggests that peutic conditions Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) principles to per- applying of the song (dealing with errors, preferences. formance in of chord changes) out- positive thinking anticipation the anxiety or discomfort experienced weighs a vic- during As the author reports, "attending, pro- arious performance. cessing, integrating, and rehearsing information, along with accompanying verbalizations behaviors, are elements and learning are effected by self-efficacy expectations in of that students." these this With the relevance of to study to public edu- regard cation, the author notes also that other research focused on building that musical performance may self-efficacy suggests provide higher levels of motivation to learn in elementary and middle school students with learning problems.-L.S.

133 STUDY NAME: Effect of the Incorporation of Music Learning into the Second-Language Classroom The the Mutual on Reinforcement and Language of Music Lowe S. AUTHOR: Anne Urbana-Champaign, University Illinois Unpublished Doctoral of 1995, PUBLISHED: Dissertation, Research Questions elementary, second-language classroom (French for second-graders). incorporated into When an whose methodology is based on similarities between the does a of music music program structures the music and the learning of the second language? and language reinforce both learning of to of and mathematics affect the degree in French which stu- level Does academic achievement their learning of a second language and dents music when music is incorporated into increase of second-language the classroom? METHODS rt Experimental n = 27) from an elemeritary school in New Brunswick. Canada (similar aca- = 26. Fifty-three second-grade subjects (Control (regular oral-visual were to either control assigned drill-type French further described). demic and socio-economic backgrounds. not by lessons, taught immersion French and 30 minutes of separate music instruction, taught by a music specialist) or experimen- teacher, a the tal "regLilar" program groups. Experimentals received same the controls by the experimental and control group teach- as (co-planned to control for teacher effects), and, iri addition. had five. 15-minute music lessoris each week. totally incorporated to the French sec- ers class is unclear ond-language whether Frerich instruction was consequently reduced by (it minutes/session). Music instruction focused 15 concepts of tonal-rhythinic pattern ancl forin Language instruction focused on concepts of pronunciation. oral grammar, vocab- on music The integrated and language instruction was planned and taught daily (duration not specified for French music ulary, and comprehension. classroom teacher for a period the regular by classes) of eight weeks. study was conducted that employed A two-week pilot two, Frencti immersion students in another school in the district that 23 grade inclucled not was study. The Ipilot was used to assess validity and iri of measures and to assess educational value, for- the final reliability feasibility, and practicality of the music lessons. mat. measures Measures-Multiple to assess music and language. which avoids were used potential bias caused by The a the form of the test. ancl designed the study author with the assistance of music and tests second-language specialists by cri- pre-/post-test design used French to curriculum objectives. The French tests measured French pronunciation and terion-referenced grammar (individually administered) oral and reading comprehension (group administered). and vocabulary grammar. vocabulary, tests were hand- Oral and reading comprehension for number correct, and the pronunciation test was scored blind from audiotapes with average score computed from ratings scored of a panel teach the Students). The native-speakingjudges the school of five did not (teachers at music tests measured tonal-rhythmic pattern and who musical form. One part asked subjects to match written notations to meloclies. rhythms. and forms played on tapes. This was scored by test for number correct. Another section subjects to play hand asked or a Orff tone bells. Average scores across tlhe five forin given [pattern on was music in the area) were computed. Academic achievement general tested at pre-test orily. The language (elementary judges teachers orally by the author, tested oral comprehension (through responding with a sentence. achievement section. an administered demonstrating a word match action, uttering to vocabulary images). Subjective sections (i.e.. all but vocabulary) action, and matching written words with an judged by were immersion teachers, and assigned average scores. Vocabulary audiotaped. five French administered and hand-scored was the French immersion teachers, and number correct by analyzed. The mathematics test was 75 items that measured numeral dictation. was drawing tenths and unities, identifying numbers, drawing indicated numerals. and greater than. odd than. Mathematics tests admin- less were was scored by immersion classroom teachers. and number correct French entered into the analyses. Qualitative data were istered and also teacher (dailyjournal ancl interviews) to assess potential reasons for outcomes. collected from the experimental was Analysis-Kuder-Richardson to assess test reliability. Pearson product-moment correlations by group. time, and test were cal- used arid to variables covaried. Moderator variables (private piano lessons culated three levels of academic achievement) were determine which assessed through c tests and ANOVA. All possible main effects and interactions wcre assessed through a series of ANCOVAs (group x test time x four, or six tests-covarying pre-test scores and academic achievement). Scheffe's post-hoc tests were calculated for sig- test-two, to source of significance in the omnibus tests. nificant interactions discover the was clear and detailed. with the exception of amount of time devoted to French ancl music. We clo not know how long the Reporting French nor whether the experimentals gave were, "regular" classes 15 of instruction in French to accomrnoclate the additional up minutes minutes of music instruction that was 15 Gains in music for the experimental group are not so surprising if music instruction incorporated. was increased by 45 minutes/week. However, if direct French instruction was reduced for the experimental group, it is quite compelling that increased.-L.H. French scores RESULTS ' study were French tests were adequate (Kuder-Richardson coefficients ranging from .70 - .99). as pilot The showed that reliabilities of the 23). hut pattern written test (r = . tonal-rhythmic The author suggests that the tonal-rhythmic pattern test is best combined with the all the performance as music it was composite. treatment was so brief (two weeks). pilot deemed sufficient that some significant rela- Because a found between French and music concepts, tionships (for form) were the main study employed French. tonal-rhythm, and form variables. so 132

134 Private correlate with higher on tonal-rhythm pattern reading. but because only a few Subjects took private piano did lessons piano scores SO it was compromise tests except tonal-rhythm. not covary with all lessons, results. Academic achievement this the correlation does did study. employed as a covariate in the main The results music program enhanced general French and music skills. of the main analysis suggest that the incorporation of this and. (written) concepts.-L.kf. foriddescribed in particular, oral grammar, reading comprehension. tonal-rhythmic pattern/perforrnance. and program) special and teacher effects. addition, some CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD of In and creativity (musical highly reliable not tests were the tonal-rhythmic pattedwritten). on transfer in the field of study is a model for research This suggests that author The research should vary future reviewed theoretical and arts education. The author carefully levels age and socio-economic subjects, and assess of identified between the empirical literature that connections She dominance." mode also suggests "learning (1) devel- and music of structure oping new and more reliable measures, (2) suc- comparing the Similar language, .points toward of set . . similar " a whose teachers of cess students had of amounts varying processes of learning formal music background, developing programs that (3) and teachingthesedisci- both brain mechanisms needed for timbre, such as focus articula- on other concepts musical and previous plines, additional on focusing (4) expression, and harmony, tion, empirical studies linking processing." speech and musical (5) con- skills such and spelling, and reading as language first- and music and sec- ducting a qualitative study to describe the entire integra- ond-language learning. She also elements. suggests its and process tion (6) testing findings on these and was to study build then designed The may music-integration programs that possibility the benefit step to extend understanding of a gap in take a careful next deficit children with children. more than other attention examined learning out- previous studies no the had field: Future replications should certain be duration the match to comes in music both language and music that resulted when of report clearly and groups across instruction music that into programs. was language integrated total amount instructional time per week for each group of that learning found study The areas enhanced was both in is equivalent.--1.H. and carefully was music instruction when deliberately inte- grated that "bridged" areas into language instruction in ways CONTRIBUTIONS TO FIELD THE lan- and music in similarity pedagogical and structural of guage and language instruction, compared with music This music and language learning is very careful study of without integrated, (not separately taught instruction and important to music educators, teachers, and researchers teaching for transfer). This form music instruction enhanced of interested between effects transfer two-way of issue in the French grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and reading oral music and language arts. It is particularly important for edu- well as comprehension, understanding of musical con- as the cators interdisciplinary focus on who develop curricula that cepts related form.-L.H. and tonal-rhythmic pattern to and skills, processes, learning underlying structures shared language and music. Examples of interdisciplinary between COMMENTARY demonstrate how study this in devised methods teaching same time for the music can be "taught for transfer" at the This study suggests that transfer needs to be carefully music skill. development of when aligned are subjects It can occur taught. structure in test scores pronunciation between correlation the That by which they are and/or learned. It in methods taught and and language in instru- aptitude and musical of measures of also implies that training in arts and teaching in methods increases learning how illustrates time over mental training music integrate who teachers all for is necessary transfer for in different areas of study can be enhanced through their arts) into their courses. It does (or other seem necessary not interaction. such for training when teachers to be extensive, however, academic achieve- Furthermore, study concludes that this some have musical background. It also suggests that stu- with musical achievement-espe- ment correlates positively dent can influence achievement. Parents enthusiasm notation and reading music to with regard cially processes. in their differences noticed learning, and interest children's for This finding suggests that it will be edu- music necessary could parents that implies and a source as this serve sup- of cators music to develop programs that foster reading strong for informed about the were if they programs such arts port uni- not goal worthy skills-a notation is and written that programs. integrated such for rationale formly supported by lessons or ensemble stu- instrumental It is not clear why the total time/week for music instruc- music education schools-if public in currently dios is not held the constant for two groups. tion was be an effective resource for interdisciplinary to expected Experimentals had music instruction each 45 minutes more second-language to development.--1,s. approaches x French into 15 their classes (five days week, incorporated per day). It also is not clear whether the time direct- minutes COMMENTARY ly spent on French was reduced equivalently. caution urges The author because interpretation, in perception, (featuring literature review A linguistics, musical were groups randomized, not because of potential and outlines speech) carefully and and language between links Hawthorne effects of (doing better with the introduction a

135 music through investigating underlying processing mental between Although competing and language. shared music theories of intelligences are not discussed fully, separate . evidence points much toward of similar a brain set mecha- both processing. for speech and musical nisms needed components of reading The focus on cognitive process- as "categorical discernment" of sound (phonemic such es sound decoding awareness) are examined in or (phonics) that support for studying the effects of ways the rationale on studies. education second-language music of music Several such as the focus on aspects education, or pitch (contour) aspects of language processing rhythmic music, to commonalities between music in vocal contribute language teaching. The use of songs, not surprisingly, and enhances pronunciation, directly grammatical structure, idiomatic as well and expressions vocabulary, as wide vari- of delivery, ety linking of ideas. in speed phrasing, and the argument is made that interdisciplinary learn- Finally should result in students who are better able to see ing the connections among subject and are therefore more areas A sec- to understand and remember likely what they learn. ond-language program that supports two-way learning music and language will most likely connections between learning as model for interdisciplinary a across other serve domains of study.-L.S.

136 STUDY NAME: Training Causes Long-term Enhancement of Preschool Children's Music Spatial-Temporal Reasoning H. Gordon L. Shaw, Linda J. Levine, Rauscher, L. Wright, Wendy R. Dennis, & Eric Frances AUTHORS: Robert L. Newcomb PUBLISHED: 19 Neurological February 1997, Research, 2-7 (1): Question Research supplemented by group individual instruction in singing, keyboards, on piano Does instruction cause long-term enhancement in preschool children? spatial-temporal of reasoning ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ METHODS 78 preschool children (42 boys and 36 girls) ages 3 and 4, of diverse ethnicity and normal intelligence, who were enrolled Subjects were were to from three preschools. Children one of four groups: Keyhoard in classes assigned (n 34). = 10). Computer (n = 20). = Singing (n Lessons (n = 14). Groups were assigned either randomly or as intact classes, depending and school. The study was conducted over No on of years, a period two of six eight children received either months of instruction during that time. but consecutive professional keyboard instructors using tra- (n = 34) group received lo-minute private keyboard lessons from in the Keyboard Children months. on the school, children received lessons either once a week for eight months or twice a week for six Depending ditional methods. lessons, Although some children received more for effects were lessons. so the results of both groups no found for numher significant The memory. on pitch intervals. fingering, sight-reading. music notation, and playing from preschools focused pooled. were Lessons Keyboard hour for children in the Keyboard group to practice. In addition, one in the each day group participated daily children reserved in 30-minute singing sessions led by a music instructor. from (n = 20) received 10-minute private lessons a personal computer a professional computer instructor using The Computer group age-appropriate mathematics and reading software. were intended to control for hand-eye coordination practice, per- and These lessons lessons. for engagement with activity attention, and opportunity by the keyboard an Children learned how to open the sonal provided hasic Dos coinmands and also learned numher recognition. counting. and sentence software using completion. The Singing group hut = participated in the same daily 30-minute singing sessions as the Keyboard (ri 10) did not receive any group additional private instruction. Children in the No Lesson group (n = 14) did not receive any instruction. All children were and post-tested for spatial reasoning with four tasks from the Performance subtest of the Wechsler Preschool pre- skill (ie. form- Primary The Ohject Assembly task is designed to measure spatial-temporal Scale Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). ancl of of image). and rotating puzzle pieces to match that inental mental image The other three tasks used were spa- ing a a completed object tasks ancl included Geometric Design (children match and draw geometric figures), Block Design (children rnatch patterns tial recognition animal pictures). blocks), and Animal (children place correctly colored pegs colored series of Pegs These latter three do not using below a one or inore of the skills that involve spatial-temporal reasoning: sequencing. mental rotation. matching to only a mental and not define a physical image. the t tests, with Bonferroni adjustment to protect from possibility of find- the ANOVA four training groups) and multiple One-way (for chance, were used for analysis.-L.H. ing significant results by RESULTS means for pre- and Post-tests revealed that children Age-adjusted the Keyboard group improved significantly on the Object Assembly in while children in the other three groups of = 9.8: post-test mean = 13.41). A set did not (F3,,,=3.87, p

137 The validity of these find- spent similar on or singing-only instruction, time computer study "This provides com- ings is the by supported no had lessons.-L.H. students extra who or nature of comprehensive evidence learning that pelling training, musical well-known COMMENTARY to conservatory-trained music to play the piano enhances a educators, based on multiple compelling evidence that learning to This study provides representations of musical play kind the piano enhances a particular of spatial reason- kind particular of spatial rea- nota- knowledge (keyboard, ing-spatial-temporal preschoolers. Because ability-in performance tions, numbers), day, the one longer than lasted effect suggest results the a tia -tern pora l ng-spa bi l- i son l fine (voice, modality motor that music instruction may cause long-term structural mod- symbol processing skills), and exclusive in regions to of the brain that are not ifications hoo presc n i ty- i " ers. I skills.-L.S. authors speculate implica- The music processing. that the be tions of their enhanced since profound, findings may COMMENTARY facilitate spatial-temporal ability may learning in areas of science spatial-tem- and that rely heavily on mathematics a comprehensive This study reveals that musical form of poral reasoning. performance training was employed to high per- produce the The results are somewhat compromised because on with piano and Along assembly tests. formance object had group have to Keyboard appears of hour up to one intervals, studied pitch preschool children voice instruction, daily, instruction time across time additional so practice techniques, numbering coordination, fingering motor fine groups non-equivalent. In addition, the groups were was As memory. playing from and notation, music sight-reading may and they individual, of the level at the randomized not the a visual-lin- provides authors note, keyboard instruction have not treatment. before equivalent been unclear It is ear representation of the spatial relations between pitches singing spatial whether contributed the observed to pro- as from does singing notation; physical coordination do may not so independently, but it enhancement-it did gressed children were two and to one hand from hands; instruction. have contributed in combination with piano A the fingering patterns transpose to regions other to asked previous pilot study by these authors (1994) found that the independent this of in variable the Thus keyboard. singing lessons enhanced low-SES children's spatial-tem- of study comprises a sophisticated teaching practices array results poral reasoning. The conflicting imply that either or in further replicated to will have studies that in be precisely demographics both the structure of the singing or program or other age school settings. groups in some role effect. play in producing the edu- surprise results music not should study of this The explore to should continue Future studies specific the reasoning abilities required spatial consider who cators the responsible for training of aspects music the enhancement comprehensive by far be to performance training musical spatial- such increased and how spatial-temporal ability of in the object assembly more tested complex than those temporal in school. They might also affect learning skills understood be performance skills can in part as task. Music on performance enhancement such how examine affects of a measure spatial-temporal intelligence. Consequently should future studies Fundamentally, assessments. school dif- musical expect instruction to make a greater we should specific seek processes to identify and explore the mental ference in spatial-temporal performance test results (such reasoning.-L.H. spatial music learning with associated and in as object assembly the tasks) than spa- simple of results tests. tial recognition THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO a deeper exploration of For educators interested in musical underlying concepts shared between skills and This study that training, unlike exposure musical suggests more or mathematics extensive investigations by science, music, to in modifications long-term relatively supports propor- researchers on the effect of on education music in regions neural circuitry of the brain not pri- underlying tional reasoning (rhythm), hierarchical reasoning (tonal sys- processing. concerned with auditory marily thinking (composition tems), and other of systems forms This study shows that the effect of comprehensive train- and welcome.-L.S. be will analysis) ing tests of spatial ability is relatively long term on in music to the short-term effect reported by the authors compared as earlier "Mozart effect." the This study establishes that a distinctly comprehensive form musical performance training on the piano sup- of enables a form of temporal-spatial reasoning that ports that assembly tasks object on perform better to children spatial recognition, as skills such of a combination require in a classification, relationships among patterns finding and order-a fundamental process shared among sequential limited domains of study (including, but not to many chess. mathematics, engineering) and their application to and daily life organize as the ability to plan, design, and (such products, actions, or thought).

138 STUDY Classroom Kindergarten Children's Spatial-Temporal Keyboard Instruction improves NAME: Performance: Field Experiment A Rauscher and Mary Anne Zupan AUTHORS: H. Frances Research Quarterly, Early PUBLISHED: Childhood 5-228 2000, 15, (2): 21 Question Research II in a public school setting of group music instruction that features What is the effect a keyboard play on kindergarten children's spatial reasoning? to instrument learning METHODS classes of both Sixty-two from two intact middle-income at two elementary schools in kindergartners genders and diverse ethnicity group Keyboard the (n = 34) or no music (11 = 28). In groups had 10 children, of either keyboard instruction were assigned Wisconsin to lessons, two week for eight months, conducted in 20-minute times per of their regular classroom. During the lessons. the area music an in '2ournaling" with their teacher in children part in the control group engaged another the classroom Both groups were pre-tested of re-tested after and and eight months. four a familiar object) from the Spatial-temporal ability Solving task (arranging cardboard pieces of a puzzle to create was measured by Puzzle the Scales Children's Abilities and of Block Building task (reproducing from inemory a stair-step structure created and removed the McCarthy blocks) Memory sub- The test. Assessment Profile Standardized 10. 1 -inch Pictorial from the Learning Accomplishment from the examiner by identifying and previously viewed pictures of objects). inemory test from the McCarthy Scales was used to index visual-spatial (recalling The first analysis used a time) 2 x 2 x 3 (sex x group x tirne) MANOVA for each of the three tests. Repeated measures ANOVAs (group x t equivalence prior treatment. to 2 x 2 MANOVA (sex x gyoup) on pre-test scores checked for group were next conducted for each test. A gain on scores) one-factor (group) MANCOVA (covarying pre-test t scores Finally. a tests. Scheffe's confirmed through post-hoc was which conducted (eight months minus pre-test) was and as check on the previous analyses. Reporting of this study was clear a judicious. with E p values.4.H. several tables. Reporting would be improved by giving exact 1 i THE FIELD while another type of spatial ability (i.e.. pictori- keyboards, CONTRIBUTIONS TO not. al memory) is careful The authors are not generalize these positive to the (see This first author's examination study extends results statements to spatial on global music's about effect al., et Rauscher summarized this volume) 1997, in of the ability and list a series of cautions about interpreting the effects of active music instruction (in this case, using piano results authors caution the First, findings. that these should keyboards) rea- on spatial spatial outcomes, toward divert instructional goals but not It explores soning tasks. further for the need "...supports urge educators of continue to guide the design musical to on age new a effect the instruction by learning goals by such as those set musical group (i.e., public-school replication and extension into caution that a authors also national music standards. The of instead kindergartners (positive findings a new pro- Hawthorne of effect a result as private-school preschool- curriculum." the public school gram) because is possible untreated. was group the control employs keyboard ers), music and no similar treatment However, the results for delivered instruction a to groups on the pictorial memory task counter that threat to group rather than to compares spatial-tem- and individuals, the because children a degree. in authors state that Further, measures. poral to spatial memory the engaged in music group musical activities, of a range found that The study spatial-temporal tasks (i.e., "tasks including keyboard training, moving singing, music, to into require of that separate elements combining an object solfege and reading notation, training, music ear literacy, to ... match p. 216) were whole a single a mental image," clear which musical component(s) not is it (sight-singing), training, enhanced by keyboard but pictorial memory tasks contributed spatial enhancement. The the to authors also were There were no gender effects.--L.H. not. last. remind readers that it is not clear how long the effects research should investigate instruction with other Future COMMENTARY geographic groups, with other socio-economic and age with instruc- music of components separate and groups, spatial reasoning of types specific that study suggests This particular this between relationship the In addition, tion. on instruction (i.e., spatial-temporal) are enhanced by music

139 spatial skill and achievement mathematics should be fur- in investigated (cf. Graziano, af. ther et in 1999, summarized this volume).-L.H. FIELD THE TO CONTRIBUTIONS music training educational been of The potential has broadened through impact of a compre- this study of the to keyboard performance instruction approach hensive school classroom. conducted in a public speed at the impact occurs is striking. That The which change sharp such a test scores of spatial ability occurs in suggests a treatment within four implement- weeks worth in larger-scale school settings. ing The authors cite the need for further studies to answer question as the whether affects mathematical to rea- music (such as and proportion) as soning ratios affects spatial- it temporal in this study.-L.S. reasoning measured COMMENTARY earlier studies conducted by As Rauscher, the with Frances treatment on the experimental group is a form of compre- training that includes a range of hensive musical musical activities, training, moving to music, including keyboard clapping, reading notation, and ear train- rhythmic singing, It is clear that these activities, taken together, might ing. well support the of spatial abilities measured development by that involve mental imaging and temporal order- tasks ing. The overlapping of skills required for comprehensive musical instruction spatial ability should be seen as a and new forms music and mathematical teaching basis for of "relating information entering one involve that through sense mode analogous information mode." to in another This study suggests a reconciliation between Howard view of musical intelligence as a separate domain Gardner's reasoning later of view of musical intelligence as a and his "privileged possible organizer of cognitive processes" in education. early the studies, which cite brain While support the authors that hypotheses training affects the development musical of neural pathways relevant to spatial abilities, this study now supports need for further replication and extension the the school curriculum. into public music instruction methods used in this study are If the in sufficient detail, they could be extremely useful available educators interested in analyzing the mathematics cur- to riculum according to the constructs of "spa- neurological reasoning. factors the tial-temporal" used Mapping in perception, memory, operation, these constructs (spatial construction, etc.) onto the mathematics curriculum and the of elementary school teachers will teaching practices contribute to the educational validity and utility of this work.-L.S.

140 STUDY NAME: Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Music as Reinforcement for Educationrrherapy Objectives A Jayne Standley AUTHOR: M. Research Journal 1996, 44(2), 105-1 33 of in Music PUBLISHED: Education Research Questions "contingent" as behavioral reinforcement) in facilitating (music used is music How effective therapy settings? and behavior changes learning and in education music's reinforcement What in education and therapy settings? circumstances affect value METHODS Effect studies were in this analysis, with 208 effect sizes Ninety-eight included sizes for individual studies ranged from d = 35.44 computed. to d = -7.05--a large range. (Note: negative effects indicate that the control condition was more effective than the music contingency). d (which indexes how many sizes standard meta-analytic inethods and reports effect was by the index called The conducted by analysis standard deviation units the treatment "pushes" the average effect above the mean). The literature search was extensive and included The sample both ancl unpublished studies to avoid bias. Inclusion criteria are clearly stated. published of studies is well described. Several helpful tables and charts highlight main results clearly. results: of that may affect validity Factors the dif- a single analysis. For example. in main analysis does not Many combined (1) independent and dependent variables were diverse achievement in as diverse as outcomes (e.g.. mathematics, reading. general academics. and cog- academic ferentiate specific effects music outcomes-such nitive reading notation and color pitches-are combined with attentiveness, as discrimination, and identifying 4 to 20 years). or relevant with combined that work numbers). subjects ranging from telephone age of memory for (studies are student subjects). subject characteristics (studies of mentally and learning disabled subjects are combined with "normal" B (2) main analysis combines mostly single-subject and small-sample studies. whose effects The systematically larger than those found are 1 I not between vs. control) designs. Because study size is (experimental reported for individual studies included in the analy- in subjects sis. is not clear how well the results generalize to group educational it settings. (3) by which individual studies indexed outcomes are usually not reported. Measures to No statistics are reported. which further limits our ability (4) generalize From this analysis.-L.H. inferential RESULTS The general result is that contingent inusic (d = 2.90: equivalent to r = .82) is more effective in promoting education and therapy objec- tives types than other reinforcement techniques (d = 1.1 combined) ecluivalent to r = .50). (all 7. examined several moderator variables to explain what conditions contribute systematically The analysis effect: Of size the to behavior; = (d or decrease 2.97) = (d increase to Using music (1) 2.77) (2) music as a reward (d = 2.55) or interrupting it as -a Initiating consequence 3.56): (d = = (d inusic: with reward 1.70) = (d delayed or 3.38) Immediate (3) in school-aged children: 5-1 1 years d = Using music with different ages (highest in infants-4 years: d = 3.51 and adults: d = 4.51, (4) lower 2.53. 12-14yearsd= 1.96. 15-18yearsd= 1.08); ability categories: physically or meclially impaired (d = 2.25); emotionally impaired (d = 2.38). (5) (d = 2.99). mentally Suldect norrnal = (d 3.16); impaired 1.62). own controls d = as experimental vs. control groups. d = 3.42; (6) design (subjects Study for degree following outcomes were assessed individually The of relationship to various musical "treatments": not (d mathematics, further described) = and inostly achievement in reading 2.18. (1) educational-academic task, Ipositive interactions. lower noise, and higher attention) (2) educational-social (d = 2.04, e.g.. staying on physical rehabilitation (3) (d = 5.47) (4) medical-health = 2.26) (d sports-exercise (d = 1.39, e.g.. increased duration riding stationary bike) (5) in behavior (c) self-help. attention/interactioii, (b) (a) including 3.40, (e.g.. = (d regurgi- tics. stereotopy or bus. (d) car developmental (6) (e) (fl work, and (g) preference variables)-L.H. complaining, tation, self-stimulation, wandering), reward my To behavior changes. for and learning for knowl- CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD meta-analysis to of form any address first edge, it was the syntheses of educational outcome in relation to music. Such Through the method of meta-analysis, examines this study studies individual precision scientific greater for the stage set which diverse results from studies a as used music was in

141 other sta- classroom reinforcements (food, of types to ably of the by base-line effect sizes (that is, establishing an index "treatment" educational an between relationship of strength evidence presents author the In tus, etc.). that addition, intrin- reinforcement or reward does not negatively impact defined outcome). The author a measured also clearly and con- the to a primary sic objection thus allaying motivation, value the and future research and policy meta-analyses for of tingent use of music in classrooms. In field. the within method more use of this encouraged the strongly that summarized here suggests Research the tech- the standard procedures of addition, she described use knowledge music of of the contingent techniques for in accessible, and clearly nique non-technical language. professional become an important component of the should is, (that found contingent music as used music The study development of educators and music therapists.-L.S. music a reward for desired behavior) to be considerably more effec- tive of (by nearly two standard deviations) than other types COMMENTARY reinforcements (e.g., candy, juice, stories, praise) found in contingencies. previous meta-analyses of nonmusical interest be account litera- into takes reviewed here meta-analysis The The analysis will of and therapists to most academic from the ture skills, education (cognitive of fields general educators, the of most since studies involve listen- modification, medical social-behavioral achievement), treat- or ing to music as a reward rather than learning learn- music ing through music.-L.H. ment and therapy, social-emotional development, work pro- and listening preference studies. Analyses of ductivity, results that from studies use contingencybased music pro- "This that study suggests contingent grams hold enormous implications for optimizing classroom management while showing stu- no negative effects on music effectively reinforces learning and motivation. dents' and academic performance meta-analysis it (1) orga- this of The importance is that changes." behavior that, as seen research a whole, nizes a vast body of when in of music challenges educators to incorporate a variety boundaries discipline extend beyond the that ways spe- of use of (2) cific brings and instruction, to the forefront the COMMENTARY music for therapeutic and behavioral objectives that has largely by classroom teachers, music been teach- ignored this in public schools until time. and administrators ers, rein- This study suggests that contingent music effectively and important Most teachers, careful review of the studies forces learning behavior changes. The author's previ- to that in this be can listening music suggests meta-analysis in medical and dental ous meta-analysis of music's uses set- adapted creatively is applica- to any classroom and that it an effect tings found standard slightly greater than one size of wide ble across a variety musical, academic, and behav- deviation music reinforced with subjects for compared with ioral objectives. controls. The truly effect found in this analysis huge study for of application this a practical of example One large effect. very that exceeds even as establish preferences music listening a in to educators is about the Several potential criticisms raise questions "contingency" for classroom privileges, which, validity of the reported effect. These are ameliorated but in turn, not analyses compensated for by of moderator entirely vari- desired behavioral demonstrate to children motivate example, For changes. privi- gain the can child unruly an ables (see Methods section). to (1) be heard his music preferred her or choosing of lege Future meta-analytic studies should differentiate both to be to (2) another, one activity from transition during and independent and variables more precisely dependent played be to (3) studies might ben- exercise, writing a creative during heard tests. report Future inferential individual other of indepen- effects examining the from efit a single varying during a recreation period, or (4) to accompany any music teacher as deems or classroom activity the music or dependent variable.-L.H. or dent find- of examples appropriate during Other day. the school schools. to public this study ings from applied can be THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO Further research designed incorpo- to assess how teachers music rate needed.-L.S. schools is in listening programs This of studies shows that meta-analysis recent 98 of application have in surprisingly researchers diverse fields in using music to effect changes success much reported adults' behavior in and outside of schools. children's and In several experimenters report that the use of music addition, simultaneously as reinforcement for social-emotional acts to as subject matter, and as an enhancement development, academic achievement areas. subject in other report focuses on the contingent use of "music ini- This tool for interruption" as a valuable tiation, participation, or behavior in the normal public school class- modification room. Studies analyzed in this meta-analysis also reveal that the effects due compare to contingent use of music favor-

142 STUDY NAME: Mathematics: Modest Support for the Oft-Claimed Relationship Music and Kathryn AUTHOR: Vaughn of Journal 34 (3-4):149-166 Aesthetic Education, Fall 2000, PUBLISHED: Research Questions mathematics achievement? Does music Is there a relationship between and music study to in mathematics achievement? Does listening cause increases instruction background music while thinking about mathematics problems enhance mathematics ability? METHODS and unpublished studies considering the relatioriship between music and mathematics was gathered. The A search of published initial 4.000 These were reduced to harvest yielded references. a studies. first by articles deemed to be 25 pieces or set of excluding advocacy (1) when music was used as a reward for high mathematics programs descriptions. and then by excluding three other types studies: of performance. "jngles" were used as memory aids. and (3) where the studies focused on music and mathematics apti- (2) where musical The to one rather than achievement. tude studies were then assigned groups: correlational, experimental-music instruction. and of three was within each group, A separate meta-analysis experimental-music listening. performed Ten with twenty studies the in music classes in the correlational SAT mathematics performance. These of group coinpared participation high were 300.000 subjects each. The other studies had between 34 and 1,969 subjects. Most subjects school over were large studies with Only experimental-music = -.05 to 37. r SIX studies were in the music study students. Correlations between mathematics and ranged from with sample from from 28 to 128. all from preschool or elementary school. Effect sizes ranged group instruction sizes -.04 .31. The = to r 10 had smaller sample sizes experimental-music listening the correlational group of studies. There were 15 studies with group also than 200 subjects. Effect sizes were widely dispersed. ranging from r = -.18 to .82. These studies compared music predicted to enhance to math- ematics performance classical or "mood caltning") with music or sound predicted to interfere (rap, rock, industrial noise).-R.H. (i.e., 1 RESULTS of the correlational group indicated a significant relationship between music meta-analysis The study and mathematics achievement. take music classes in high school Students who more likely to score higher on standardized mathematics tests such as the SAT. are The to a mean effect size of r = .15. When the effect sizes were weighted studies, the account for the large size of the SAT reported researcher mean effect was r = .14. Significance tests indicated that it is extremely unlikely that these findings are due to chance (2 = 192.59. p < .0001 and the mean Zr = 4.2. p < .0001). t of the experimental that music study appears to cause increases in mathematics achievement of Analysis group indicated p .13. = = (r researcher provides a ,004). She first states that students who take music "show higher rnath- Curiously, the contradictory interpretation. a consequence" of the music classes, and that there is a "small as relationship.. showing that music training causal ematical achievement performance." But she then goes on to write, "there is enhances math of music the hypothesis that dearth a existing evidence testing yet the conclude that the test.'' hypothesis has not I been adequately put to enhances training performance in mathematics, and to sorrie kinds of music may aid performance on mathematics tests. There was a significant. but small, overall mean effect Listerling size additional p = ,003). However. .14. analysis did not provide significant results.-R.H. (f = TO THE FIELD COMMENTARY CONTRIBUTIONS unanticipated benefits music of positive, shows The study relationship the confirm between music helps This study of learning school administrators to interest be that should study and performance on standardized mathematics and in music participation Sustained policy-makers. educa- the widely publicized adds analysis The tests. substance to tion programs likely the development of thinking supports by synthesizing correlation between music and SAT scores to reasoning, which may, in mathematical skills applicable with 10 other studies chosen 10 years of SAT analysis questions turn, be reflected in mathematics scores. But selection criteria. through stringent What is the relation- of the remain for researchers: nature for The study also provides additional support the ship between music and mathematics? If music somehow scores are in mathematics the hypothesis that increases enhances does this how mathematical understanding, simply not correlational, but are music instruc- due to the of spatial reasoning? come about? it due to Is development studies tion. A meta-analysis of six revealed experimental increases What kinds of music instruction might lead in to and mathematics per- between music relationship a causal mathematics performance? formance. it indicates as contribution, important is an This address to these begin of some Additional research can additional several fruitful areas for research.-R.H.

143 questions. Qualitative studies are to describe, iso- needed this ies such as the meta-analysis provided elsewhere in of and music late, and define classes the characteristics Compendium (Standley, 1996).-L.S. studies Controlled learning. of indicators appropriate COMMENTARY should pursue a narrower, sharper approach than those This confirm the study helps measure try and They meta-analysis. in the used might This pro- mediating variables that could provide insight into the meta-analysis between music relationship They of mechanism investigate the also should to evidence positive vides transfer. study and relationships between different types of music support the relationship stan- on performance and study different types of mathematics learning.-R.H. music and between math- pro- The ematics. author dardized mathematics '' tests. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD a ratio- three-tiered vides for the close relation- nale ship between musical (1) and mathematics: music training in this of The method the used for study-meta-analysis-is rhythm that proportion, patterns, and ratios emphasizes distill a and generalize results from modest first time to mathematical as expressed relations, (cited studies (2) recent number of selected studies that explore the relationship between of and mathematics. in this Compendium) that strongly support the connection music Besides the general positive significant relationships and to training music reasoning, spatial-temporal (3) the meta-analy- the and mathematics found in music between music nature expressed by and mathematics typically of emerged of out findings that intriguing sis there are several Stravinsky). These lgor this case, ratio- musicians (in expert the study. broad context of this reconsidering the of demonstrate the importance nales positive correlations between high-stakes First, stan- of include: to education music goals of incorporation the (1) dardized mathematics test and participation in scores integrate fundamental to designed strategies teaching new music size and significance ensembles have increased in that concepts in music are shared with other disciplines, (2) investigated the to over decade and need last be for of new aspects of teacher training to the development causes. underlying that this meta- disappointing was It include awareness of recent research that supports the rela- musical made illuminate possible to cognitive development in and sub- tionship between attempt no study analysis of (3) of recognition the importance disciplines, the consistently strong, positive corre- for reasons stantive and other continuing to investigate fundamental concepts musicians recent large-sample to particularly with regard the lations, between dis- shared authentic musical education and other its study cited that claims to control for levels of SES in ciplines.-L.S. compendium). research design (Catterall, 1999, and in this of that musical study indicates the Second. this effects instruction on mathematics performance are more signifi- in the there cant and much larger most recent studies. Are case so? In one in particular, important for clues this is why on author speculates the extraordinary possibility that the combination of music instruction and the particular "the spatial-temporal mathematics instruction students" mathe- received in that study may have to improved led strongest evi- other the matics performance. In words, be for conditions of causality in this study may dence instruc- based on the revelation that when authentic music mathematical instruction based tion on is integrated with of aspects spatial-temporal learning mathematics, the pos- association and mathematics learning itive music between may increase both to the potential benefit of significantly, subject areas. Third, of studying "soothing" background results the on test-taking skills in math are mixed, perhaps music not the studies themselves are con- necessarily because ducive meta-analysis as organized in this study. As edu- to bet- children need to be soothed to test cators know, some to ter, whereas per- others arousal more from would benefit is a much more needed is form more productively. What of meta-analyses set sophisticated and comprehensive on the effects that different kinds of music (sooth- focused arousing, complex, repetitive) may have on various ing, kinds of children (normal, attention-deficit, emotionally challenged) for purposes (academic, social, behav- various ioral). more meta-analysis perhaps would have been This of set had included a more comprehensive it stud- if useful

144 Essay: An of Research on Music and Learning Overview ER - Larry Scripp first seek to answer is whether music is to be placed in education or not, must we "What and has.. as education, play .whether pastime." what power it or Aristotfe role of music Introduction: Re-examining through research. the in education place to be uncertain as we begin a new millennium of public education. Music's in American schools continues to the producing and selling music thrives commercially, while listening of and making music con- While business to of youth of major interest to a large population tinues and adults, and while hundreds of community schools be across offer music instruction to those who can afford it, the comprehensive, sequential study of music the nation yet has be accepted as a core ingredient of public education. to one reason policy-makers have been reluctant to support music as Perhaps in public schools is a core subject that artists, and parents seem to be educators, administrators, in their advocacy for music's essential role divided in public education. On one side, the "essentialists" argue that music should be taught for its own sake. Essentialists instruction, maintain that while there exists evidence for several kinds of ancillary benefits from music be music only on the instruction of music's own set of skills and literature and not focus respon- should teachers for out "extra-musical benefits'' from this instruction. By drawing sympathetic to the "instru- sible contrast, those in to intrinsically is connected it that a vacuum, not exist other does point that believe view of mentalist" music music areas art subject and that learning in and inevitably draws on and engages learning processes and forms, fundamental concepts shared across many subject areas-often simultaneously. music As emerges that establishes stronger relationships between research and learning in other areas of the i' 1 bind. While one side worries about pander- both camps are caught in a complicated curriculum, advocates from sub- to or to school boards that make decisions ing primarily on test scores in the academic administrators based jects, side worries that, if we ignore aspects of learning the other between music and other subject areas, transfer an music education will remain outside of the mainstream of public education, and thus will survive only as edu- '32 cational elective for talented or highly motivated few. the in and through papers interactive model of learning reviewed Compendium support a more Research in this language learning music study in isolation from math and place in schools today, research Although music. takes music functions as a catalyst for cognitive skills and aspects of social-emotional development across suggests that when conditions for transfer are teaching to principles and processes disciplines, especially optimized through across learning disciplines. that engage and deepen reviewed in this Compendium Consequently, how music educators and policy-makers may studies suggest resolve what increasingly appears to be a false dichotomy between the essentialist help the instrumentalist and to be bridged through research that will be is beginning positions. The between these two points of view gap here of four major themes. reported in terms 1 : Meta-analysis studies based on large bodies of research over the last few decades reveal Theme strong, positive between music and learning in other subject areas. consistently relationships review of five recent rneta-analyses (1995-2000) is included in this Compendium. A of meta-analy- The emergence sis has been particularly helpful in establishing techniques background context for understanding the impact the of music on various cognitive and social-emotional domains. Meta-analysis is a relatively new area of music number it an accepted methodology for synthesizing a vast represents of extant bodies of literature research, yet informed of characteristics and for providing a basis for its generalization from these for the purpose describing The use of new statistical procedures to compute effect sizes across similar variables from diverse studies data. in turn as to their combined significance, despite differences in research design and populations. provides insight of As discover, there is now a strong body reader will evidence based on meta-analyses of a broad range the of studies, which establishes positive significant associations between music and: spatial-temporal & b), reasoning (Hetland 2000a (Vaughn __~____.~. - - achievement in math 2000). /'-Research COmpendiLlm, in this papers reviewed and (Butzlaff in reading achievement 2000). . : the reinforcement of social-emotional or behavioral objectives I a more interactive model of learning in support 1996). (Standley I authors these meta-analyses caution against over- While the of ! l ___ . ~ ~ .~~ ~ . through . ~ .. ... ! reaching claims of causal relationships between music and academic and rnUSiC.:.- .~.

145 achievement in the extensive presence of strong associations between music and other sub- language or math, areas ject with evidence for positive extra-musical effects of music instruction. overwhelmingly is consistent studies suggest Although to teaching for transfer produces stronger results than that several explicit attention how without this research is needed to specify practitioner these links conducted concern, further older studies and most consistently achieved through professional development programs for classroom and can be best music teachers in schools. neurological and cognitive frameworks for learning transfer have Generative 2: Theme emerged on music and learning. research from effort we make to explain to ourselves how our brains work. We listen to "Music is the Bach listening transfixed because this is human the mind." to educator. 1979. physician, US. Lewis Thomas, on neurological and cognitive aspects Education music enables educators today to look more research based of therefore more responsibly, at the contributions precisely, make toward teaching and learning and music can of public school curriculum. Interest across various areas our listening that enhance performance music studies in of cognition in other as the "Mozart effect"), for example, reflects an unprecedented forms (commonly known inter-relation- of, and conceptions consider new to general the and researchers, educators, of willingness public among, musical skills, the mind, and the brain. ships of the A meta-analysis research of listening on spatial-temporal reasoning (Hetland 2000a) the music on effect provides for determining music's place in education. The a neurological-rather than a cultural-orientation certain forms of music listening appear to prepare the brain for better performance on tasks that notion that model" ability mental images in the absence of a physical transform is significant, not because it to require "the for music appreciation, provides another rationale findings from these studies contradict two pre- because but in discrete learning: (1) brain modularity (the assumption that cognitive vailing are located views of capacities areas the brain as "separate intelligences") and, its corollary, (2) that it is difficult or counterproductive to pro- of learning transfer across (as evidenced by the conventional separation between learning music mote disciplines math tasks in schools). and spatial reasoning The finding that passive listening music neurologically "primes" spatial-temporal thinking suggests that to processes cognitive with music share neural networks with other kinds of mental activity. Thus normally associated brain we that "musical and spatial processing centers in the conclude are proximal or overlapping and hence can linked, rather than being entirely distinct as was predicted by modular theories of the mind" (Hetland 2000a). While the effect" meta-analyses support a model for learning transfer independent of a music edu- "Mozart results cation, show that authentic and comprehensive musical training-learning to make from follow-up studies between music to increase further the association particular-appears music and various and read in music mathematical reasoning (Hetland 2OOOb, Rauscher, et al. 1997, Rauscher & Zupan 2000, aspects 2000). of Vaughn reviewed not only that the effect of musical training in conjunction here suggest mathemati- Meta-analyses with may benefit greatly from explicit attention to teaching cal study .-I learning 2000), but transfer (Vaughn of toward this particular aspect strong ta-analyses indicate that there is a me--- I' between learning music and associations , I also that understanding I I when authentic music instruction is integrated strongest are math the study between assocjation reliable and of DroDor- sDatial-temDoral on based mathematical instruction with or I .. I I I (Graziano,'et al. tional aspects of learning math 1999, summarized in piusic and standardized read! performance on this volume). Results from this study imply that optimal conditions for , I 1 transfer may depend enhancing new forms of curriculum learning on verbal~-tests'.~'-'-'~~--~--- ing-al'd- and design that is. the math of curricular units that in both music; by two pro- fundamental concepts employ shared disciplines (e.g., music math be essential for replicating the instruction) in may portional or spatial-temporal thinking included and school settings. public in of success interdisciplinary learning music and language follows a similar pattern in this research. Meta-analy- Likewise, the relationship between strong that there reliable association between the study of music and performance on stan- ses and indicate is "a skill (Butzlaff and that success in second-language 2000). development verbal tests" and dardized reading use of music-integrated instruction infused with underlying mental processes drawn from lin- occurred with the speech therapy (Lowe In this research, the use of songs in second-lan- guistics, musical perception, and 1995). enhances instruction structure, vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions guage pronunciation, directly grammatical and in ideas. speed of delivery, significant phrasing, of linking variety encouraging as well as wide resulted from studies that employed music lessons or listening Less not linked with lan- robust effects sessions revealed that of integration, such as the association of guage instruction. This research relatively superficial aspects to affect attitudes about likely in songs, are more academic topics or presence of specific vocabulary with lyrics the

146 reading or writing tasks to produce positive indications of reading achievement (Andrews 1997, Hallam 1999). than on learning between music and other areas of cognition is relevant to educators interested Research transfer levels in the contribution of become possible in the music-integrated of interdisciplinary learning. New meaning of fundamental concepts, Dewey might have said, "are grasped competing curriculum when as representations another-a result that is attained only when acquisition one their relations in to accompanied by constant is meaning of is studied." reflection upon the what and is an tension There the "one-way cause underlying effect" and "two-way 3: Theme between of research on music and learning. interaction" models to Vincenzio and to play the organ and other instruments. [Galileo's father] taught Galileo sing, the In the this instruction he introduced the boy to of Pythagorean rule of musical . . . course and composition to numerical properties of ratios, which required strict obedience in tuning in a scale. notes . Vincenzio filled a room with weighted strings of varying lengths, diam- when . It seems his ideas, Galileojoined him as to assistant. and test certain harmonic eters, tensions to say that Galileo, who gets credit for being the father of experimental physics, may have safe the rudiments and the value of experimentation from his own father's efforts. learned Daughter. Dava Gafifeo's Sobel, 2007. causal difficult to determine. The quotation above suggests are received relationships in learning One-way Galileo his education in an interdisciplinary learning environment richly supported by concepts and part of a significant shared among math, physics, and music. However, learning case, it seems no less true to assert processes in this Galileo's lessons enhanced his understanding of math instrumental physics than to assume that Galileos that or his father's scientific experiments improved his musical skill. As is often the case with interest in interdisciplinary learning, concerning the determination and direction of cause and effect remain problematic. conclusions addition to tension between the "essentialist" and "instrumental" points of view mentioned earlier, In the presence another tension researchers who report the undeniable among of positive associations there exists music and other disciplines, between learning in on the interpretation of these data. The ten- yet who disagree sion principally between (a) those who accept strong associations between musical training and arises academic achievement as evidence sufficient for advancing the conclusion that music enhances learning in other subject drawn be (b) those who insist that conclusions about the effect of music on learning in other subjects and areas experimental studies that adhere strictly to standards of "one-way, cause-and-effect" models of analysis. only to to of reviewed here, it may be useful research adopt a middle-ground approach: in consideration the However, data from the point of view of "two-way interaction" models of learning to disciplines. analyze across the of public school learning environments, many teachers, administrators, and researchers Given complexity prove may be productive to it that any one feel not .- ,. - __ - ThT intervention in another sub- of learning two-way interactionist' posifio%- is-thXKprovemFn$ form causes that I ject. The "two-way interactionist" position is r improvement in learning in either disci- disciplines-taught two of learning in either in of separately: two I plines-taught separately or together-suggests rein! catalyzes. reinforces. catalyzes, discipline and deep- one discipline that Lr together-suggests that one perfor- academic Thus, other. learning in ens 1 the I from strong instruc- mance isjust as likely to benefit forces,.and deepens-learning ~ . 1 in the other.." tion in from strong benefit to likely music is as music, of "one-way proof of causal- is no longer necessary to position the canons in the academics. Hence it instruction ity" against training and conclusion that significant, positive correlations between high-quality musical the Compendium constitute evidence math/language achievement in every meta-analysis included in this reported education. core curriculum the into music of integration support the to sufficient in public 4: for use of music as a tool Theme social-emotional development and behavior modifica- The tion in schools. as on effects of Studies the reinforcement for education and behavioral objectives investigate the use of music document simply that isolated studies to In addition in academic classrooms. making listening and music music effect (Kariuki different kinds of background music for students responding to writing assignments the of & of Hallam 1999). a meta-analysis of a wide range Honeycutt studies suggests that the use of "contingent 1998, music" strategies can provide overwhelming positive reinforcement value for behavior in classrooms, on school from buses, reading achievement tests (Standley 1996). Reports and studies that use contingency- and in math based music programs provide strategies for optimizing classroom management and student motivation while showing no negative effects-and several striking indications of positive effects-on students' academic perfor-

147 mance and most important to classroom teachers, research demonstrates that contingency motivation. Perhaps applic- music music making can be adapted creatively to any classroom and that they are and listening for plans wide variety of musical, academic, and behavioral objectives. across a able emotionally disturbed children provide in-depth views of employing Studies performance and music of music to self-efficacy (concept of self-capacity) in at-risk youth (Kennedy 1998, Kariuki & listening strategies improve critical Improvements through music rely on in self-efficacy thinking and not on optimal thera- Honeycutt 1998). alone. Descriptive data from this research show how musical performance enables patients to peutic conditions social acquire coping more effectively with this environment. The performance tasks and competencies while outlined strategies supporting cognitive research should be studied in by music educators-not only this carefully they are sequenced skillfully but also because they show how self-efficacy of any music student would because stimulus improved by cognitive limit negative self-evaluativejudgment and provide that for creative strategies be work other disciplines (Kariuki & Honeycutt 1998). in Conclusions and Implications to need they future, the with curriculum partners become "If the arts help define our path to own other will allow them to contribute their that distinctive richness in ways subject disciplines complexity and the learning process as a whole." to J., Horowitz, R., and Abeles, H. Burton, and In Implications, Through the Arts: curriculum "Learning " in of Change, 1999. Champions The uncertainty of music's place in education learning not due to a lack of research that supports the value of is basis for, in and through music. Research now offers a theoretical and growing evidence of, the significant effects a result, music academic achievement, As measures of and class- and of learning shared between music other learning room now can embrace learning transfer as a desirable product of interactions between educators in li both math and music to and concepts indigenous From this perspective, fundamental subjects. academic music classrooms can become the cornerstone of the music-infused interdisciplinary curriculum. Although music always literature, its particular will for its own sake, its unique exist social and career paths, and as a source of human release-now, bolstered by its value for interdisciplinary learning supported in this enjoyment and emotional '35 education imagined status can achieve a core in public research, music long ago by the ancient Greeks. theoretical as student learning will account for well the of l ___

148 References The reviewed here is organized into four primary points of focus: research Music 1. Skills and Language Butzlaff, "Can Be Used to Teach Reading?" (meta-analysis) R., Music of Andrews, L., Integrated Reading and Music Instructional Approach on Fifth-Grade Students' "Effects an Attitude." Music and Music Achievement, Attitude, Reading Achievement, Reading Studying." on Background Music of S.."The Effects Hallam, on into the Second-Language Classroom Effect the Lowe, A,, of the Incorporation of Music Learning "The Reinforcement of Music and Language." Mutual Music, and Spatial Reasoning Math, II. Training Music through Math Proportional and of Graziano. A., Peterson, M.. & Shaw, G., "Enhanced Learning " Training. Spatial-Temporal to Hetland, L., "Listening Reasoning: Music Enhances Spatial-Temporal Evidence for the 'Mozart " ' Effect. fysis) (meta-ana Hetland, L., "Learning to Make Music Enhances Spatial Reasoning." (meta-analysis) Rauscher, F., Shaw G.. Levine, L., Wright, Dennis, W., & Newcomb, R., "Music Training Causes Long-term Enhancement Preschool Children's Spatial-Temporal Reasoning." of F. & M., "classroom Keyboard Instruction Improves Kindergarten Children's Zupan, Rauscher. Field Spatial-Temporal Performance: A Experiment." "Music and Mathematics: Modest Vaughn, for the Oft-Claimed Relationship." (meta-analysis) K., Support Music and General Cognitive Development 111. T., Bruhn, Bilharz, Music & "The Effect of Early J.. Training on Child Cognitive Development." R., Olson. Costa-Giomi. "The Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Cognitive Development." E., IV. Music, Therapeutic, SociaVEmotional. and Behavioral Objectives Music Kariuki, Honeycutt. C.. "An Investigation of the Effects of & on Two Emotionally Disturbed Students' I? Skills." Writing and Motivations Writing Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Vicarious Experience on the Kennedy, J., "The Effects of Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem of Juvenile Delinquents and Disadvantaged Children." Standley, "A J., Effects the of Music as Reinforcement for Educational/Therapy of Meta-Analysis Objectives. "(meta-analysis)

149 0 n

150 STUDY NAME: Art: Can It Help Children Learn to Read? Instruction in Visual AUTHORS: and Ellen Kristin Burger Winner Aesthetic Education, Fall 34, (3-4): 277-293 Journal PUBLISHED: of 2000, Research Questions be instruction skills arts? in visual by Can reading enhanced instruction by itself studied the 1 Meta-analysis cognitive-transfer-of-skill hypothesis: Can art improve reading? Meta-analysis Is hypothesis: through art 2 studied the motivational-entry-point teaching reading alone? than teaching reading effective more METHODS two meta-analyses of studies that test the hypothesis The instruction in the visual arts improves reading. They authors conducted that reviewed over 41 out sent individual recorded studies and invitations to over 200 arts education researchers to submit 4,000 journals, and their standard From this of work, they selected 10 studies that met amount of being empirical studies with con- research. vast unpublished the basic hypothesis that some form of visual arts instruction improves some aspect of reading ability. trol groups and that tested They 13 sizes from these 10 studies. Two of the studies required separate effect effect calculations because of the nature of the size calculated participant groups. Each these groups was considered as a separate meta-analysis. Meta-analysis 1 focused on nine studies examining of between cognitive relationships 2 included four studies of rnotivational con- arts instruction and reading achievement. and meta-analysis one the nine studies focused from first to fifth grades. and elementary school subjects assessed pre-elernentary-aged nections. Eight on of aca- SES students and two assessed Iow-SES students. Duration ranged from 10 days to one full studies included average subjects. Seven examined four studies comparing art-reading integrated 2 with reading instruction alone. Two were studies Meta-analysis year. demic fifth-grade and were reading achievement studies. Three were first- to readiness, populations, and one was pre-elementary reading two widely, Duration ranged it did for the meta-analysis 1 group. from 27 days to one full academic year. as stucly The quite different in nature-duration, population, description section indicates that the studies were instructional inten- SES. sity measure. and grade level. outcome age level, statistical of effect sizes in meta-analysis 1 also indicated significant hetero- A review The fact that both reading readiness and reading achievement measures were used led the authors to separate these two groups geneity. analysis. for separate coded by two studies were who disagreed on only The independentjudges coding. This disagreement was resolved by recheck- one the original docurnent.-IB. ing RESULTS i" size calculations for the nine studies in rneta-analysis 1 do not support the hypothesis that there is a relationship between arts Effect in the area reading readiness. The effect sizes ranged from instruction and reading improvement except of - .3 r = .54 and the con- r = to the r = .25. confidence an average positive effect size of reading group, however, the with fidence interval spanned zero. For readiness ranged from interval allowing r = .48 and does not span zero, r a conclusion that there is a "small" relationship between visual = to .04 and reading readiness scores. The authors attribute some arts instruction to the fact that reading readiness measures depend to a of this study on figural items rather than linguistic. In their continued or of heterogene- larger extent than reading achievement visual measures reading readiness and an indication was this concluded that the to all the factors related of for to able not were authors the ity account did not a single population of like studies. that their sample come from fact effect sizes were homogeneous, indicating that the studies were similar. The mean effect size was r = .21 and the con- 2s Meta-analysis r = .03 to r = .45. does not span zero and suggests that the effect sizes would likely be the same in another sam- fidence interval range, ple authors conclude that this meta-analysis "revealed a positive, moderately sized relationship between reading like studies. The of integrated improvement the basis of the small number of studies arts-reading form of instruction. The authors conclude, and "...on an hypothesis."-'KB. only marginal support for is [their] found, there FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE arts education research is also useful for researchers and in identifies several The report on these instructors meta-analyses to consider. prob- The identification important design variables is also of ranging from studies research the lems with they examined future important for consider. Some to impor- researchers The teacher effect issues to control group issues. identifica- this missing variables are tant addi- their from study, and problems education research tion of arts in methodology contribution more significant-instruc- tion would make its field, is a positive research entire the to contribution but is tional elements, skills especially content in both the visual researchers. useful for especially or in between cognitive authors engaging qualities The make that the distinction arts and reading and motivational the visual arts.-TB. potential elements and motivational elements as variables

151 COMMENTARY .the model upon which these . ". medical/agricultural complaints as meta-analysis a about One of the major are standards for meta-analysis is not derived neces- has technique research finding do with the difficulty of to similar or comparable studies to include. This is particularly com- understand the to from.which one the best sarily vexing to arts personnel who build programs on unique, or individualistic, and who arts characteristics non-standard or more visual specifically education plex endeavor of find to or generaliza- difficult it consider standardization as a method some- tions about their work. Meta-analysis art education. " it groups if response, especially times exacerbates this unlike studies together, because it requires a degree of the as the discussion of first meta-analysis does. The individualistic do and unique programs that comparability authors point to the fact that reading readiness measures and because it is aimed at not distribution of have, greater feature figural appropriate more perhaps are and elements programs can support. The results admit authors such than that linguistic programs than more instruction for visual use is the that of discussion in their particularly case here, such measures. This reading achievement that the suggests studies meta-analysis 1. The descrip- reading readiness in appropriate when of selecting measures or creating issue design included pro- tions of the meta-analysis in the study pro- projects is something that both arts-related looking at of vide ample documentation project char- of the extremes researchers should consider. gram designers and acteristics. study of appropriate identification authors' The not be should Standardized linguistic-based tests expected weaknesses, design problem teacher the as effect such to such about adequate information give programs and were reports, of seven of the authors when aware who the more linguistics- their effectiveness. It is probably true that or classes, taught the tested, of hypotheses the the being based drama such and narrative writing should as art forms failure alternative treat- provide control groups with to instruments by the be also characteris- that use measured of ments, further documents a range variables in these tics of development, character plot, the as such forms art selection of the question to reason is studies. There good , as than rather and setting linguistic characteristics such the first place. If in studies such varied for a meta-analysis vocabulary.-TB. and grammar, rhetoric, merit to these the only studies such attention, it may be are consider processes study review individual rather to best CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD meta-analysis. than describe 1 in meta-analysis The coding categories used value of The comprehensive and its careful is this work integrat- context-length, intensity, SES, the instructional of the entire research field (including published and review do ed information, vs. content present separate-but not unpublished work), uncovering 4.1 33 studies investi- that exception of identifying "vocabulary" as one topic with the reading. on of visual art gated effects the in reading instruction. The authors report that "these stud- used a widely accepted technique, meta- The research to us might if any, skills, which determine ies did not allow analysis, con- to assess the aggregate allowing the authors arts visual between transfer" they do not but reading, and of multiple studies that employed a range of stu- tribution do say why this was the of that the type say case. They dent statistical well as tests, achievement as varied reading did 1 meta-analysis conducted in comparison they allow techniques. them .to determine whether extra instruction the in .. beyond that fact the contribution, important most The separately taught skills from reading, visual arts, teaches on research the all across review systematic first the this is to reading ability." Its hard to imagine how that transfer is simply this that only a small number of studies met topic. they do this when they were not able to identify could transfer. might skills which scientific rigor. the researchers' standards for acceptable research. the is that message clear The more field needs in In spite of their indication that the data meta-analysis important contribution Another is the research of the they suggest have similar results. that like studies would 2 reading better finding that art-based instruction promotes .cannot generalized be 'I.. results the conclude that also through the added art largely reading, motivation that reliably are that future studies" (presumably even those to more offers for learning. On the other hand, the indirect conclude, studies). They like that when reading is likely "It the increased and art doing connection between of transfer integrated with children instruction. is arts instruction document.-6.w to achievement is much harder reading discussion their to read," motivated more become but the "motivation" factor that does not provide detail about COMMENTARY an it purports to discuss. If reading is taught "in engaging art projects," as the authors state, then they through way, The found only their strict meeting studies nine researchers constitutes what of should provide details engaging standards rela- of acceptable research that investigated the arts projects instruction what are aspects engag- and the of regu- tionship between visual art instruction (compared to the identify then should They ing. that measures link this skills reading and instruction) reading four studies and lar instruction. reading to engagement instruction integrated art-reading assessed that with regu- not does also 2 meta-analysis on report The distinguish nine of group The former instruction. reading studies lar reading used that those studies between mea- readiness only of lat- the students while 495 included a total sample achievement sures and those that used reading measures,

152 ter group four studies involved only 277 students. So. in of 50 years research, only 772 students have been almost of carefully on to exposed designed experimental treatments reading or art-reading integrated the learning effects of of obvious is to decry the lack One instruction. response research in this field. controlled more appropriate point is, perhaps, that the med- The model upon which these standards for ical/agricultural derived is not the best one meta-analysis are necessarily understand the complex endeavor of educa- from which to or more specifically visual art education. tion varied The contexts in which instruction delivered, even from is class- to classroom in the room building, make it difficult to same meaningfully transfer successes in controlled experimental settings to classrooms. messy it to understand the value that visual While is important can add to students' cognitive skills, it is art as impor- just tant (if more so) to know not how and why visual art con- the tributes to learning, as well as the organizational and instructional conditions that allow arts to help stu- learning become dents successful students. Thus, the 4.1 33 more studies should also be mined to learn what the many qual- itative studies can add to these important questions.-B.W

153 STUDY NAME: The and Knowing: An Experimental Study of the Potential of the Wisual Arts, Language, for Assessing by Language Minority Students Arts Academic Learning AUTHOR: Karen DeJarnette G. Dissertation, University Unpublished Doctoral PUBLISHED: 1997 of California, Angeles, Los Research Questions a Combination assessed through of of be history Can sixth-grade students' Understanding assessment reveal more history knowledge writing and drawing, and does this kind of ask than assessments that only for writing? show understanding drawing along with to Does the through opportunity particu- writing with limited English skills? students larly help METHODS world history classes taught by two teachers were randomly assigned to Ninety-eight of two groups. Both sixth-graders frorn four one four weeks each. each unit. student learning was assessed either by writing groups studied Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt for After for each a writing and drawing. Thus, each student received both assessments, one of unit; and half received the combination or alone assessment for Mesopotamia, writing/drawing In both assessments students were asked and describe half received this for Egypt. to words, (through or words most important of the region and drawings) the aspects important people. events, and artifacts ancl and note why they were important. Responses were scorecl by the researcher in terms explain content knowledge (on of a scale) and in four-point a (on two-point scale). A seconcl researcher scored a third of the responses, and after disagreements of interdisciplinary knowledge terms percent agreement reached.-E.W 100 were discussed. was RESULTS responses in the writingldrawing assessment. Some students wrote their response and then illustrated it: some Students used three types of and then added words: and some only drew. Drawings included maps first drew charts well as illustrations of people, places, events. or and as = score (mean drew and 1.99) content knowledge wrote they both scores for higher Students achieved facts. historical to convey objects when brought when (mean score = 1.38). Students also achieved higher interdisciplinary scores (showing that they wrote in more infor- than they only from other subjects. such mation geography or religion) when they both wrote ancl drew, compared to as they only Wrote (0.66 vs. 0.22). when Litnited-English-ability (n = 20) also scored higher on the writing/drawing assessment (mean score students 1.58) than on the writing = alone assessment (mean score = 1.03). Two limitations should be noted. No statistical tests were reported to determine whether the differences in scores between conditions in future research were significant. Arid was the researcher, who knew the hypothesis of the study. the the data Iperson who scored all of should the Scorers blirid.-f?.W 136 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD in visually, learned have they a written conjunction with a topic better assignment, can reveal what they know about history knowl- more reveal This study suggests that students the study use simply than if they words. Thus, adds to the a combi- knowledge through is assessed edge when their growing body assess- alternative that claims on research of drawing than nation of writing plus when it is assessed and ment influences the quality of student performance stu- not through writing alone. only This finding held for way habitual a student's between a mismatch that of learn- but dents with as typical students for limited English skills an ing can give misleading information and assessment well. shows study This about the student's level of academic attainment.-D.C. that way to be one may drawing us put into words.-E. W. reveal what students know but cannot COMMENTARY COMMENTARY having stu- of value educational the asserting Apart from the visu- This study asks the interesting question of whether through dents express and writing what they learned have tool assessment an as writing complement al arts can to valid drawing, the study claims that there are reliable and of con- of representations visual students' assessing ways learned reveal what in another subject, about students have not to, but does fully refers researcher The knowledge. tent this case, history. by which process a calibrating describe, another and she studies, a scorer future researcher In other than the that considered, an individual blind be should is, a on the percent agreement 100 to to achieve able rater were bias.-E. W. to avoid unconscious hypothesis sample of the students' work. Because one of the primary assessments is to widespread use of alternative obstacles CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD of educators' discomfort with assigning some sort measur- artwork, studies like this able student one value to should that allowing students This study argues to what represent provide much more detail about the rating process.-D.C.

154 STUDY NAME: the Educational Impact and Potential of the Museum of Modern Art's Investigating Thinking Curriculum: Final Visual Report AUTHORS: Dorothy Patricia Palmer MacGillivray, Shari Tishman, and of Unpublished Repon, New York, NY, 1999 Art, PUBLISHED: Museum Modern Question Research 9 to 10 are trained to look closely When works of art and reason children aged at see. they transfer these same skills to can activity? about what they a science METHODS (WC) was used in which 162 9- and 10-year-olds were trained to look closely A Visual of art and talk about Thinking Curriculum at works they in the works. Over the course of a year, these students participated in an average of seven to eight VTC lessons of about what saw the Modern visited the Museum of ininutes each. All of Art in New York City at least twice. 40 classes assess participating to were given an art activity designed to in this how well they could look Prior curriculum, students and talk at work of art. They were shown one about a two Jean of art ("Wall with Inscriptions" by of Dubuffet and "Liberation" by Ben Shahn) works were asked responses to the following two questions: "What's going on in this picture?" and "What clo you see that makes and to write that?" say you year of participation in the VTC. children were shown the other picture and were asked the same two questions. Immediately one After ques- of art image, students were given a non-art image from the domain the science and asked the same two to following the response They were shown a picture of a fossil record of two intersecting sets tions. animal footprints. The picture was labeled, "Footprints from of the Past." grades. 204 stuclen'ts of comparable ages. and group of same to a control The Art Activity and Footprints Activity were administered circumstances socio-economic as the experimental group. to the footprint image were scored in terms of amount of Responses about evidence used. Children who had not experi- reasoning goal look- learned in skills as a control group. The deterrnine whether the of the study was to Visual served curriculum Thinking enced the +% ing at ancl reasoning about art wo~ild transfer to the quite similar task of looking at and reasoning about a non-art image from the disci- pline of science.-€. W. RESULTS the art in the control group performed equivalently to children in the VTC at the pre-test. providing evidence assessment, On children were commensurate. After groups that the two the VTC, children achieved higher scores on evidential reasoning in the footprints year of a circular reasoning, and were likely to use less more aware of the fact that their interpreta- the did control group. were also than task They subjective. Thus, the students in the VTC appeared to have tions reasoning skills acquired from looking at works of art were looking and - deployed when given a scientific image.-E.W. that they then cases, the critical skill is that of looking closely and reason- FIELD THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO is seen.-E.w what ing about looking at This study in learned skills the that demonstrates CONTRIBUTIONS THE FIELD TO of task reasoning about a work of art transfer to and the about a biological image. The looking at and reasoning weight arts the that argument the to "add study lends This a picture biological image used here was of a fossil record what to specific and beyond learn students how sub- value" animal footprints, labeled of sets intersecting of two students' ject matter attainment, by to ability showing that Past." Footprints from the reasoning transfers to inferences about draw about artwork Students trained and art to reason look carefully about images science. case, Thus, this subjects-in in other showed higher reasoning ability when make to infer- asked a engaging in art criticism to develop, skill as is a worthy image.-E.w ences about the meaning of the footprint and developing tool in well thinking for appreciation art disciplines.-D.C. other COMMENTARY COMMENTARY that This study presents clear evidence skills learned the transfer can arts through science. This is a case of to addresses whether students study primarily Although the skills involved in the art domain are very near-transfer: the reasoning about works of transfer can art visual other to similar tested to the skills In in the science domain. both

155 images, the methodology hinges directly on two study's issues that to arts education: how additional are critical the level of student performance educators can determine to the arts-related skills relative question and what the in instruction While looked and sounded like. actual involved study's the is central tojustifying the use of stated purpose the arts in education, these latter two issues are integral to helping educators implement the understand how they can as essential features arts the educational process: It is of incumbent on arts education research to spell out carefully the details of how instructors and evaluators handle these less so as to render arts instruction and integration matters opaque.-D.C.

156 STUDY NAME: Seeing: Using Visual Response to Improve the Literary Reading of Reading Is Reluctant Readers Wilhelm Jeffrey AUTHOR: D. Reading Journal 27 (4): 467-503 PUBLISHED: Behavior, of 1995, Research Question begin to the reluctant learning-disabled readers be to enjoy reading'? visual arts Can used help METHODS who were "reluctant" readers Two helped in a nineiweek session to visualize seventh-grade boys who were learning disabled and were the were asked stories through visual arts. They ideas or objects that would cutouts characters and find in the story create to represent and then use these to dramatize the they were They were reading, story. asked draw a picture of strong visual impressions formed also to while reacling they were engaged in discussions of how the pictures And books work along with the words. Students story. a in illustrated were to illustrate books, ancl to engage in also in which they depicted visually the key details of nonfiction texts. asked "picture-mapping," to literature.-E.W a collage that represented their response of a particular piece to create The final activity was RESULTS two students became much more sophisticated readers through the course of the nine weeks of visualization training. They took a The active role and began to interpret text rather thanjust passively read more iri reading. researcher that visual art provides The suggests it. "inetacognitive marking point" that allowed these readers to see what they understood. It is also a because these concrete possible that were interested in visual art. the use of visual particularly in reading made them more motivated to read.-E.W. boys art reluctant to do so. The study, therefore, been extremely TO THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS ability that integrat- of assert joins others motivational the --v in disciplines.-D.C. other arts ing the into instruction that case study ethnographic is an study This inge- uses nious methods involving the visual arts to engage reluctant COMMENTARY readers in reading.-€.W This the study is to that meaning kind that can give research COMMENTARY arts education establishes simply correlations between research achievement. Correlational practices and student is a hypothesis-generating next step This The study. would suggests and instructional strategies promising activities be to students of group a larger with a study conduct to for this promote one under- studies like use; to educators be how generalizable the findings are. It would determine standing actions concretely and look what those about helpful know to stu- for works only this technique whether actions sound for like and reveal the meanings those have ability and interest dents with it whether or art, visual in This students. is critical information of kind to stimulating would work reader.-€.W. reluctant any for arts educa- fruitful educator reflection about how to apply tion research to new settings. THE FIELD CONTRIBUTIONS TO to examine this study should be The next step beyond the context within which the methods used in this study value the study demonstrates The as inter- an arts the of place, schools facilitators and barriers of kinds the took mediary process. The author used educational in the visual enacting of in the them, and training that kinds face would art to two students in reading who previously had engage the in who works with those the students such as the person three cen- All to effective. order are be in case study needs "This study is an ethnographic case study tral everyday the arts the integrating school curricu- to into lum.-D.C. that ingenious methods involving the uses visual arts to engage reluctant readers in read in . g "

157 Essay: Reflections Visual Arts Education Studies on U L. Terry Baker and The two arts that are most frequently found in the standard school curriculum, but music are visual arts the at literary arts are in school arts programs that are aimed frequently represented drama, theater, and the more areas. Recent research curriculum in other core enhancing learning from music experiences to on transfer effects areas such as has drawn much attention, but it has not yet resulted in large-scale learning in other mathematics the or school level. The research literature on at the visual arts in these reform curriculum interdisciplinary practice Only four studies of the programs of visual arts processes, procedures, skills, or instructional prac- is scant. use tices language development, literacy, reading, or science comprehension were selected following the to enhance for rigorous guidelines related studies from con- other this Compendium, guidelines that eliminated established reasons. for methodological usually sideration, provide the basis for the following discussion. The discussion is not These to be a cri- four studies intended or of these studies, but rather an exploration of dismissal group of issues they raise that tique a significant and other professionals in researchers field need to consider. They open the way for us to reflect on what kinds the of will best inform studies practitioners in education and those who consider future research needs in both arts of concerned education. That such studies exist and that they are being collected for review by all field the arts marker on the developing path of arts education. is an important positive Arts for Questions Relationships between Visual Researchers Elements and Key Investigating Curriculum Learning Core is the visual art most included in the studies summarized in the Compendium. Questions that arise when Drawing in teaching that is aimed at enhancing learning in core curriculum areas include: is incorporated drawing "Are questions "Are we teaching art and the core subject?" as, we teaching drawing, or are Domain such teaching art?" "How do we distinguish between drawing, mark making, and art making?'' we "When does drawing 'art' or 'artistic'?" "Are 'illustrations' art?" "What specific aspects of graphic become marks are upon their 'artistic' qualities?" we make of "Are the by or dependent 'artistic'?'' uses art procedures shaped Authority and validity questions, such as, "Who is to determine when and by what standards a child's scrib- bles rise the level of art?" and, to and instruction questions, as, "Is 'teaching' the operative verb?" "If we are not teaching art Teaching such are disciplines?" simply making 'instrumental' uses of art procedures in the service of other se, We per we the ask the also would be if we had a more complete teaching balance among what character- might results of all the disciplines being taught, including the arts. istics of the studies are intended to illuminate instructional practices that Three to improve language or read- promise ing and one relates to teaching science, but none of them promises to improve arts instruction. They capacities, to reveal aspects of arts in education programming, all related troubling the tenuous relationship all historically in core curriculum subjects. There are: between visual arts instruction and instruction Situational or contextual definitions; when they between in the arts and instruction in the core Balance instruction are taught curriculum subjects together: Determining when arts instruction is complete and sufficient. all they but art, in the making of, or understanding of, visual students studies describes instructing None of the student use some element or elements, usually drawing, associated with the visual arts. While the ele- describe of level not rise to the of "art," their association with art isjustifica- may reports research ments described in these for studying their properties and roles tion learning situations, primarily because such study prepares the way in for research that can build on the results to isolate or identify "artistic" elements and processes. further Operationalizing Definitions for Situations and Contexts Specific terms for specific contexts Defining to understanding the elements under examination, especially defi- is critical nitions of what the authors mean by "art." Setting definitions is essential for both those involved in evaluation and assessment arts learning and those who would use such studies. This is true regardless of the difficulties of only we had defining art and even if the always way we can define it is by describing what art is not-adver- have tising, house painting, illustration. For educators who intend to inform others of the contributions of arts elements are to other domains, clear definitions are crucial. If there learning in to be answers to the questions introduced

158 .. -~ ~..- ___ -.. . _. . to be traced they con- above, the to back need practical, to -hpOrtant ''-It-% tf$ on research remember that text-relevant definitions of authors by the used the 1 most who absence the In papers. write definitions, of Impact capacity-' any learning in on 'arts' activities of as if there were proceed or about the arts a common ~ I what shared understanding of is being discussed. The interdisciplinary-requires attempt an to disciplinary or arts" can mean any number of practices, phrase "visual ~ or processes, objects, in three of the four but it is used , - ~ . ~ art." of definition working Lceate..a . ~- statement or a a simple as selected studies descriptive as most, or drawing further definition. That graphic illustration, established writers of practices the label for without education opt for descriptions or illustrations of art rather than definitions is true. Gombrich about art and arts hundred remember of art instead of a definition. It is important to five that research on presents four or examples interdisciplinary-requires activities in any capacity-disciplinary or learning an attempt "arts" the impact of on of art. to create a working definition disappoint own of art, which he admits will definition some, Gehlbach (1990) allows presents he Though his not need a single definition of art. Others would argue that there is no single definition of art. It may that we may as that states, "There really is no such thing as art. There are only artists.'' It is more likely that, well be Gombrich what by "art," Pierce (1934) indicates, is "the opinion which is fated to be ultimately agreed is like truth, meant as philosophy, investigate." educators who work in a narrower realm than and how- who upon by For researchers all be pragmatic agreement about basic definitions. Gehlbach opts for a communication-based ever, there needs to definition: no time reference for appropriate decoding, (b) is dis- communication.. Artistic .(a) has specific from people. is regarded as different (c) objects decoding for played by unspecified individual they naturally occur, and (d) is an object of leisure, not related to the survival or or events as of the physical well-being decoder. "One that, that definitions should vary with the context in which they are to be used," and may states He argue of forms such as reading use similarly relativistic approaches instruction he describes how other dif- for account to His the need definition on for operational definitions. insist fluency. However, reading of ferent levels he does cultural the public education from a broad of perspective"; "relatively objec- appropriate for purposes would be: itself to systematic design tive, experimentation; and "precise enough to discriminate art instruc- " lending and concerns of general public education." from all other tion Requirements of Good Research on Good Arts in Education Instruction The Contextual Art, which most definitions highly situated and contextual, carries these characteristics into instructional set- is by As a consequence this contextual characteristic, operational definitions that limit the terms of related tings. of define research of instruction are especially useful in arts in education studies. Thus, arts edu- the parameters and moved the common of instruction, which has historically flow toward generalized distribu- against cation works effects across large populations. Lightfoot concludes, " tions . .good teaching, like a good school, is situation- of . determined, in a context, with a history and an evolution." Researchers who have studied art ally embedded that for those elements teaching, searching distinguish teaching from good arts in general, spec- good teaching that arts teachers focus on ify of the context that derive from the highly situational personal char- those elements acteristics their students, their feelings, thoughts, and life situations outside the classroom. Good arts teach- of build their teaching on an understanding and knowledge (1989). and say MacGregor (1986) and Flinders ers, Gray their students and their lives to a greater extent than do teachers in other subject areas. There is ample room of determine whether these teaching characteristics extend to integrated, interdisciplinary, to for additional research related arts. that includes the or instruction educators need for research The to help for definition use research is exacerbated when we extend our and specific conceptions of arts instruction beyond the more common arts discipline-based approaches to include areas, or learning in other subject tO interdisciplinary instruction, related arts instruction, instruction for transfer work instruction. issue here is not so much whether the pertinent children are doing in an inte- integrated The visual artdhistory lesson can be labeled "art," but whether the essential characteristics of the art form grated are integrated the instruction with integrity. Explanations of transfer from art experiences to learning in other into sub- ject with their constant intertwining of causal effects, areas, even more rigorous definitions of the arts demand elements deemed to be essential to the process of integration. Would the work have more noticeable impact on learning in other if the artistic elements were fully realized? Does work that respects the integrity of the subjects use elements or less artistic on student learning? The studies examined here make most have greater of impact drawing activities. The history of drawing in the public schools of North America has always been problematic for .linked.. .with artists educators. "Drawing was introduced into Canadian public schools., arts penmanship, and . . Drawing was a means of social con- creativity.. utility and mechanical and industrial progress.. .nothing about elements trol If student work using arts and cultural hegemony." is thought of as simply illustration, a mechanical

159 act, a utilitarian task specific artistic or aesthetic dimensions or intentions, is it fair to describe the instruc- without as "arts-based" "arts-infused"? If the drawing part of the instruction does not rise to the level of art, is the tion or example of uses of the art? work an "instrumental" in this four on instruction and learning in non-arts content, rather concentrated All sample are reports included instruction on than or arts skills. The Tishman report treated here in of a larger report that prob- visual art is part of but the section provided arts activities, the Compendium describes "non-art discussion ably includes a for at transfer from a Visual Thinking Curriculum to science. The report talks about "near transfer" to activity" aimed with and "a content" images surface similarity" to arts images examined by students scientific "visual a narrative in class. regularly scheduled two special education students in his of classes who were encouraged The Wilhelm study visual forms of expression rather than verbal to convey their understanding of reading assignments, among to use the here, makes of relating instruction using visual elements those considered most characteristics indi- the of to But Wilhelm was primarily vidual He did not teach the two research students. concerned with teaching reading. to draw or expand their arts knowledge or skills. Though other students in the classes that Wilhem taught subjects had by skills were intrigued who the visual work better language the of of the study they did not two subjects techniques adopt own work, nor were they encouraged to through instructional activities designed for the their instructor. the by of the visual arts study offers "teach- The DeJarnette definitions as r'-G~-o~a~t~t~~~-h~~.Tea~hing on; but her definitions do not ina" and "assessment" tools, meet 1 al. Tishman, "art." term et Gehlbach's criteria for operationalizing the their stuJ an knowledge understanding and of "art about talk images," and "visual art," activity," but the stu- "visual own their dents that, indicate their study visual the judgment, in in to lives and their pents greater a than extent material used science studies does not qualify as "artistic." For in their 1 the absence inadequacy of definition here would raise Gehlbach, or in the research. answered not science learning that are and the of of student work selected for three of the studies examined here are described as drawings and The examples makes the "visual arts" elements are used in their lessons, but no one defines the work as art or that authors state claims it as art. In the visual thinking for the students themselves state that the visual material that they skills study, are applying their thinking skills to is not "art," and the researchers make no contrary claim. For this reader, the absence of operational definitions leads me to question the fairness of any attribution of language or sci- such knowledge or development ence skills whether contribution arts procedures. A related issue the of of to is that on a piece of paper with a processes." Making a mark the procedures selected are uniquely "arts procedures or "artis- #2 result in a line or smudge and may be "graphic" in nature, but calling such work "art" or even may pencil tic" Even producing a representational drawing of an is a stretch. or artifact, while visual and graphic, may object j' far short being art. The fact that a procedure may be used to make art does not make it an art procedure. fall of but it is not necessarily art. legitimate aim and Illustration is a very process, (1989)], [Gray MacGregor (1986) and Flinders studies including Wilhelm's report among the recent Several and here, have extended the degree to which situational or contextual factors are consid- four studies represented evaluating Development researching school arts education activities. The Education in Center's studies ered or and Empire State Partnership Project Arts Annenberg Project [Baker York Bevan (200O)l have the and the New of variables from among the practices of 130 separate school/cultural agency partnerships, combed contextual and researchers are working to link those variables there instructional practices and student impact. The Burton, the to and Abeles (2000) Champions of Change report incorporated situational data and analysis in an impor- Horowitz, study that the importance of considering social "constellations" in determining arts program tant established Columbia, A whole recent Canadian studies from Ontario, British of and Calgary are adding detail impact. spate the still crudely charted path of arts in education research. Future research will need to extend the mapping of to of school contexts between aesthetic, social, emotional, and cognitive aspects discipline and links characteristics we for in the studies collected what the Compendium. beyond see Balance selection, allocations The is one that affects curriculum content of of time and space, and staffing issue balance in schools. As an issue of learning and instruction, the balance between discipline-based content, skills decisions four on development is crucial but seldom discussed in the or visual arts studies taught, and impact cognition on related or integrat- change efforts based reviewed here. This researcher's investigations of large-scale school on the or found examples of balanced instruction, equal has nearly equal emphasis arts seldom ed instruction and the related discipline. More usually in schools, arts content is not taught as thoroughly as that arts other of disciplines, arts skills students need and the produce the products are not taught at the same level as to artistic teaching curriculum disciplines' When new resources such as core artists, new arts curricula, or additional skills.

160 specialist teachers balance may shift, but it often shifts away from the core curriculum are introduced, the truly balanced instructional program is rare to maintain. The Wilhelm study illustrates A and difficult emphases. common set an increasingly the the elements technique he of is limited, for visual most in that issues balance uses students who have identifiable learning disorders, and who benefit from the use of their visual capac- part, to two and they teacher had not anticipated. With increasing use of multiple intelligences modes of ities in the ways an determined individual student capabilities and balance may necessarily be by irrel- instruction, balance be may evant concept. as in the well or content balance is common between arts education field as curriculum of broader The issue A distribution of time, emphasis, or content among different disci- completely equitable and arts other subjects. plines distributions. are completely inequitable neither One unfortunate is but neither possible nor desirable, a constant state of imbalance is resentment on the part of arts educators toward core discipline of consequence and education advocates who are seen as "using" the specialists arts among arts, there are issues Even the arts. balance in the curriculum. School-based related to most programs to the static visual arts education restricts arts as painting and drawing or to music. The performing arts of dance and theater and media arts such as video such shifts the other way in arts not the various art forms are in equal degrees. The balance among usually included relating art education programs aimed to at instruction in core curriculum disciplines. A recent statewide con- of vening over artists, and school and cultural organization administrators working on 300 teachers, teaching cur- arts education programming that supports core curriculum subjects employed only evaluation for and riculum visual arts faculty member among a host of theater, dance, one, and media faculty. Visual arts part-time music, who attended about the absence of resources supporting them in their development of teachers complained none Music teachers have raised similar complaints, but practices. were heard. The instruc- appropriate might being designed at this seminar nearly all addressed verbal literacy issues in the schools, and tional programs that those art forms chosen. used language more prominently were Completeness issue developmental aspects of children's drawings has been long and widely The Wilson and discussed. of (1980) 1982, Hatch and Gardner (1993). and Gardner 1984). all view universalistic developmental Wilson (1979, of children's graphic development as limited, arguing, instead, for views more complete a interpretation that con- variables. These researchers look instead siders many a complex set of interactions among other factors and at and their work suggests that other researchers should consider a more nearly complete set of elements factors, of determining just how much is nec- and educators alike is that in arts education. The problem for researchers essary for study Genetics, culture, skills, emotional disposition, environmental factors, and social and a complete the child's development in and these factors may interact in entirely idiosyn- cultural contexts all play roles in art, from individual cratic These views, with their inclusion of external context and increased focus to individual. ways in terms of "events" that: behaviors, define learning experiences and on external, social experiences a quality as a whole. By quality ... meant the total meaning of the event. The quality of have is event resultant of the interaction of the is the and the world, that the experiencer the inter- is, of the organism and the physical relations that provide support for the action experiences. The of such instructional situations, as we see in the studies selected for this discussion, can eas- complex reality overtax the of researchers and research methodology, particularly experimental methodology. The ily resources list of minimum proficiencies for arts teachers includes 14 generic competencies California State University as "understandings," "communication and thinking skills," and "values and grouped and 34 art com- attitudes," petencies as "art production," "art history," "art criticism and aesthetics," and "relationships between identified question for A researchers and audiences alike is and other disciplines." of art and connections with life area "what constitutes the whole?" or at least "what can stand for the whole?" Sharp El Shayeb states that it would be difficult study all the variables included in the to document. csu When a study a complete enough? When is discipline complete enough to justify faith in its instruction in is the case of arts education, perhaps "completeness" needs to be defined at least partially by the findings? In or precision the accuracy connections between arts elements taught and the characteristic elements accept- of by the field of just by the number ed connections made. The national standards for arts education rather than levels-the levels for elementary and upper-elementary the reported in three of the studies-comparison include of relationships in visual, tactile, spatial, and temporal elements, purposes of arts such as communicating, per- suading, recording, celebrating, embellishing, and designing. Students at this level are to be able also expected art the compare cul- roles of to makers in different evaluate their own artwork using established criteria to and tures and times and how their natural environments affected their art. instruction in reading, for example, be considered complete if the students received no skills training? Would skills it the case that little is frequently training is provided before students are asked to arts instruction In visual ... to draw and paint, for example, with no begin producing are normally asked artistic work. "Young children instruction (e.g.. self- in drawing or painting [and they]. ..spend large amounts of time in activities whatsoever

161 expression) for lack the requisite prior understanding and skills." (Gehlbach 1990) In projects such as which they ones examined there was ample room for the children the in these reports, had the to demonstrate that they skills these as to indicate their understanding of potential effects. Both of and indicators would to required art make extent the evaluate help learned appropriately along with content and skills in which art is to being taught and In the reported here, there is no evidence studies art skills training. disciplines. the related of adequate taxonomies from which the authors of these studies might have chosen arts skills, content, Are there responses? Yes. their studies have presented a more complete picture of the relationships aesthetic Would meet the practices in language areas? Yes. Could the researchers learning dictates of research and arts between those related especially methodology, the many additional variables in experimental research? to controlling Are Perhaps better off for the studies done? Definitely, for not. we ele- the steps that are necessary for putting take they beginning , ,needtofind ways -i-~~~~~~~~~~~~, cog- learning, about discussions into arts ments associated with the and nition, instructional strategies, and curriculum content design. more evidence appropriate the of qualitative Do we need more complete studies with context-specific definitions I the arts related elements and control of these elements of and 1 -_ lhe-a .L-_ expe ci ence -of ds at many variables work the against course. classrooms? of in The Path Ahead opportunity to consider issues related Having better arts education programming and instruction, especially in an to arts education, against the backdrop of systematically gathered information has been rare in recent years. The visual in education need all their practitioners arts the kind of deliberation these studies support and provide. These and but have all or even most of the answers we need, found they have identified some new paths and researchers not move our understanding ahead. Researchers need to helped their definitions of what counts as legitimate broaden on of elements to include studies that build characteristic and make use of the valid investigations research or and the arts. They need to find ways of counting as appropriate evidence more of the qualitative experience of the arts. They need important beginnings. but paths we explore, the on markers plant more to these studies make Reference Chalmers, Drawing "Teaching (1998) Graeme, in F. Baker, Assessment: Arts Education "Contextual T. (2001) Freedman. in Why?" - Canada Nineteenth-Century Counting in Context," Seattle, American Educational F. Eds. and curriculum, Culture, and K. Hernandez, Research Association Meeting Annual Meeting. Albany, Education: Art Comparative Perspectives. of Press. York New State University NY "New Currency for the Arts From. in Education: Change Theory in Remer, Practice," Promising into K. (1997) "The Arts, Language, and Knowing: DeJarnette, American J. New Enrichment. Beyond ed. York: of Potential of the Visual the Experimental Study An Arts, 1996. on the Council Arts for Academic Learning by Language Assessing Minority Students," dissertation, Los unpublished and "School Change Bevan, B.. through Arts Angeles: University Los California at Angeles. of in the New Contextual Arts Education Instruction: Arts Partnerships City York for in Education D. "Voices From Flinders. the Classroom: Educa- (1989) New Orleans, American Educational Program." ERIC OR: tional Practice Can Inform Policy." Eugene April 2000. Meeting, Association Annual Research in on Clearinghouse Educational Management, P. Sharp Shayeb. El Boughton, Ligtvoet, D.. Eisner, E., and Eds. J. Arts Visual the Assessing and Evaluating in Freedman, K. Curricu- Eds. (1998) F. Hernandez, and lnternational Perspectives. New York: Education: and Education: Comparative Per- Art lum, Culture, College Teachers 1996. Press, New York University State NY spectives. Albany, of Press. Burger, E. and Winner, (2000) K. "Instruction Visual in Art: Can Journal Read?" to Learn Children It Help Significance of Gardner, (1980) H. Artful the Scribbles: of Aesthetic Education, 34 (3-4), 277-293. York: Basic New Drawings, Children5 Books, Inc. Publishers. Burton, Abeles, H. J., Horowitz. (2000) R.. and Arts: Curriculum "Learning in and Through the "Rejoinder and Evaluating in " Steers, to Assessing Implications," The Change: of Champions in the Arts Visual Boughton. Doug, Eds. Education. in Arts the of lmpact DC: on Learning. Washington, York: W.. New Ligtvoet, Johan. and Eisner, Elliot President's and Education Partnership Arts the 1996. Teachers College Press, Commission and the Humanities. on the Arts 160

162 (1993) of in Curriculum and "Art (1990) R. Gehlbach. Thinking Issues Distributed "Person-plus: A View Education: Learning," and Research, " Educational Researcher. October, in Salomon, G. ed. Distributed 19-25. Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Consi- (1991) The Child's Creation a Pictorial World. of Golomb, C. University Cambridge: Cambridge Press. derations. University Berkeley, CA: of California Press. Psychological Distributed Cognitions: (1 993) Ed. Salomon, G. Considerations. Educational and Cambridge: Cambridge Story ofArt. Oxford: Press. Phaidon E. (1972) The Gombrich, Press. University (1986) R. "Personally Relevant MacGregor, J., Gray, and Sharp El Shayeb, (1996) Art F? Evaluating Teaching: "Good Teaching and Concepts Observations about Art Boughton, of Schools," in in D., Teaching the Context University of manuscript, Activities." Unpublished British Eisner, and E., Assessing and Evaluating Eds. J. Ligtvoet, of Columbia, Department Visual and Performing Arts, Arts Visual the in International Education: Perspectives. in Sharp El Shayeb. I? Vancouver, College Press. York: New Teachers "Finding Cognition and the T., H. Gardner, (1993) in Hatch, Tishman, D. S., MacGillivray, and Palmer, P. (1999) in Human of View Expanded An Classroom: Intelligence," Investigating the Educational Impact and Potential of Distributed Salomon, G. Cognitions: Psychological ed. of Thinking Modern Art's Visual Curriculum: the Museum Cambridge and Cambridge: Considerations. Educational of Modern Art. York: The Final Report. New Museum Press. University (1995) J. Visual Seeing: Using Is "Reading Wilhelm. of Old that "Remember Theory (1974) J. Jenkins, J. Response Literary the Improve to Reluctant of Reading in 11, American Psychologist, " It! Forget Well, Memory? Readers," Journal 503. (4) 27 Behavior. of Reading 467- Situated Cognition: Human On (1997), Clancy, J. W. Knowledge Representations. Computer and Structure, Figure "Figure Wilson, B. and Wilson, M. (1979) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. UK: Framing and Action, and American of Drawing in Egyptian Children," Studies (1). 21 in Art Education. 36-43. A. J. Whitson, and D. Kirshner, Situated Cognition: (1997) Psychological Semiotic and Perspectives. Social. . (1982) Persistence the Perpendicular Principle: "The of Associates, Publishers. Erlbaum Lawrence Mahwah. NJ: and Determine Where Innate the Factors Why, When, Research Review Drawings." of Nature of in Visual Arts J. Lave, Mind, (1988) Practice: Cognition in Mathematics and 15, 1-18 Education. UK: Cambridge Cambridge, Everyday Life. in Culture Press. University (1984) Style Egypt: Cultural in Children's Drawings Graphic Development. as Acquisition Arts Visual Culture of (1997) Acquisition and the Practice of "The Whitson, J. D. Kirshner, in Understanding," and Eds. 13-25. (l), 10 A. Research. Social, Cognition: Situated Psychological and Semiotic L. E. Winner, Education: "The (2000) Arts in Hetland, and Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Perspectives. of a Causal Link," Evaluating the Evidence for Journal Associates, Publishers. 3-4, 34, Nos. FallNVinter, 1-9. Vol. Aesthetic Education, Lightfoot, The Basic Good School. (1 983) S. New High York: Where and What "Artistic (1989) Wolf, D. Learning: in It?" Is F? Sharp El Shayeb. Books in Gardner, H. & D. Perkins, Education. & Mind Art, University Urbana, IL: Illinois Press. The of Mason, Art in (1996) "Improving the Teaching," Quality of R. Boughton, D, Eisner, E. and Ligtvoet. J. Eds. Evaluating of the "A (1990) E. Childhood Art Study Case Zimmerman, in Education: International and Assessing the Visual Arts Artistically Talented Work of an Young Adult," Paper Perspectives. Press. College York: New Teachers at the presented, 98th of the Annual Convention August. American Psychological Association, Boston, of Carolina State Board of Education/Department North Visual Arts. Raleigh, NC: North Public Instruction. Department of Public Instruction. Carolina Peirce, Collected Charles Sanders of Papers c. (1934) Peirce (Vol. Weiss, 5) Eds. Hartshorne, C. & P. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press. as (1988) "Art of Understanding," Journal Perkins. D. 11 1-1 Aesthetic Education. 22(1), 31

163 Essay Arts the Transfer of Learning The and Catterall James S. of the neuro-function, level "At assigned to With backwater, it is only natural that recent world- transfer so an intellectual the academic and social effects of wide attention in the arts has stirred Up to learning learning unequivocaIly experiellces artistic A marker seems to and communities. significant chronological the academic I through other art forms. Bmmford and Daniel I John Rethinking Schwanz (20Co). Amidst the excitement, skeptics raised their voices. One learning psychologists was reason, group who had Chapter in Review Trmsrer of Research in Ed~r~tion. to the traditions of their discipline, to question anything smacking of transfer. Surely, they felt claims according Wachingion. C D Volunie 24. development through music, reading drama, through such problem-solving through as cognitive achievement Erlricaiional American Associalion. Research if closely, examined such rela- visual arts, or Or dance must be persistence based through on flawed research. the at the nation's And else. something of simply evidence or all. tionships must transfer of instances not or trivial. be ihitl. 2 escalated. They arts educators and artists found themselves in a dilemma as interest in learning through the arts 3 Imsed is hrieroverview .This or music through learning mathematics scores test increased standardized producing of feared that the talk directly on the Branslorcl R 01 Schwa12 characte112ali0n arts the worth through the visual of would demean the higher place intrinsic the shielding further in society, art of on rmarch past tiansfer. shift public and in to serving was arts the same time, interest however, increased arts the At eye. the public from 1 Shaw et 81.. 1996 education private resources toward arts a significant a revival in of educators heralded arts and Some artists way. the arts, for whatever rationale; others felt their callings compromised.

164 Transfer - basis a neurological theories of cognition light on the transfer debate. At the level of neuro-function, learning Widely accepted shed future learning impact experiences unequivocally questions the nature and extent of The are experience^.^ main not effects exist. Experiences reorganize neural pathways, impacts rather and than whether or neural receptors, such subsequent experiences are received that levels ranging of specific brain regions functioning differently, at sin- a to and exceedingly apparent. The experience of hearing undetectable or behaviorally trivial from profound note for the first time provides an illustration-say gle musical F from the low register of a well-attacked a sharp auditory experience impacts multiple and interacting regions of the brain-those engaged contrabassoon. This sounded scared attitudes (that me), memory in feelings and good but that), and rational won't forget linguistic (I she do responses (how rate), to name possible primary did that?), autonomous reactions (increased heart also neural impulses time, triggered is heard travel paths among second a note the responses. When same of the involved with cognition, memory, feeling, value, and autonomous response-but in regions brain-those brain sets first pass, the its up a filing system of those traveled when note was new. In the patterns different from experience-the sorts for the reaction on pain may one of recognition, second hearing or be of famil- a pleasure discernment, iarity, perhaps rational discourse. Nonetheless, all or a brain restructured by experience.6 from If musical note can propel and reorient millions of neurons, the arts experiences described in this Compendium a impact students involved. structures of the children and clearly the cognitive begin, in the arts alone To learning a watercolorist or dancer mani- of cognitive should expertise of be seen as evidence restructuring-the increased fests in neural reorganization. In turn, if altered neuro-function is a consequence of learning in the arts, it is reason- able think that neural-conditioning could enhance performance in related skills, either through improved to such as achievement motivation.' or through positive developments such related cognitive affective functioning a neuro-function argument supporting learning through the arts-the cultivation of capa- establish Thus we bilities occur and understandings that or "co-developments" of the changes in cognitive and as "byproducts" the brought in the arts. More directly, by experiences argument suggests that experi- affective structures about in non-arts capabilities. arts create capabilities or motivations that show up in the ences Transfer the studies in Compendium This Compendium displays the results sizable of to catalog and describe research on the effects of learn- a effort the arts on academic and social ing in In order explore the many relationships suggesting evidence of skills. to academic and it may be useful to provide a detailed portrait of the many arts-related in these studies, transfer fact find support in research. social outcomes that in that 1 an inventory. A first reaction might be such a great many academic and social devel- presentsjust Figure have linked to the opments been in accumulated research-65 core relationships by rough count and more arts relationships studies shown the all compendium of were to be listed. if every nuanced outcome variable across 1. Compendium Figure The Arts and Academic and Social Outcomes Summary: Arts Learninq: Coanitive - CaDacities and Motivations to Learn: Visual Arts Content and organization of writing. Drawing Sophisticated reading skillshnterpretation of text. Visualization training scientific images. about Reasoning about Reasoning art Reading readiness. art visual Instruction in Music Cognitive development childhood music training Early Spatial reasoning. Music listening reasoning. Spatial temporal Quality of writing. Prolixity of writing. proficiency. Mathematics Piano/keyboard learning Spatial reasoning. Long-term reasoning. temporal spatial Piano and voice

165 Self-efficacy. Music performance Self-concept. Reading . Instrument training scores. verbal SAT skills English ESL learners. for Music learning ~ with language I Classroom Drama , , Story written). comprehension (oral and enactment Dramatic I Character identification. Character motivation. peer interaction. Increased prolixity. and Writing proficiency Conflict resolution skills. Concentrated thought. social relationships. Understanding understand issues to and emotions. complex Ability Engagement. unrelated subsequently read, with Skill texts. Problem-solving dispositions/strategies. General self-concept. Dance Self-confidence. I dance Traditional Persistence. ~ Reading skills. I Nonverbal reasoning. Expressive skills. in Creativity poetry. I Social tolerance. social individual/group of development. Appreciation General creative thinking fluency - Creative dance General creative thinking - flexibility. elaboration, originality, ~ Multi-arts \ Programs skills. Reading, mathematics verbal and arts/academics Integrated Creative thinking. Achievement motivation. Cognitive engagement. Instructional practice the school. in culture of the school. Professional School climate. identity. Community engagement and Self-confidence. experience Intensive arts Risk-taking. Paying attention. Persevering. Empathy for others. Self-initiating. Task persistence. Ownership of learning. Collaboration skills. Leadership. Reduced dropout rates. Educational aspirations. Higher-order thinking skills. Creativity. environment Arts-rich school Engagernendattendance. developments. of personal and social Range Higher-order thinking skills. I . I"

166 - .. ...- . .. . . stronger 1, Some less. some others, than relationships be to prove links some in Figure applauds diffferenc two^ YGardner two The in multiple studies, others in only one or appear high-quality investigations. I main task here is rela- to not to parse this inventory according of comparative strengths arts the from transfer of types that ' and them- to each arts form summaries the study tionships-the corresponding essays I I Figure assist in these purposes. The message of readers can selves seems first that 1 foundational.? should. be-considered a wide of academic and social variety research has identified developments valid be to learning in or engagement with the arts. Moreover, because the studies chosen for the Compendium results of quality of design and their ability to make causal suggestions, Figure met strict criteria for the 1 "state suggests of research" territo- the arts on academic and social development; the figure at least the the impact of on maps have reliably demonstrated. ry in which effects been and outlined in Figure studies The Compendium's organized show evidence of transfer 1 sense that all in the activities arts have various effects beyond the initial conditions of learning. Virtually all of our stud- learning in the they can said be such an umbrella; and the myriad ways to be seen ies can fit under fit are worth explication. to on the arts Research learning has far transcended the need to test whether or and not arts have impacts with the manifestations beyond in the art forms. Of present interest is just what are such mani- potential direct learning what can said of their importance festations and be come about. somewhat overlapping orga- they Two or how for considering transfer across the nizing schemes are useful studies Compendium. One addresses how this in are similar transferred learnings learnings their as the progenitors. The second entails to observed or claimed transfer. cognitive and affective (motivation-based) transfer (skill-based) between some partitioning learnings Similar and far. One differentiating - within the idea of transfer is the degree of similarity near quality the context between which learning in the arts occurs and the context in which transferred developments are in and seen question closely follows the discussion of transfer and neuro-function above: because measured. This skill developments cognitive structures, similar or closely related skills engaging the same struc- specific impact benefit. Some may refer tures as a condition of near transfer (very similar contexts). In contrast, to this skill trans- the resulting skills bear little similarity fer where the skills learned (say in the to or where they are used in very arts) different has been called far transfer (disparate contexts). situations seem sense. more transfer may in a heuristic sense than in a substantive "far" While These terms are useful more as a phenomenon impressive its suggestions of transformed behavior or unexpected effects, any transfer to in learning, near or far, is betterjudged on the veracity of the claimed relationship along with the value of the out- come itself. example, when reading comprehension skills result from artistic learning that itself involves read- For (such as classroom drama activities) or when mathematics achievement results from training in music, ing certain one skills skills-should be judged in their own right, not at mathematics level of outcomes-reading and both reading) or far (music to mathematics). to near (drama value or anotherjust because the transfer came from Transfer motivation. way of thinking about transfer from the arts is to distinguish transfer A second through of or capabilities from transfer of thinking various orientations linked to cognitive affective orientations, particularly development of course refers to increased ab es and motivation. Cognitive supporting such devel- expertise to the willingness of understanding. Affective development refers opments academic achievement or social as Thoh;livy Hownrr(Gmcr 8 individuals intrinsic and extrinsic interests in what they skills learning, their engage- their put to to use: their are 01 i~ii~:lligen. mrnling niiiliipto assign importance they the hand, at with ment tasks success, the attributions they make for their success, and to cesnncl Hnrv.7,r,tdu. mionLmer. 15/6(Novembed self-worth generated the feelings of through effective performance. 1999, D~rr!cnhr!rl 5 Affective gains arts find much support. Psychologist points from Howard Gardner the learnings out that certain cit np, Gardnei. HowarO 9 arts are in the quite likely make to a unique position in not transfer. of such claims to spill over, even if the arts are In applauds on two different types of transfer from the a recent multiple intelligences and the arts, Gardner essay in reacting First, considered foundational. be should that arts different intel- to widespread advocacy for nurturing ligences comfort with . . " idea, the .because participa- his,writings, to response in school in Gardner registers his way the tion in arts is a wonderful intelligences in children."a A conception implied is that to a range of develop participating and learning in an art form can cultivate awareness, judgment, facility, sensibilities, connoisseurship, generally. These with more we intelligences might associate and other cognitive attributes other or artistic that the themselves within express to developments can in turn impact the way children learn or the way they choose An learning through intelligence is gaining example progressive across disciplines. perhaps and disciplines artistic Art skill and artistic intelligence surely are close in kind, yet they may involve some dimension of trans- as a painter. beyond the intelligence gained is a positive outcome lying fer; initial conditions of learning dance. to paint or to of of transfer that does emerge in the notion in the arts-a sort Gardner also helps with another transfer studies. what Gardner as describes Among Compendium's for the arts education.. .are 'I.. .the compelling reasons students arts that gained in the likelihood and craft help skill conse- other in can improve they that understand to that their heightened skill can give pleasure quential activities and to points This other^.''^ to and themselves to which can succeed ("I self-concept heightened in instances to academic or social lead can stage") on heightened

167 COm- reading understanding, Story .If . . complexities the in well-drawn programs. Among the relationships shown of arts in Figure dramat- dance, learning music, perform to learning and 1, in traditional ic enactment It may general self-concept. augmenting as in our studies emerge and prehension, topical writing are Val- a coincidence studies involved the that in the performing where are be not arts, of intrinsic and extrinsic interest in schoolwork, levels of cogni- domain, notions attributions made by children for their success or failure in school are central issues. Several tive engagement, and multi-arts the evaluations summarized of program Compendium, the with specific studies in arts learning, in along r in school than when involved in other children engaged when involved in artistic activities are conclude that more academic learning is observed integrate the arts and children in pro- engagement curricular activities. Higher when the Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education.Io Individual studies involving at-risk students frequent- grams such as a consequence of induced or revived enthusiasm for school attained through the ly characterize their success as children in of higher engagement include observations that transfer in schools with high of arts." Claims the form arts experiences are generally more engaged and motivated in school. This can be seen as the transfer levels of or orientations school from learning in and with the arts to learning situations more generally. of attitudes about through the who of their school day satisfying and fun parts arts become more sanguine children Perhaps find I whole school about experience. the additional for studies on drama in education illustrate Research ways that transfer Arts academics. curricula as can observed. One perspective is that the studies in classroom drama tend to focus on what be considered and called near transfer according to the discussion above. In some cases, the learning studied is so near could be in to dramatic experience that naming the phenomenon transfer might be called into question. For learning the with majority studies in the Compendium connect dramatic enactment drama story under- the of example, reading comprehension. Considering what dramatic play may do to standing such effects conjures and produce that is in fact a curriculum for story drama reading comprehension. Witness the Compendium's suggestions and young children who act out a story after hearing it read to them ultimately understand the story study designs: it through a its the story and then process better-its sequence, its details, who hear characters-than children Iht? 01 sulnlnary lht? See 10 discussion. a better way In such traditional might say that dramatic enactment is simply classroom studies, we Chicago Erluralion: in Arls be com- case. such, the when a child's story to process a story than a teacher-led discussion; this appears As to Summary in lhis Evaluation volume. greater in an participation after story, to prehension is shown it the to enactment than when simply listening be a story. may be a stretch to call such learning an incidence of transfer. Dramatizing is simply a good way to learn An example is Jcancite 11 Horn\ 1992 study, An a teacher-led Or when young children write more effectively after acting out a situation, in contrast to receiving Enploraiinn Writing info [he say that such dramatization curriculum for topical writing than traditional classroom is a better lesson, we might Inner by Scripls Original of Dramo School High Cily should But important instruction an regarding the topic. But is debatable. transfer called be whether this not or in lhi? Sludenls. s~immarizetl and topical writing understanding, story discussion-if reading in lost be not comprehension, the point should volume suggestions pur- the drama studies in the Compendium offer valued curricular goals, of promising ways to are sue these ends. focused Dramatic enactment usually produces an environment on interpersonal relations, and here we must we acknowledge both opportunities for and evidence of transfer. In drama studies focused on such relations, see character impacts peer-to-peer increased motivation, interactions. of understanding, comprehension character on increased strategies. These outcomes, skills, conflict-resolution and improved problem-solving dispositions and through transfer. story understanding and writing than classroom drama, seem to be more evidence of on cognitive functioning arts of spectrum the in learning effects are spatial and Music reasoning. Nowhere than clear more impacts that many very recent, the rich show connections between in archive of studies, music the fundamental cognitive capability called spatial reasoning. Music listen- learning or musical experiences and and spatial reasoning. contribute voice all and piano learning to keyboards, piano and play to ing, learning While

168 ,,,--- ~ ~- .~ .-.- - - - . 1 skills from learninq in the' spatial reasoning is not a measure in other music studies, some of the outcomes . .transfer Of I strong spatial reasoning ability: mathe- measured in ties music research have to 1 more foq matics, reading and verbal competence, and writing ability. In the vast be literature arts pronounced should clear studies some bibliographies'2). it is in that 3,000 on i spatial reasoning (about arts.:: -j mathematical skills as well students language facility benefit directly from spatial rea- who learn-.moreJn-the as in mathematics are inherently spatial in charac- Some soning core concepts skills. as the case of language development, and fractions proportions examples. In ter, bit more oblique is nonetheless robust: what we write, what we read, and what we hear a but relationship the used are contexts can be seen as spatial networks involve words that and understood in specific contexts. These words, words their historical backgrounds, words with their social relationships, related with with involving words in expressions. Spatial reasoning is also fundamental and any planning task- words with nearly placed words to daily lives. The music studies in this Compendium our have trouble organizing a capacity without which we would be benefits in form of spatial reasoning skills are not to the taken lightly. Future studies, including to testifying in present research. direct neurological affirm and extend what we see studies, are likely to Where from here? to many relationships between arts and human development have been drawn under the umbrel- While a great the One directions research in these traditions seem important. future is la of transfer, several for closer examina- a "learning in the arts" at the front end of the transfer equation and a closer relationship between transfer tion of with the views of learning populating the literature in recent years. research more complex and situational and the shortage is addressing studies in the visual arts clear dance. And research on the arts Another of transfer might follow the cues of Bransford and learning Schwart~'~ & test for longer-term impacts on thinking skills and to problem-solving dispositions. employed Most of the research designs arts. in the Compendium studies differentiate in the More on learning students participating in one arts training or arts-related experience versus comparison stu- average outcomes for not, keyboard lessons or not, or lis- without such experiences-classroom drama or not, visual dents training or tening Mozart versus Bach. This assuredly distinguishes learners from those who have had arts to an training or arts-related experience those who have not and sets up conditions in which effects and of the arts can be iden- tified. But the do not examine learning in the arts within their treatment groups, Compendium studies generally power is could significantly increase the so of arts transfer studies. The central point fact despite that the doing more skills the of should be more pronounced for students who learn from learning in in the arts. transfer that arts in a training program across participants to designs come to mind: gauging the acquisition Many drama skills of see learners gain more in the way of transferred skills; sorting subjects by measures of high if learned keyboard to if more learning in music associates with higher acquisition see spatial reasoning skills. One sugges- skills of of this design appears in drama studies showing more transferred skill development among those children tion These of to direct or lead a classroom dramatization. role children may be learning get out who spontaneously and consequently gaining reading or interpersonal skills faster; but drama more .- start to groups drama the higher-achieving children within be simply they may ~~~w-,-k,i~~--far tiansf& 'ab-~~~-~ - ,&is -~ crucial distinction. with-a I I learning in the "Om and: More attention to contemporary views of learning. Asjust argued, the pursuit arts illuminate of in the Compendium's studies does not at the same time transfer the ,,' than we-do in drama and music* nature or degree of learning from which transfer takes place, relying instead on differentiating group of arts experiences. treatments or experiential accountings not is current studies on the roles of the arts in academic and social development do that equally evident It detail or within comprehensive cognitive models the learning processes accounting for unpack either in fine researchers-this the of part Compendium interpreted on an oversight be the not should point This transfer. as out the relationships argued. contains studies carried in careful designs that support thorough understandings of the transfer of learning-from the arts Nonetheless, more well as more gener- as to accommodate grow- would research. ally-would inquiry additional and ultimately need require different Such ing evidence and beliefs that learning is situational, interactive, and extremely complex. This complexity can be seen in the more completely rendered images of cognitive activity shown full color in brain it also in scans; in the models appears cognitive of attempting to illuminate a full spectrum of influences at play when scientists children learn. Learning and the role that transfer (by whatever definition) plays are far more complex than simple concep- learning of different words in use to characterize such as "parallel," "entangled," tions a range see allow; we it is not direct. Contextual not all transfer is alike and that "entwined," and "contextual," all of which suggest that or situational explanations pose relationships that are key for learning and that will probably begin to define

169 "transfer" as cognition or situational cognition. Processes of transfer would be seen in interactions distributed relationships of sorts, and new states of learning, either new knowledge or new understanding, and various seen as of these relationships. The implications for this Compendium? While the should be the product abilities, an valid documents arts and academic and social links extended compendium research between the of research complementary program and if we want to understand transfer in its full cognitive g10ry.l~ is needed in the visual arts and dance. There are abundant and strong studies supporting transfer from studies More learning experiences and and music, but a significant shortage of studies in the visual arts and in drama dance. imbalance wider than the listing in Figure is considerably implies. The many relationships shown under The 1 and music show up in multiple studies. The relationships shown for drama visual arts the four studies, and there are about the same derive from only if researcher2 could .transfer *I,, of studies number cataloged. dance as there are relationships Clearly, in we about the in dance than learning from transfer visual arts far less know and reformulate their would vacuums, here are two for do in drama and we If research is drawn to music. j I taking the I I and exercise patience in seeking its transfer I I I higher order of transfer. An . of the Bransford & A enticing contribution 1 above is the introduction of a formal definition Schwartz manrfestations."~~- review discussed of that with prevailing conceptions including those transfer contrasts sharply studies. These scholars in the Compendium that traditional studies of transfer have been exceedingly seen argue narrow in their search for various direct applications of learning. As such, research to date has been myopic in not asking questions about degree to which learning experiences might prepare students for future learning or the of on learners approach any sort how problematic situation. Bransford & Schwartz long-term have repercussions about transfer materialize if researchers would reformulate their theories could transfer and exer- hypothesize that patience in seeking its manifestations. Transfer may be thought to leap beyond immediate tests of application cise arts generally, human development altogether. The and the Compendium's studies particularly, are good can- and offers for such for future learning" concept of transfer The "preparation an enticing but rela- didates rethinking. unattended prospect that seems tailor-made for research in the arts. tively into the arts and learn- Future inquiries ing longer-term developments in how learners should investigate artistic creation and expression gen- approach erally; studies also should investigate the possibility that sustained and deep learning in the arts may cultivate habits of and dispositions impacting future problem-solving behavior. To some, this represents the Holy Grail mind but transfer-Transfer a capital T perhaps. Such potentially powerful of may not occur straightaway, Transfer with Compendium's rather time. The many contributions of the over studies notwithstanding, perhaps we have emerge overlooked important evidence of Transfer from learning in the arts by searching at the wrong times and in the wrong places. Tho on conlernpornry 14 scctinn concepiions oi Ienrning dram discussions nntl on wriilen exchanges wilh DI. Terry Raker of ilin Center lor Chilriren Technology in and New York. This authoi ~CCB~LS full reymn5ihilily tor pocrihle micreipresenlnl inn5 or tti?tortinns of Bnker'k con- Irihulions.

170 We are to the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and the Office of Educational Research and grateful (OERI) at U.S. Department of Education for providing funding for the production of this Improvement the NEA, to of Arts Education at the Herbert, director and Rita Foy Moss, Special thanks Doug Compendium. OERI, for their advice and guidance throughout research analyst development. at its stages the Compendium we benefited greatly from of wise counsel of the compendium During the formative the Corporation RAND of this volume. We are grateful to Michael Timpane of for the at the opening Advisors listed the group. chairing the Arts Education Partnership, was indispensable, serving as assistant Lauren Stevenson, research associate at and sounding editor, on focus and format, board and coordinator of production. Peter H. Compendium adviser of the Gerber Group assisted greatly by editing summaries and essays and providing counsel through- EdDesigns out. Goldhawk, senior associate at the Arts Education Partnership, Sara careful reading to the final proofs. gave Kathryn E. Ward, former project assistant at the Arts Education Partnership. provided essential administrative sup- port. She contributed the images of student artists found throughout the compendium. Jan Stunkard, divi- also efficient coordinator NEA. deserves our thanks for her the and considerate management of the at sion Compendium. the of the production that Cooperative Agreement funded and foremost, of course, thanks are due to the researchers who participated in the Compendium's creation. First James those original studies are summarized. To whose S. Catterall, Lois Hetland, and Ellen Winner for screen- To ing, selecting, and summarizing the chosen studies. To James s. Catterall, Terry L. Baker, Karen K. Bradley, Rob and Horowitz, and Jaci Webb-Dempsey for their summaries Scripp, essays. To Dick Corbett, Cynthia 1. Larry Gerstl-Pepin, George W. Noblit, Michael A. Seaman, Betty Jane Wagner, and Bruce Wilson for summaries. And and to and Rachel Estrella for systematic searching, Burger Sean Bennett, Ronnie Cavaluzzi, Lori s. Kristin Eisenberg, Rachel Estrella, Joseph Hoffman, Nina Salzman, and Kate Solow for initial drafts of summaries. The Compendium is their collective achievement.


172 U.S. DeparLment Educafion of of Mucafional and lmprovemenf (OW mi Resemh (NW Wucafion NafionalLibtayof Resourn lnfonnafion Cenfer (ERIC) Educafional NOTICE duction Basis Repro This document covered by a signed "Reproduction Release is (Blanket)" form (on file Withim the ERIC system), encompassing all or classes of documents fiom its source organization and, therefore, does not require "Specific Release form. a Document" document is This or carries its own permission to- Federally-funded, reproduce, or is otherwise in the public domain and, therefore, may @ be by ERIC without asigned reproduced form Reproduction Release (either "Specific Document' or "Blanketf').

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