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1 State(s) of Head Start

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS — The opinions expressed in this report are solely those of the authors. This report was supported with funding provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions in this report are solely those of the authors. The authors wish to acknowledge the Office of Head Start (OHS) in the Administration for Children and Families. OHS and NIEER worked in partnership and we could not have produced the report without their cooperation and assistance. We thank them for sharing data, answering data-related questions, and providing feedback on the report. The authors would like to extend their thanks to Michelle Ruess as editor and to Sandy Ogilvie as graphic designer. This publication is a product of the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER), a unit of the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. NIEER supports early childhood education policy by providing objective, nonpartisan information based on research.

3 State(s) of Head Start ©2016 The National Institute for Early Education Research By W. Steven Barnett, Ph.D. Allison H. Friedman-Krauss, Ph.D.

4 STATE(S) OF HEAD START CONTENTS TABLE OF EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 ... INTRODUCTION 7 ... Head Start ... 9 ... 9 Head of Start History Head Start’s What ... 10 Research Says About Effectiveness ... Inequalities in Head Star 11 t: It’s All Over the Map Access 11 ... Quality 14 ... Duration 15 ... 17 ... Funding ... 19 An Under-Funded Mission 21 ... Conclusions and Policy Recommendations NATIONAL FIGURES ... 25 GUIDE TO STATE PROFILES ... 45 Data Points in the State(s) of Head Start report ... 52 GLOSSARY 58 ... 59 ... STATE AND TERRITORY PROFILES Alabama 60 ... Alaska 67 ... Arizona ... 74 Arkansas 81 ... California ... 88 Colorado ... 95 Connecticut 102 ... Delaware 109 ... District 116 of Columbia ... Florida ... 123 Georgia 130 ... Hawaii 137 ... Idaho 144 ... Illinois 151 ... Indiana ... 158 Iowa ... 165 Kansas ... 172 Kentucky 179 ... Louisiana 186 ... Maine 193 ... Maryland 200 ... Massachusetts 207 ... 2

5 ... 214 Michigan Minnesota ... 221 Mississippi 228 ... Missouri ... 235 Montana ... 242 Nebraska ... 249 Nevada ... 256 ... 263 New Hampshire Jersey ... 270 New ... 277 New Mexico York ... 284 New North ... 291 Carolina Dakota 298 ... North Ohio 305 ... Oklahoma... 312 Oregon ... 319 Pennsylvania 326 ... Island ... 333 Rhode Carolina ... 340 South South Dakota ... 347 Tennessee 354 ... Texas ... 361 Utah ... 368 Vermont ... 375 Virginia ... 382 Washington ... 389 ... 396 West Virginia Wisconsin 403 ... Wyoming ... 410 American Samoa ... 417 Guam 423 ... 429 Islands Northern ... Mariana Palau ... 435 Puerto Rico ... 441 Virgin Islands ... 448 NATIONAL PROFILE ... 455 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE HEAD START PROFILE ... 463 MIGRANT AND SEASONAL HEAD START PROFILE ... 471 METHODOLOGY 477 ... 3

6 STATE(S) OF HEAD START EXECUTIVE SUMMARY the number of vulnerable children who can benefit The National Institute for Early Education Research’s from Head Start. As a result, some vulnerable State(s) of Head Start report is the first ) ( NIEER children benefit less than others from Head Start report to describe and analyze in detail Head Start participation. Yet we can think of no reason children enrollment, funding, quality, and duration, state-by- living in poverty in one state are less deserving of a state. The report focuses on the 2014-2015 program high-quality education in Head Start than those in year but also provides longitudinal data beginning another. with the 2006-2007 program year. Despite the fact that Head Start is a federally funded, national Revised and streamlined Head Start standards, 1 program, the report reveals that access to Head released in September 2016 , address several of the Start programs, funding per child, teacher education, concerns spotlighted in the report, and demonstrate quality of teaching, and duration of services all the Administration for Children and Families’ (ACF) vary widely by state. Although in some states Head commitment to continuous quality improvement Start meets evidence-based quality standards and and supporting poor children. But without Congress serves a high percentage of low-income children allocating adequate funding, Head Start programs statewide, in other states Head Start reaches fewer will continue to be forced to choose between of those in need, often with low-quality instruction, providing high-quality or school-day programs; hiring and insufficient hours. Despite bipartisan support, quality teachers (and paying them adequately); or Head Start suffers from federal funding that restricts enrolling more children. To be effective, Head Start 4

7 number of children in poverty. must be funded sufficiently so that it can provide high-quality learning experiences to more children • In five states more than 30 percent of low-income for longer periods of time per day and per year. 3- and 4-year-olds were enrolled in Head Start. In This report’s findings underscore the need for 11 states less than 15 percent of low-income 3- and greater coordination between Head Start and state 4-year-olds attended Head Start. and local government agencies to build high-quality Children’s access to Head Start should be • early learning programs with widespread reach considered within the broader early childhood and adequate funding. The authors call for an education context. However, even when taking independent bipartisan national commission to study state-funded preschool into account, most states the issues raised in this report and develop an action only serve a small percentage of preschool-age plan to ensure every eligible child in every state has children, especially 3-year-olds. an equal opportunity to benefit from Head Start. QUALITY HIGHLIGHTS Head Start classrooms vary in quality. Quality ACCESS observations reveal that they typically provide Nationwide, the number of 3- and 4-year-olds much stronger support for social and emotional enrolled in Head Start (supported by federal funding) development than for instruction related to language decreased between 2007 and 2015. Enrollment of and cognitive development. Teacher qualifications children under 3 more than doubled between 2007 vary dramatically from one state to another, as and 2015. Head Start eligibility is based on the does teacher pay and the lack of parity with public federal poverty level (FPL) with certain exceptions. school teachers with similar credentials. Since the As family incomes change during program 2007 Head Start Reauthorization that improved enrollment, this is necessarily imperfect. Serving low- 3 teacher qualifications substantially more Head Start , income children above the FPL should not be viewed teachers have a bachelor’s degree or higher in ECE. as a program flaw. For this reason, coverage cannot be simply measured by the number of children Observed Quality: served as a fraction of those in poverty. Enrollment • For the Emotional Support domain of the in Head Start varies widely from one state to another 4 Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) , whether this is assessed relative to the number of the average score on a 1 to 7 scale was 6, above 2 children in poverty or in low-income families. the research-based threshold for an effective • Head Start programs currently serve less than 40 program of 5.5. The average score for every state percent of the number of 3- and 4-year-olds in significantly exceeded this threshold. poverty and less than 5 percent of the number in For CLASS Classroom Organization the average • poverty under age 3. Programs serve less than 20 score on a 7 point scale was 5.7, again significantly percent of low-income 3- and 4-year-olds and less above the research-based threshold of 5.5. For than 3 percent of low-income children under the only 1 state (South Carolina) do we have confidence age of 3. that its average was significantly below the • At age 4, enrollment by state varies from just 7 threshold, but for half the states we have statistical percent (Nevada) to 52 percent (Mississippi) of confidence their average scores exceeded 5.5. low-income children, and from 17 percent (Nevada) The average CLASS Instructional Support score • to 100 percent (North Dakota) of the number of was 2.9 on a 7 point scale. Scores averaged less children in poverty. than 3 in the majority of states. Scores were • At age 3, enrollment by state varies from 6 percent statistically significantly below the research-based (Idaho) to 45 percent (Mississippi) of low-income threshold of 3 in 18 states and the territories, and children, and from 15 percent (Idaho) to near 100 across American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) percent (North Dakota) of the number of children and Migrant and Seasonal (MSHS) Head Start in poverty. programs. Fourteen states averaged a 3 or above. In only two states (Kentucky and Vermont) were Enrollment under age 3 varies from 1 percent • scores statistically significantly above 3 such that (Nevada) to nearly 8 percent (District of Columbia) we can be confident the state average exceeds the of low-income children, and almost 3 percent threshold. (Nevada) to 13 percent (District of Columbia) of the 5

8 DURATION The number of hours per year of Head Start children receive varies widely across states. Nationally, 42 percent of children already receive 1,020 hours of Head Start services per year, a new standard 5 that all programs must meet by 2021. Substantial progress is needed in most states to meet this new requirement. Forty-two percent of Early Head Start children • were served in school-day (greater than 6 hours per day), 5-day per week programs, a decrease of 5 percentage points from 47 percent in 2007. • Forty-four percent of Head Start children were served in school-day, 5-day per week programs. Nationally, this number has remained relatively unchanged since 2007 (45 percent) despite some small year-to-year fluctuations. • Duration varies widely across the states, with Idaho and Wyoming serving only 1 percent in school-day, 5-day per week Head Start programs while other states serve nearly all children on this schedule. Head Start Staff: Almost 30 percent of Early Head Start teachers • FUNDING had a bachelor’s degree (BA) or higher in ECE or a Federal funding for Head Start (including Early Head related field, a 6 percentage point increase from 24 Start, AIAN, and MSHS) was more than $8.42 billion percent in 2007. However, the percentage varied in 2014-2015. Congress allocated an additional $570 from a low of less than 12 percent in New Mexico, million for fiscal year 2016, which includes additional to a high of 64 percent in the District of Columbia. funds to support expanded hours per year in Head • Seventy-three percent of Head Start teachers had Start, Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships, and 6 a BA or higher in ECE or a related field, compared expansion of Early Head Start. to only 44 percent in 2007. This 29 percentage • Head Start and Early Head Start combined funding point increase followed the Improving Head Start per child increased slightly from $8,369 in 2007 to Act for School Readiness of 2007 which increased $8,801 in 2015 when adjusting for inflation. 4 Again, states varied in teacher qualifications. • Both Head Start and Early Head Start funding increasing teacher qualifications: more than 90 per child is highly variable across the map even percent of Head Start teachers in West Virginia and after adjusting for differences in costs across the the District of Columbia had a BA or higher, while country. Adjusting for cost of living, the highest only 36 percent in New Mexico did. funded state received per child twice as much • On average, Head Start teachers earned enrolled in Head Start as the lowest funded state. almost $24,000 less than public elementary • The estimated cost to fully fund Head Start to school teachers with the same credentials. This meet its expressed goals for 3- and 4-year-olds is discrepancy is even larger for Early Head Start over $20 billion. This is about triple the existing teachers, who earned over $27,000 less than budget. We based this estimation on serving all public elementary school teachers. 3- and 4-year-olds in poverty (or half of those in The lack of parity can lead to high turnover and • low-income families) in high-quality programs for an inexperienced workforce. In some states the 1,020 hours per year. salary gaps were less than half the average, As Early Head Start serves only a very small • below $10,000, but in others they were about percentage of infants and toddlers, we do not twice the average with gaps exceeding $40,000 estimate the cost of expanding that part of the in Massachusetts and New York, as well as in New program. Jersey for Early Head Start only. 6

9 STATE(S) OF HEAD START INTRODUCTION offers the same services and benefits from one As one of our nation’s oldest federal public programs program to another. Although local implementation serving low-income children and families, Head can and should vary to reflect and meet local needs, Start strives to enhance children’s development and across the states there should be consistency provide a strong foundation for success in school and regarding key aspects of program operation and the in life. Research on Head Start’s impacts confirms its extent to which programs meet the needs of eligible positive effects on young children and their families, children and families. Head Start programs ought though the research on the persistence of impacts 7 to look fairly similar, taking into account obvious The has been both encouraging and discouraging. differences such as the extent of poverty and cost of acknowledged importance of Head Start’s mission living. Yet our report finds that Head Start, as well as has led to broad support for improving Head Start Early Head Start, varies substantially between states, including the latest major changes announced including in the quality of instruction, which needs to on September 1, 2016 which call for a shift from a be consistently high in all programs. compliance orientation to one of continuous quality 8 improvement. Our report explores four key dimensions of Head Start in depth: Yet, despite decades of bipartisan support for Head Start, we conclude that the program suffers from 1. How many children are served and who are Access: inadequate overall public investment. Simply put, the they? What percent of a state’s children, low-income program is not funded at a level that would make it children, and children living in poverty is served by possible to provide child development services of the program? How have these percentages changed sufficient quality and duration to achieve its goals over time? while serving all eligible children even at ages 3 Head Start sets relatively high and Quality: 2. and 4, much less for those under age 3. As a result, uniform standards for its services compared to many local programs are required to make a series of other public programs for young children, but some triage decisions, ranging from enrollment eligibility important features still vary. What is the observed priorities, to duration choices, to staff salaries. These quality of the instruction children receive? What are resulting decisions and funding allocation differences teachers’ qualifications? How have they improved create significant disparities across states in both over time? How much are teachers paid and how does quality and hours of services provided per year. this compare to pay in public elementary schools? This report reveals the extent of these shortfalls 3. Duration: How many hours and days per year of nationally and for each state. The authors call for Head Start services do children receive? How has an independent bipartisan commission to study the this changed over time? To what extent do children issues raised in this report and develop an action stay continuously enrolled over a year and for two, or plan to ensure every eligible child in every state and even, three years? territory has an equal opportunity to benefit from Head Start. How much funding does each state Funding: 4. receive? How does funding per child vary across The National Institute for Early Education Research’s states adjusting for each state’s cost of living? Has report is the first State(s) of Head Start (NIEER) funding per child changed over time? report to describe and analyze in detail four key dimensions of the federal Head Start program state- These four key dimensions are critically important by-state: enrollment, quality, duration, and funding. to Head Start’s ability to enhance children’s school Although Head Start is a federal program, guided by readiness in significant and positive ways. Although federal policies and national Head Start Performance each dimension may contribute independently to Standards, approximately 1,700 local public and children’s development, they are interrelated and private nonprofit and for-profit agencies provide dependent on one another. To be highly effective, 9 Head Start services. Each provider may implement Head Start must attend to all four dimensions the program differently (within the limits of federal simultaneously. Without adequate funding, programs regulations). There is no guarantee that Head Start are forced into trade-offs between enrolling more 7

10 children, increasing program duration, or improving program quality. First, in order to have a significant impact, Head Start should reach most — if not all — eligible children. Second, Head Start must be funded adequately to provide sufficient quality of child development 10 services to produce desired results — without cutting back dramatically on the number of children served. Third, children are more likely to benefit from 11 Head Start when they are enrolled for more hours. As reflected in the revised and streamlined Head Start standards, programs will be required to shift to operating schedules similar to public schools. Fourth, adequate funding is necessary if Head Start is to provide high-quality early learning experiences of the intensity and duration required to succeed in its mission. Beyond raising concern overall, we seek to call attention to widespread and large variations in each of these four key dimensions among the states. Similarly, both Head Start and Early Head Start These state-by-state discrepancies may come as a funding per child varies by nearly 100 percent surprise; after all, Head Start is a federal program across the states after controlling for cost of living with uniform national standards and goals. All differences. Observed classroom quality, particularly programs are required to follow the Head Start around instruction related to children’s cognitive and Performance Standards that govern many aspects language development, also varies state-by-state. We of design and operation. Despite this uniform set can think of no reason that poor children in one state of standards, there is ample room for disparities are less deserving of Head Start or a high-quality to arise. For example, the Improving Head Start for education in Head Start than those in another. School Readiness Act of 2007 required that at least 50 percent of Head Start teachers in center-based report relies primarily The State(s) of Head Start programs have at least a bachelor’s degree (BA) on data from the Head Start Program Information in early childhood education or a related field by Report (PIR). The PIR compiles data collected 2013. Even though tremendous progress has been from every grantee and delegate (subgrantee) and made toward this goal, the percentage of Head provides the most comprehensive description of the Start teachers with a BA or higher varies from 36 services provided, staff, and children and families percent in New Mexico to 99 percent in the District of served by Head Start and Early Head Start programs Columbia. nationwide. We find fundamental and difficult to understand The report focuses primarily on the most recently disparities across states in access. For example, the available data for the 2014-2015 program year. We percent of low-income 3- and 4-year-old children also report data over the previous eight years, so served in each state varies from 7 percent in Nevada that trends can be tracked from the 2006-2007 to 49 percent in Mississippi. The percent of low- to 2014-2015 program year. The report includes income infant and toddlers served varies from just information on both Head Start and Early Head Start. over 1 percent in Nevada to almost 8 percent in the We present data on Head Start and Early Head Start District of Columbia. Focusing on only children living combined where this makes sense, but also report in poverty, in Nevada, a number equal to 16 percent data on each of these programs separately. Head of 3- and 4-year-olds in poverty were enrolled, Start and Early Head Start serve children at different compared to 100 percent in North Dakota. Under ages, and, as a result, their services, staffing, and age 3 the number enrolled as a percent of children costs differ in important respects, as do some in poverty ranged from 2.7 percent in Nevada to 13 performance standards. We also include and, where percent in the District of Columbia. As we discuss appropriate, separately report on, the American later, not all Head Start children fall below the federal Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Head Start and poverty level (FPL). Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) programs. 8

11 HEAD START services, and opportunities to learn, Head Start Head Start is a comprehensive child development aimed to remove hurdles facing disadvantaged program that provides education and support children and enable them to start school on equal services to children and their families. It is a federal footing with middle-class peers. program that aims to promote the school readiness and healthy development of at-risk children. It Head Start began as an eight-week summer pilot focuses on whole-child development, including health project but quickly expanded to a school-year and cognitive and social-emotional development. schedule as it was almost immediately apparent Head Start is administered by the Office of Head that eight-weeks was far from sufficient to meet the Start (OHS) in the Administration for Children and needs of young children in poverty. In 1969, Migrant Families (ACF) within the Department of Health and Head Start was introduced to reach farmworker Human Services (HHS). Funding for Head Start is families and their children. That outreach was allocated by Congress each year and flows directly expanded nearly 30 years later to include seasonal to individual Head Start grantees, which can be agricultural worker families, becoming the Migrant public, private, nonprofit, or for-profit agencies. The and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) program. federal government funds a Head Start Collaboration Throughout the 1970s, policymakers continued to Office within each state’s government to facilitate expand Head Start — on paper at least — to include partnerships with state agencies and local entities children with disabilities, children and parents and to improve state and local policy and practices so at home (Home Start), and children with a home as to better serve young children and their families. language other than English. But it was not until 1979 Head Start is available in all 50 states, the District that Congress allowed Head Start to really grow, of Columbia, U.S. territories, and in tribal areas. The authorizing enrolling up to 20 percent more children program has served more the 33 million children and families each year. since it inception in 1965 as part of the War on Enrollment continued to increase during the Poverty including children of migrant and seasonal 12 1980s, and children became eligible for two years workers. of services beginning at age 3. Celebrating Head Head Start serves children ages 3 to 5 years (during Start’s 20th Anniversary in 1985, Dr. Edward Zigler, the two years before kindergarten), while Early Head one of the architects of Head Start, said that the Start serves infants and toddlers (from birth through program’s success was due to “the fact that Head age 3), as well as pregnant mothers. Children are Start is a quality child development program that eligible to participate in Head Start if they come from involves parents, hires the best teachers that can be families living below the federal poverty level (FPL), found locally, maintains small classes and provides are homeless, are receiving public assistance, or are comprehensive medical, dental, nutrition and social in foster care. The 2007 Head Start reauthorization 14 services.” stipulated that children between 100 and 130 percent During the 1990s, Head Start received renewed of the FPL could also enroll in Head Start once a attention; funding tripled between 1991 and 2001 program enrolled all children below 100 percent and program quality became a priority, with funding of the FPL. In addition, up to 10 percent of funded to improve staff qualifications and compensation. enrollment can be children with disabilities who are Funding increased and enrollment grew, along with 13 not required to meet the income guidelines. health services for younger siblings, literacy and child development training for parents and outreach HISTORY OF HEAD START to homeless families. In 1994, Early Head Start began meeting needs of pregnant women and children President Johnson launched Head Start in 1965 under age 3. In 1998, the focus of the program as part of a national “War on Poverty” specifically was formally switched from development of social to break the cycle of failure experienced by many competence to school readiness. low-income and poor Americans. By providing young children and their families with health care, social Efforts to improve quality continued through the 9

12 However, the research has not been universally next decade. The 2007 Head Start reauthorization, positive. Results from the 2002 Head Start Impact the Improving Head Start for School Readiness 24 and the 1996 Early Head Start Study (HSIS) Act, revised performance standards to be 25 raised Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE) developmentally appropriate, raised teacher important questions about the program’s overall qualifications (required at least 50 percent of Head effectiveness. The EHSRE found small positive Start teachers to have a BA or higher), called for impacts of the program on infants’ and toddlers’ school-day services, and expanded eligibility from cognitive and language development, as well as on 100 to 130 percent of the FPL. In 2009, the American their parents’ parenting skills. Impacts varied for Recovery and Reinvestment Act, aimed at stimulating center-based, home-based, and mixed-approach the U.S. economy, boosted Head Start funding by 26 The HSIS revealed significant program options. $2 billion to enhance quality and expand enrollment. impacts of Head Start on children’s math, language, The additional funding helped to nearly double the and social emotional skills prior to kindergarten enrollment of infants and toddlers over the next five 27 15 However, the evaluation found essentially no entry. years. long-term impacts by the time children reached third Most recently, in 2016, new Head Start Performance 28 grade. Standards were announced that reflect research Further exploration of the HSIS found substantial highlighting both the crucial difference quality variation in which children did and did not benefit and duration of services make for children and the from the program as well as the size and duration challenges children may face transitioning from early 29 Impacts also varied for children of those impacts. education settings to school classrooms. The new 30 attending Head Start in urban and rural areas standards, effective November 2016, call for teachers and were larger for those attending full-day to have training and skills needed to provide high- 31 While other research including recent programs. quality learning opportunities, prohibit expulsions Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey and severely limit suspensions of children, and 32 , variation in (FACES) analyses are more positive require nearly all Head Start programs to provide by the effectiveness of Head Start is not surprising 2021 at least 1,020 hours of Head Start services per given the findings in our report. It is noteworthy year, equivalent to a full school-day (6 hours) for 170 that substantial policy improvements were enacted 16 days per year. subsequent to these earlier studies. WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT HEAD START’S EFFECTIVENESS Research has demonstrated that high-quality preschool, including Head Start, can improve academic, social, and lifetime outcomes, especially 17 for children disadvantaged by poverty. For example, a recent meta-analysis of Head Start found significant impacts of the program on children’s 18 academic and cognitive skills. Another study found that children randomly assigned to Head Start (compared to those who were not randomly assigned but applied to the program) benefited in their receptive vocabulary, phonemic awareness, 19 and health. The impacts of Head Start are not limited to children’s cognitive and academic skills. Attending Head Start is associated with a lower 20 body mass index and higher likelihood of receiving 21 health screenings, immunizations, and dental care. Children’s participation in Head Start also positively affects their parents. Head Start participation increases the amount of time parents spend with 22 their children engaged in learning activities and 23 the likelihood mothers would return to school. 10

13 INEQUALITIES IN HEAD START: IT’S ALL OVER THE MAP The goal of Head Start is to provide high-quality early ACCESS learning opportunities to disadvantaged children; To examine access, we focus on the percentage of all yet the program has never been funded adequately low-income children served (200 percent of the FPL) to provide high-quality preschool to all children in using federal funding. We do this for several reasons. poverty — much less to all low-income families. Head Some children are eligible for Head Start even if Start was designed to be responsive to local needs their family income is above the poverty line. Even and priorities. However, this report reveals state- those who qualify based on family income below the by-state variation inconsistent with national goals FPL are not required to leave the program if their to meet the needs of every eligible child and family. family’s income subsequently rises above the FPL. From state to state we find substantial differences For many of those Head Start serves, family income in funding levels, the quality and quantity of early ends up above the FPL by the end of their 4-year-old education provided, and whether an eligible child can year. For example, in the 2009 Head Start FACES, even participate. over 35 percent of children’s household incomes MAP 1. PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OLD SERVED BY HEAD START ME WA VT ND MT MN NH MA NY OR RI WI CT SD ID MI WY PA NJ IA DC OH NE DE IL MD IN NV WV VA UT CO MO KY KS CA NC TN SC OK AR AZ NM MS AL GA LA TX FL 1 to 1.99% 2 to 2.99% 3 to 3.99% 4 to 4.99% 5 to 5.99% AK 6 to 7.70% HI 11

14 33 In the general population, were above the FPL. this progress, Early Head Start has a long way to the number of low-income children is about twice go to reach even half of all children in poverty as it the number in poverty. To give a sense of how the currently serves less than 5 percent of children in number of children served (regardless of income) poverty under age 3. compares to the number in poverty we also report Across the map, Head Start reached only a very the number of children served as a percentage of small part of the current target population of infants children in poverty for Head Start and Early Head and toddlers in any state (See Map 1 and Figure 4). Start in Figures 1, 2, and 3. Clearly, Head Start cannot Although Head Start does better in some states than reach all children in poverty, much less, all low-income others, in no state does it enroll even 10 percent of children (See Maps 1 and 2; Figures 4, 5, and 6). low-income children under age 3. Nationally, less In 2014-2015 Head Start Infants and Toddlers: than 3 percent of low-income infants and toddlers programs (including AIAN and MSHS) served 153,073 participated in Head Start in 2014-2015. At the children under the age of 3. In addition, 13,329 low end, just 1.3 percent of low-income infants and pregnant women were served by the program. Aided toddlers in Nevada were enrolled in Head Start. At by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of the high end, 7.7 percent were enrolled in the District 2009 (ARRA) and an increased focus on state-funded of Columbia. In 14 states, 2 percent or less of low- preschool for 4-year-olds, enrollment of infants and income infants and toddlers were enrolled in Head toddlers in Head Start has increased by more than Start (Nevada, Utah, Texas, Tennessee, Indiana, 100 percent from 73,372 in 2006-2007. Despite Idaho, Georgia, Alabama, Maryland, Florida, Arizona, MAP 2. PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME 3- AND 4-YEAR-OLDS SERVED BY HEAD START ME WA VT ND MT MN NH MA NY OR RI WI CT SD ID MI WY PA NJ IA DC OH NE DE IL MD IN NV WV VA UT CO MO KY KS CA NC TN SC OK AR AZ NM MS GA AL LA TX FL 1 to 10% 11 to 15% 16 to 20% 21 to 25% 26 to 30% AK 31 to 40% 41 to 50% HI 12

15 olds in Head Start. Currently only 18 percent of Colorado, Virginia, and South Carolina). In just 4 states, more than 5 percent of low-income children low-income 3-year-olds and 21 percent of low-income under 3 were enrolled in Head Start (South Dakota, 4-year-olds receive Head Start services (including Vermont, North Dakota, and the District of Columbia). AIAN and MSHS). In 2014-2015, Head Start Three- and Four-Year-Olds: Whether or not a 3- or 4-year-old has access to programs, including AIAN and MSHS, served 351,215 Head Start services also varies widely across the 3-year-olds and 412,324 4-year-olds (total of 763,539 country (See Map 2). In Idaho, less than six percent 3- and 4-year-olds). However, since 2006-2007 as of low-income 3-year-olds were enrolled in Head Head Start served more infants and toddlers and Start in 2014-2015. In comparison, in Mississippi, 45 state-funded preschool served more preschool-age percent of low-income 3-year-olds were enrolled. In children, enrollment of 3- and 4-year-olds decreased, only three other states (South Dakota, Louisiana, a trend driven by a decrease in 4-year-olds enrolled and North Dakota) and the District of Columbia were in Head Start. During this same period of time, the more than 30 percent of low-income 3-year-olds increase in enrollment of 4-year-olds in state-funded served by Head Start. In three other states (Nevada, preschool was larger than the decrease of 4-year- 34 Utah, and Oregon) less than 10 percent of low-income olds enrolled in Head Start. Substantial progress is still needed to increase the number of 3- and 4-year- 3-year-olds were served (See Figure 5). CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT SCORES IN RELATION TO RESEARCH-BASED MAP 3. THRESHOLD (3) ME WA VT ND MT MN NH MA NY OR RI WI CT SD ID MI WY PA NJ IA DC OH NE DE IL MD IN NV WV VA UT CO MO KY CA KS NC TN SC OK AR AZ NM AL MS GA LA TX FL AK Significantly above threshold At or above threshold Below threshold HI Significantly below threshold Note: Instructional Support scores can range from 1 to 7. This report uses a threshold of 3 or higher to indicate high quality, based on prior research. 13

16 the U.S. territories and 2.5 in New Mexico to 3.7 Turning to 4-year-olds (See Figure 6), less than 7 in Vermont. Average Instructional Support scores percent of low-income 4-year-olds were enrolled in were less than 3 in the majority of states and were Head Start in Nevada, while in Mississippi 52 percent statistically significantly below the threshold in 18 of low-income 4-year-olds were served. In three other states and the territories, and across AIAN and MSHS states more than 40 percent of low-income 4-year- programs. Two states averaged a 3 and 12 states olds were enrolled in Head Start (South Dakota, North scored above a 3. However, only two states (Kentucky Dakota, and West Virginia). However, in five states (in and Vermont) scored statistically significantly above addition to Nevada) less than 15 percent of 4-year- a 3. olds were enrolled (Georgia, Oregon, South Carolina, Idaho, and Utah). Notably, Mississippi not only served Emotional Support: The picture looks better for the largest percent of low-income 3- and 4-year-olds Emotional Support (See Figure 8). The average score in Head Start but is also the state with the highest was 6 and this is statistically significantly above the percent of 3- and 4-year-olds who are low-income. research-based threshold of 5.5. Average scores ranged from 5.7 in South Carolina to 6.5 in Vermont We recognize that Head Start is not the only and all states scored significantly above the research- program serving young children with a goal of based threshold of 5.5. improving learning, development, and later school success. Most saliently, many states have preschool Classroom Organization: The average Classroom programs for 4-year-olds. However, state programs Organization score was 5.7 (See Figure 9), which vary greatly in quality, coverage, and funding and is statistically significantly higher than the 5.5 thus few can be considered an effective substitute research-based threshold. Classroom Organization for Head Start. As we discuss later, these state scores ranged from 5.4 in South Dakota to 6.2 in programs should be taken into account when Vermont. South Carolina (5.4) was the only state developing future Head Start policy in order to in which Classroom Organization was statistically adequately meet the needs of children and families. significantly below the research-based threshold. Twenty-five states and AIAN programs were determined to be statistically significantly above QUALITY the 5.5 research-based threshold. OBSERVED HEAD START CLASSROOM QUALITY Head Start deserves praise for applying a uniform The Classroom Assessment Scoring System measure of classroom quality in all programs as 35 (CLASS) is a structured observation of classroom Like a GPS, this a guide to program improvement. practices that focuses on the quality of the measure tells each program where it is on the path interactions between teachers and children across towards the goal of high quality. Head Start’s strong three domains: Instructional Support, Emotional support for social and emotional development Support, and Classroom Organization. The CLASS is is especially valuable as these skills are vitally widely used in early childhood education research important for later success in school and beyond. and scores on the CLASS are moderately associated However, the data also show that more work must be 36 with children’s learning. As part of the Head Start done to continue improving instructional quality. monitoring process, classrooms are observed using Similar statewide quality data are not available for the CLASS. Those data, averaged across grantees other public or private early care and education and between 2012 and 2015 are presented in this programs in all (or even most) states. State quality report. This report uses research-based thresholds rating and improvement systems sometimes provide to determine whether or not states have Head Start similar data on some child care programs, and some programs that are providing, on average, high-quality states collect similar data on their state preschool early childhood educations. These thresholds are programs. From this we know that quality in other 3 on Instructional Support and 5.5 on Emotional programs is highly variable and sometimes quite Support and Classroom Organization. (Each domain 37 The most comprehensive basis for comparison low. is scored on a scale of 1 to 7.) of Head Start to other programs is provided by Instructional Support: Across the country (See a 2005 national study of observed quality using Map 3 and Figure 7), the average Instructional a somewhat different classroom observation 38 Support score was 2.9 which was determined to be These data indicate that even a decade measure. statistically significantly below the research-based ago Head Start was of higher quality than private threshold of 3. Average scores ranged from 2.3 in sector programs on average. 14

17 average of $20,992 nationally for teachers with no TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS ECE-related credentials. Those with a CDA earned Early Head Start: The 2007 Head Start slightly more, $23,263. reauthorization required all Early Head Start In contrast, public elementary school teachers teachers in center-based programs to have a CDA earned an average yearly salary of $57,092 — $27,323 credential (or equivalent) and training in infant more than similarly qualified Early Head Start and toddler development. Recently, a report from teachers (See Figure 12). This salary discrepancy the National Academy of Sciences recommended is particularly large in New York ($46,600) and that teachers of all children under 5 should have 39 is also more than $40,000 in New Jersey and at least a four-year college degree. In 2014-2015, Massachusetts. The District of Columbia comes the nationally, 30 percent of Early Head Start teachers closest to having Early Head Start teachers paid on had a bachelor’s degree or higher in ECE or a related par with public school teachers but Early Head Start field, a 6 percentage point increase from 24 percent teachers are still paid $6,272 less than similarly in 2006-2007. This number varies from less than 12 qualified public school teachers. The discrepancy percent in New Mexico to 64 percent in the District of between Early Head Start and public elementary Columbia. Vermont and Nebraska are the only other school teachers is larger than $10,000 in every states where more than 50 percent of Early Head state, a figure too large to be accounted for by only Start teachers have a bachelor’s degree or higher differences in number of hours worked. (See Figure 10). Head Start: Head Start teachers with a bachelor’s The 2007 Head Start reauthorization Head Start: degree or higher earned an average of $33,387 required that 50 percent of Head Start teachers in during the 2014-2015 school year. Teachers in center-based programs have a bachelor’s degree Mississippi earned only an average of $21,638. Head or higher in ECE or a related field and that all Start teachers in 14 other states earned an average teachers have at least an associates degree in ECE of less than $30,000 per year. In contrast, in the or a related field by September 2013. In 2014-2015, District of Columbia, Head Start teachers earned an 73 percent of all Head Start teachers had a least a average of $85,819 annually. No other state averaged bachelor’s degree, a 29 percentage point increase more than $50,000 and only three states (Hawaii, from 44 percent in 2006-2007. Despite this progress, Maryland, and New Jersey) averaged more than there still exists substantial variation in the percent $40,000. As with Early Head Start, teachers with of Head Start teachers with at least a bachelor’s lower educational qualifications are paid even less, degree in ECE (See Figure 11) and progress is still $21,953 on average for Head Start teachers with no needed to meet the National Academy of Sciences’ 40 ECE or related credentials. Those with a CDA earned recommendation. In New Mexico, 36 percent of slightly more, $22,671. teachers had a bachelor’s degree or higher in ECE. In two other states, Alaska and Arizona, less than As reported earlier, public elementary school 50 percent of teachers had a bachelor’s degree or teachers earned an average yearly salary of $57,092, higher in ECE. On the other end, in the District of which is $23,705 more than similarly qualified Columbia, 99 percent of Head Start teachers met Head Start teachers (See Figure 13). This salary these qualifications. West Virginia is the only other discrepancy is largest in Massachusetts ($46,610) state to top 90 percent. and also tops $40,000 in New York. On the other hand, the Head Start teachers in the District of Columbia are paid on par with public elementary TEACHER SALARY school teachers. West Virginia and South Dakota are Early Head Start teachers with Early Head Start: the only other states where the discrepancy is less a bachelor’s degree or higher earned an average of than $10,000. $29,769 during the 2014-2015 school year. Teachers in Mississippi earned only an average of $25,331 DURATION and teachers in 20 other states earned less than $30,000 on average. On the high end, teachers in the Early Head Start: In 2014-2015, an average of 42 District of Columbia earned an average of $44,668. percent of Early Head Start children were served in No other state averaged more than $40,000 and school-day (more than 6 hours per day), 5-day per only three other states (Washington, Virginia, and week programs (See Figure 14). This number has Alaska) averaged over $35,000. Teachers with lower decreased by 5 percentage points from 47 percent educational qualifications were paid even less, an in 2006-2007. In 2014-2015, 90 percent of Early 15

18 Head Start children in Louisiana were enrolled in 2006-2007 (45 percent) despite some small year-to- year fluctuations and a high of 47 percent of children school-day, 5-day per week programs. Arkansas and in 2009-2010. In 2014-2015, almost all Head Start Georgia also served more than 85 percent of children children in the District of Columbia (99.8 percent) in school-day, 5-day per week programs. However, and Georgia (99.1 percent) were served in school- Idaho and Wyoming did not serve any children in day, 5-day per week programs. Both the District of school-day, 5-day per week programs, while Alaska Columbia and Georgia have school-day universal only served 7 percent of children in this type of preschool programs. In another five states (Arkansas, program. Both Alaska and Wyoming serve a sizable South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, and New Jersey) percentage of children in school-day, 4 day per week over 80 percent of Head Start children were enrolled programs which may make sense in rural areas where in school-day, 5-day per week programs. However, transporting children to and from Head Start centers in Idaho and Wyoming only 1 percent of Head Start may require unusually long journeys. However, they children were served in school-day, 5-day per week are not the only states where children receive fewer programs and in five other states (Alaska, Utah, West hours of service. Virginia, Arizona, and Indiana) less than 5 percent of In 2014-2015, an average of 44 percent Head Start: children were in similar programs. Most states have a of Head Start children were served in school-day, long way to go to meet the new Head Start standards 5-day per week programs (See Figure 15). Nationally, requiring most children to receive 1,020 hours of 41 this number has remained relatively unchanged since Head Start per year by 2021 (See Map 4). MAP 4. PERCENT OF HEAD START CHILDREN RECEIVING AT LEAST 1,020 HOURS OF HEAD START PER YEAR ME WA VT ND MT MN NH MA NY OR RI WI CT SD ID MI WY PA NJ IA DC OH NE DE IL MD IN NV WV VA UT CO MO KY KS CA NC TN SC OK AR AZ NM MS AL GA LA TX FL 0% 1 to 10% 11 to 20% 21 to 40% 41 to 60% AK 61 to 80% 81 to 94% HI 16

19 non-federal sources in the form of financial or in-kind FUNDING Donated use of space and volunteer donations. Total federal funding for all Head Start programs time, including parents’ time, are major sources of (including AIAN and MSHS) exceeded $8.24 billion in this match. In general, we do not discuss matching 2014-2015. This amount included almost $334 million funds in our report and its exclusion does not affect for MSHS and over $237 million for AIAN programs. state comparisons as everyone is expected to obtain States invested an additional almost $177 million in a proportional match. However, we do report state Head Start programs, and other local and private supplemental funding for Head Start. funding not included in this report also supported Early Head Start: In 2014-2015, federal funding the program. Federal investments in Head Start have for Early Head Start (EHS) was $1,890,324,000 increased from $6.65 billion in 2006-2007. Adjusting including $60,935,000 for AIAN EHS programs. for inflation, total federal funding for Head Start This amounts to an average of $12,612 per child (or increased by over $613 million between 2007 and $12,575 without AIAN EHS). Additional state, local, 2015. Head Start (including Early Head Start) funding and private funding also supports Early Head Start per child increased slightly ($432) over this period, programs but is not reported here. Like enrollment, from $8,369 in 2006-2007 to $8,801 in 2014-2015, in funding is highly variable across the map even after 2015 dollars. adjusting for differences in the costs of living across Head Start grantees are expected to raise an the country (See Map 5 and Figure 16). At the low additional 20 percent of their total budget from end, Early Head Start funding per child in the District MAP 5. EARLY HEAD START FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (ADJUSTED FOR COST OF LIVING) ME WA VT ND MT MN NH MA NY OR RI WI CT SD ID MI WY PA NJ IA DC OH NE DE IL MD IN NV WV VA UT CO MO KY CA KS NC TN SC OK AR AZ NM AL MS GA LA TX FL $8,000-$10,000 $10,001-$11,000 $11,001-$12,000 $12,001-$13,000 $13,001-$14,000 AK $14,001-$15,000 $15,001-$16,000 HI 17

20 MAP 6. HEAD START FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (ADJUSTED FOR COST OF LIVING) ME WA VT ND MT MN NH MA NY OR RI WI CT SD ID MI WY PA NJ IA DC OH NE DE IL MD IN NV WV VA UT CO MO KY KS CA NC TN SC OK AR AZ NM MS GA AL LA TX FL $5,500-$7,000 $7,001-$7,500 $7,501-$8,000 $8,001-$8,500 $8,501-$9,000 AK $9,001-$10,000 $10,001-$11,000 HI of Columbia was only $8,325 (adjusted for cost of explained (See Map 6 and Figure 17). After adjusting living). In two other states (Kansas and Illinois), for cost of living differences, funding per child in Early Head Start funding per child was also below Head Start in the District of Columbia was $5,507. $10,000. At the high end, Early Head Start funding In an additional four states, the funding per child per child was $15,777 in Maine and it topped $14,000 amount was less than $7,000 (Delaware, Texas, in 10 other states (Alabama, New Mexico, Louisiana, Virginia, and Illinois). In contrast, in Alaska, federal Indiana, Nevada, Oregon, Nebraska, Arkansas, funding per child was $10,995, almost twice as high Mississippi, and Vermont). as in the District of Columbia, after adjusting for cost of living. In three other states (Vermont, Maine, Federal funding for Head Start (HS) was Head Start: and Oregon) funding per child also topped $10,000. $6,020,670,948 in 2014-2015, including $176,373,066 Although some regional differences in funding per for AIAH HS programs. States provided an additional child can be noted, there are also large differences $164 million dollars and local and private funding between neighboring states. For example, federal (not reported here) also supported Head Start funding per child (adjusted for cost of living) was programs. On average, federal funding for Head almost $2,000 more in Oregon than Washington. Start amounted to $8,038 per child. Again, there Similarly, it was about $1,500 higher in Pennsylvania is substantial variation in federal funding per child than neighboring Delaware. across the map — variation which is not easily 18

21 AN UNDER-FUNDED MISSION In 2014-2015, the federal government spent roughly needed, both nationwide and state-by-state, to serve 42 $8.24 billion to serve more than 900,000 children We assumed 50 percent of all low-income children. (birth through age 5) and pregnant women in Head that an average of $10,000 per child would be Start across the 50 states, District of Columbia, needed to provide children high-quality Head Start U.S. territories and in AIAN and MSHS programs. for 1,020 hours per year. However, since costs of Although these are large numbers, substantial providing Head Start vary state-by-state, we adjusted increases in investments in Head Start are needed this number by the cost of living in each state. to enroll all eligible children while also improving There are 3.9 million low-income 3- and 4-year-old program quality and increasing program duration. children in the 50 states and District of Columbia. Total federal investments in HS and HS AIAN in With approximately 730,000 3- and 4-year-olds 2014-2015 topped $6 billion dollars. But less than 20 currently enrolled in Head Start in the 50 states and percent of low-income 3- and 4-year-olds (a number District of Columbia, more than 3 million low-income equal to about 36 percent of children in poverty) 3- and 4-year-olds are not enrolled. We estimate were served by the programs. Further, in most states, that more than $20 billion dollars would be needed instructional quality does not meet the research- to serve just half of all low-income 3- and 4-year- based threshold needed to support children’s olds (or all of those in poverty) in the 50 states and learning and development, and most children attend District of Columbia. This represents an additional Head Start for less than a school-day, 5 days per $14.4 billion above current federal investments in week. Head Start programs for 3- and 4-year-olds (See Table 1). An even larger investment would be needed To move Head Start closer toward fulfilling its to increase enrollment of infants and toddlers. ambitious goals, we estimated the amount of money 19

22 * TABLE 1. FUNDING NEEDED TO PROVIDE HEAD START SERVICES TO 50 PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME 3- AND 4-YEAR-OLDS ADDITIONAL FUNDING NEEDED TO TOTAL FUNDING NEEDED TO 2015 FEDERAL FUNDING SERVE 50% OF LOW-INCOME STATE SERVE 50% OF LOW INCOME FOR HEAD START 3- & 4-YEAR-OLDS 3- & 4-YEAR-OLDS Alabama $105,931,663 $210,585,184 $316,516,847 $16,516,359 $44,895,470 Alaska $28,379,111 $349,716,855 $132,330,709 Arizona $482,047,565 $138,040,468 $192,587,590 Arkansas $54,547,122 $2,901,491,019 $2,115,424,080 California $786,066,938 $297,906,353 $67,792,162 Colorado $230,114,191 $157,627,179 $48,547,555 $109,079,624 Connecticut Delaware $11,531,271 $49,192,908 $37,661,637 District of Columbia $30,366,154 $17,216,766 $47,582,920 $252,679,973 $1,130,760,658 $878,080,685 Florida $165,228,366 $760,945,069 $595,716,703 Georgia $ 20,024,782 Hawaii $42,604,722 $62,629,504 $22,595,930 $114,169,414 Idaho $91,573,484 $786,607,349 $259,658,363 $526,948,986 Illinois Indiana $92,484,306 $398,120,499 $305,636,193 Iowa $106,849,537 $46,100,672 $152,950,209 $47,593,428 $179,960,503 $132,367,074 Kansas $104,183,497 $275,199,906 $171,016,409 Kentucky Louisiana $137,135,999 $180,936,508 $318,072,507 $23,472,389 $34,632,309 Maine $58,104,699 Maryland $73,023,931 $291,828,741 $218,804,810 $103,342,571 $268,417,788 Massachusetts $165,075,217 Michigan $216,362,124 $548,816,196 $332,454,072 Minnesota $75,656,454 $255,009,119 $179,352,664 Mississippi $163,969,725 $226,485,199 $62,515,474 Missouri $110,512,605 $228,774,826 $339,287,431 $32,911,370 $55,085,140 Montana $22,173,770 $108,060,172 $30,672,064 $77,388,108 Nebraska Nevada $25,090,575 $199,765,452 $174,674,878 New Hampshire $31,089,102 $11,848,328 $42,937,430 $122,304,556 $447,293,705 $324,989,149 New Jersey $57,846,738 $163,697,908 $105,851,170 New Mexico New York $422,162,135 $823,395,979 $1,245,558,115 $135,327,889 $543,507,611 North Carolina $678,835,500 North Dakota $22,852,990 $31,878,041 $9,025,051 $246,990,917 $697,384,620 Ohio $450,393,703 Oklahoma $97,788,225 $281,673,871 $183,885,646 Oregon $55,871,716 $221,153,814 $165,282,098 Pennsylvania $222,479,706 $648,393,632 $425,913,926 Rhode Island $19,071,954 $29,285,861 $48,357,815 $83,476,548 $246,084,398 South Carolina $329,560,946 South Dakota $29,107,557 $41,977,843 $12,870,285 $117,287,530 $436,823,067 Tennessee $319,535,537 Texas $467,174,263 $2,317,804,090 $1,850,629,826 Utah $39,444,996 $222,401,629 $182,956,634 Vermont $10,372,184 $26,117,928 $15,745,744 Virginia $93,865,318 $344,730,168 $438,595,486 $98,632,728 $426,498,017 Washington $327,865,289 West Virginia $50,247,266 $97,525,743 $47,278,477 Wisconsin $93,273,813 $287,438,093 $194,164,280 Wyoming $12,076,768 $29,673,183 $17,596,415 United States $5,764,546,547 $20,181,703,882 $14,417,157,335 *Low-income children are those children from families with incomes below 200% FPL. 20

23 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS not adequate to provide a high-quality program to High-quality preschool has shown the potential all of the eligible population. This forces tradeoffs to enhance children’s learning and development, 43 among quality, duration, and the number of children especially among low-income and at-risk children. served. Differences in local decisions regarding these The goal of the federal Head Start program is to tradeoffs and historical precedent seem the likely improve disadvantaged children’s school readiness. causes for the state-by-state variations we observe. However, the program has never been funded adequately to provide high-quality education to all State(s) of Head Start The report reveals where the poor children, much less all those in low-income greatest needs are state-by-state, but the federal State(s) of Head Start families. The report is the government must step up to help Head Start first report to describe and analyze in detail the programs fulfill their mission. Currently Head Start is consequences of this funding policy for each state an under-funded mandate and programs are forced on four key dimensions of the program: enrollment, to choose between either improving quality, serving quality, duration, and funding. more children and families, or serving them for more time. While Head Start is only one part of the We find large variation among the states in each of early care and education system, and state and local these four dimensions that cannot be explained by governments also have a role to play, this problem only the needs of children and families served. The cannot be solved without addressing the need to report suggests that Head Start does not have the provide enough funding for all eligible children — this resources to serve all children in poverty let alone problem is substantially worse for Early Head Start. all low-income children who could benefit from the program. Even when children do attend Head Start, Even when considering Head Start, state-funded the quality is sometimes too low to have the impacts preschool, and preschool special education together, that it could. Currently, overall funding for Head many states serve less than 20 percent of 3- and Start is not adequate the distribution of funding and 4-year-olds. Looking at only Head Start and state- across states is neither rational nor fair. In sum, these funded preschool (See Figures 18 and 19), only three findings suggest that the extent to which Head Start states (Vermont, Oklahoma, and Florida) and the has the capacity to achieve its goals is far too limited District of Columbia serve more than 80 percent generally and varies dramatically state-by-state. of 4-year-olds. But most state-funded preschool And this variation among the states cannot be fully programs focus only on 4-year-olds — only 27 states explained by any rational policy goal. have preschool programs that serve 3-year-olds. Considering Head Start and state-funded preschool, The current administration, building on the work of the District of Columbia serves 64 percent of previous administrations, continues to raise Head 3-year-olds but no other states serves more than Start standards to increase quality and intensity of 44 35 percent. services across the country. But implementing these policy changes will be costly. As the report shows, Many state- and locally-funded preschool programs although progress has been made, it is uneven across are very small and serve even smaller populations the states and there is still a long way to go. The than does Head Start (as shown in Figures 18 and revised and streamlined Head Start standards that 19). Funding per child and quality standards are also went into effect this year are designed to improve typically much lower in state-funded preschool than the program overall and to reduce or eliminate some Head Start. Nationally, Head Start federal funding per of the variation noted in this report. These goals child is $3,000 more than the average state-funded can only be accomplished if the program receives preschool per child spending. Further, while Head greater funding, or if the number of children served Start has worked to increase teacher qualifications is decreased. Teacher pay needs to be on par with and now 73 percent of Head Start teachers have public school teachers’ in order to improve the a bachelor’s degree or higher, only 33 of 57 state- recruitment of strong teachers while reducing their funded preschool programs require teachers to stress and turnover. have a bachelor’s degree or higher and not all of Ultimately the program’s federal budget is simply those states require those degrees to be in ECE or a 21

24 38 This report is the beginning of an important Head Start also provides more support related field. services to children and their families as part of conversation about how the nation can best support its mission to serve the most vunerable and at-risk the learning and development of its young children. families. In sum, state-funded preschool offers far Head Start is the single largest federal investment less than Head Start to children in poverty in many in early care and education. The federal government states. also funds an array of other programs that support the care and education of young children. Parents, To address these issues we recommend that local government, and state government also policymakers and the broader early care and contribute substantial funding to support early education community examine the variance across care and education. If the nation is to assure that states and develop policies that ensure every the learning and development needs of every child, eligible child has an equal opportunity to attend a everywhere are to be met, all of these sectors will high-quality, effective Head Start program. While need to plan and work together. Data provided by programs need the latitude to plan based on local this report are one important resource to spur a needs, we also need a rational and evidence-based conversation and additional research as we all work method for setting funding levels that will ensure together to realize this vision. eligible children in every state have an equal opportunity to participate in a highly effective Head Start program. By this we do not mean simply altering the distribution of existing funding as this would “rob” some eligible and deserving children of support in order to serve others. As we see no easy solutions to the issues raised by our report, we recommend an independent national bipartisan commission to study the issues raised in this report and develop an action plan for Head Start in conjunction with all of the other early care and education programs. The commission should include representatives from policy, research, and practice throughout the early care and education community, including Head Start. Head Start is also well positioned to collaborate with state- and locally- funded preschool and child care to improve the quality and accessibility of early childhood education. The action plan can build on efforts already in place to blend and braid policy and funding across multiple public programs. For example, West Virginia and the District of Columbia serve nearly all 4-year-olds through collaborations between state- and federally- funded early care and education programs. In Early Head Start, the recent Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships model collaboration between Early Head Start and local infant and toddler programs to raise quality. Given the gap between Early Head Start’s current capacity to meet the needs of the eligible population, we also suggest that Head Start consider defining a smaller, very high need population (e.g., homeless, at high risk of abuse and neglect, medically fragile) who could be given priority for Early Head Start services. The proposed national commission could explore how to put Early Head Start on a course towards providing highly-effective supports to all eligible children and families in all states and territories. 22

25 FOOTNOTES 1 How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers Head Start Program Performance Standards Final Rule. ACF-PI- on children’s social and cognitive development? Economics of HS-16-04. 52-66. McCartney, K., Burchinal, M., Clarke- Education Review, 26, 2 Low-income children are those children from families with incomes Stewart, A., Bub, K. L., Owen, M. T., Belsky, J., & the NICHD Early below 200 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). Children Child Care Research Network (2010). Testing a series of causal in poverty are those children from families below 100 percent propositions relating time in child care to children’s externalizing of the FPL. According to the 2009 Head Start Family and Child behavior. 1-17. National Institute of Developmental Psychology, 46, Experiences Survey (FACES), over 35% of children had household Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research incomes above the FPL. Kopack Klein, A., Aikens, N., West, J., Network (2003). Does amount of time spent in child care predict Data Tables for FACES 2009 Lukashanets, S., & Tarullo, L. (2013). socioemotional adjustment during the transition to kindergarten? Report Getting Ready for Kindergarten: Children’s Progress During Child Development, 74, 976-1005. National Institute of Child Health Head Start. OPRE Report 2013-21b. Washington, DC: Office of and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children (2006). Child-care effect sizes for the NICHD study of early child and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 99-116. care and youth development. American Psychologist, 61, 3 Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007, P.L. 110- Walters, C. R. (2015). Inputs in the production of early childhood 134, 121 Stat. 1363. human capital: Evidence from Head Start. American Economic 4 Journal: Economic Policy, 7, 76-102. Pianta, R. C., LaParo, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). 12 Office of Head Start (2016). Head Start Program Facts Fiscal Year 5 Retrieved from https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/data/ 2015. Head Start Program Standards Final Rule. ACF-PI-HS-16-04. factsheets/2015-hs-program-factsheet.html. Office of Head Start 6 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2016). FY 2016 Head Start Timeline. (2016). Retrieved from https://eclkc.ohs.acf. Head Start Funding Increase. Log No. ACF-PI-HS-16-03. hhs.gov/hslc/hs/50th-anniversary/head-start-timeline. 7 Bitler, M. P., Hoynes, H. W., & Domina, T. (2015). Experimental 13 Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007, P.L. 110- evidence on distributional effects of Head Start. Working paper. 134, 121 Stat. 1363. Retrieved from: https://business.illinois.edu/finance/wp-content/ 14 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2016). Head uploads/sites/46/2015/08/hilary-hoynes-paper.pdf. Bloom, H. S., & Start Timeline. Retrieved from https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ Weiland, C. (2015). To what extent do the effects of Head Start on hs/50th-anniversary/head-start-timeline enrolled children vary across sites? New York: MDRC. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/quantifying_ 15 Ibid. variation_in_head_start.pdf. Carneiro, P., & Ginja, R. (2014). 16 Head Start Program Performance Standards Final Rule. ACF-PI- Long-term impacts of compensatory preschool on health and HS-16-04. behavior: Evidence from Head Start. American Economic Journal: 17 Abbott-Shim, M., Lambert, R., & McCarty, F. (2003). A comparison Economic Policy, 6, 135-173. Deming, D. (2009). Early childhood of school readiness outcomes for children randomly assigned intervention and life-cycle skill development: Evidence from Head to a Head Start program and the program’s wait list. Journal of American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1, Start. 111-34. 191-214. Barnett, W. S. Education for Students Placed at Risk, 8, Feller, A., Grindal, T., Miratrix, L., & Page, L. C. (2016). Compared (2011). Effectiveness of early educational intervention. Science, to what? Variation in the Impacts of Early Childhood Education 975-978. Currie, J., & Thomas, D. (1993). Does Head Start 333, by Alternative Care Type. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 10, National Bureau NBER Working Paper Series. make a difference? 1245-1285. Johnson, R. (2013). School quality and the long-run of Economic Research: Cambridge, MA. Gormley, W. T., Phillips, effects of Head Start. Berkeley: Goldman School of Public Policy D., & Gayer, T. (2008). Preschool programs can boost school working paper. Retrieved from https://gspp.berkeley.edu/assets/ readiness. Science, 320, 1723-1724. Lee, V. E., Brooks-Gunn, J., uploads/research/pdf/RJabstract_LRHeadStartSchoolQuality. & Schnur, E. (1988). Does Head Start work? A 1-year follow-up pdf. Kline, P., & Walters, C. R. (2016). Evaluating public programs comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, The Quarterly with close substitutions: The Case of Head Start. Developmental no preschool, and other preschool programs. 1795-1848. Puma, M., Bell, S., Cook, R., Heid, Journal of Economics, 210-222. Shager, H. M., Schindler, H. S., Magnuson, Psychology, 24, C., Shapiro, G., Broene, P., Jenkins, F.,...Spier, E. (2010a). Head K. A., Duncan, G. J., Yoshikawa, H., Hart, C. M. D. (2013). Can Start Impact Study. Final Report. Washington, DC. Puma, M., Bell, research design explain variation in Head Start research results? S. H., Cook, R., Heid, C., Broene, P., Jenkins, F., Mashburn, A., and A meta-analysis of cognitive and achievement outcomes. Downer, J. (2012). Third grade follow-up to the Head Start Impact 76-95. Weiland, C., Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35, Study final report, OPRE Report #2012-45, Washington, DC: Office & Yoshikawa, H. (2013). Impacts of a prekindergarten program on of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children children’s mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. emotional skills. Child Development, 84, 2112-2130. Yoshikawa et Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M., Gormley, al., 2013. W., Ludwig, J.,...Zaslow, M.J. (2013). Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education. Ann Arbor, MI: Society for 18 Shager et al. (2013). Research in Child Development and New York: Foundation for Child 19 Abbott-Shim et al. (2003). Development. Zhai, F., Brooks-Gunn, J. and Waldfogel, J. (2014). 20 Head Start’s impact is contingent on alternative type of care in Lumeng, J. C., Kaciroti, N., Sturza, J., Krusky, A. M., Miller, A. L., comparison group. 2572–2586. Developmental Psychology, 50, Peterson, K. E., Lipton, R., & Reischl, T. M. (2015). Changes in body Pediatrics, mass index associated with Head Start participation. 8 Head Start Program Performance Standards Final Rule. ACF-PI- e449-e456. 135, HS-16-04. 21 Abbott-Shim et al., 2003. Hale, B. A., Seitz, V., & Zigler, E. (1990). 9 Head Start Program Information Reports (PIR) for 2014-2015. Journal of Health services and Head Start: A forgotten formula. 10 Yoshikawa et al. (2013). 447-458. Applied Developmental Psychology, 11, 11 Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Connors, M. C., & Morris, P. A. (2013). 22 Gelber, A., & Isen, A. (2013). Children’s schooling and parents’ When is more time in Head Start better for children? The role of behavior: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study. Journal of classroom quality. Paper presented at the Association for Public Public Economics, 101, 25-3. Policy Analysis and Management Conference. Li, W., Farkas, G., 23 Sabol, T. J., & Chase-Lansdale, L. C. (2014). The influence of low- Duncan, G.J., Vandell, D.L., & Burchinal, M. (2013). Effects of Head income children’s participation in Head Start on their parents’ Start hours on children’s cognitive, pre-academic, and behavioral education and employment. Journal of Policy Analysis and outcomes: An instrumental variables analysis. Paper presented 136-161. Management, 34, at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Loeb, 24 S., Bridges, M., Bassok, D., Fuller, B., & Rumberger, R. W. (2007). Puma et al. (2010). Puma et al. (2012). 23

26 34 Barnett, W. S., Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Gomez, R. E., Horowitz, M., Weisenfeld, G. G., Brown, K., & Squires, J. H. (2016). State of Preschool Yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. 35 Pianta et al. (2008). 36 Britto, P., Yoshikawa, H., & Boller, K. (2011). Quality of Early Childhood Development Programs in Global Contexts: Rationale for Investment, Conceptual Framework and Implications for Equity. Social Policy Report, 25, 3-23. Burchinal, M., Howes, C., Pianta, R., Bryant, D., Early, D., Clifford, R., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Predicting child outcomes at the end of kindergarten from the quality of pre- kindergarten teacher-child interactions and instruction. Applied Developmental Science, 12, 140-153. Burchinal, M. R., Kainz, K., & Cai, Y. (2011). How well are our measures of quality predicting to child outcomes: A meta-analysis and coordinated analyses of data from large scale studies of early childhood settings. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, K. Tout & T. Halle (Eds.), Measuring quality in early childhood settings (pp. 11-32). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Yoshikawa et al., 2013. Zaslow, M., Anderson, R., Redd, Z., Wessel, J., Tarullo, L., & Burchinal, M. (2010). Quality Dosage, Thresholds, and Features in Early Childhood Settings: A Review of the Literature, OPRE 2011-5. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 37 Early, D., Barbarin, O., Bryant, D., Burchinal, M., Chang, F., Clifford, R.,...Barnett, W. S. (2005). Pre-kindergarten in eleven states: NCEDL’s multi-state study of pre-kindergarten & study of state-wide early education programs (SWEEP). Preliminary descriptives report. Farran, D. C., & Bilbrey, NCEDL Working Paper. C. (2014). Variation in observed program characteristics across classrooms in the Tennessee Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten Program. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Francis, J. (2015). New Jersey Preschool Quality New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Evaluation Study. Education Research. Francis, J. (2016). Grow NJ Kids Validation New Brunswick, NJ: Study: Year 1 Classroom Observation Findings. National Institute for Early Education Research. 38 National Center for Education Statistics. Table 202.60 Percentage 25 Love, J. M., Kisker, E. E., Ross, C. M., Schochet, P. Z., Brooks-Gunn, distribution of quality rating of child care arrangements of children J., Paulsell, D.,...Brady-Smith, C. (2002). Making a difference in at 4 years of age, by type of arrangement and selected child and the lives of infants and toddlers and their families: The Impacts of family characteristics: 2005-06. Early Head Start., Executive Summary. Washington, DC: Office of 39 Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2015). Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children Transforming the Workforce for Children, Youth through Age 8. and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. 26 Love et al. (2002). 40 Ibid. 27 Puma et al. (2010). 41 Head Start Program Performance Standards Final Rule. ACF-PI- 28 Puma et al. (2012). HS-16-04. 29 Bitler et al. (2015). Bloom & Weiland, 2015. Feller et al. (2016). 42 We use 50 percent of low-income children as an estimate of the Walters, 2015. Zhai et al. (2014). number of eligible children given that not all children in Head Start 30 McCoy, D. C., Morris, P. A., Connors, M. C., Gomez, C. J., & are below the FPL. The number of poor children is equal to about Yoshikawa, H. (2016). Differential effectiveness of Head Start in half of the number of low-income children. urban and rural communities. Journal of Applied Developmental 43 Barnett, 2011; Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Barnett, W. S., & Nores, Psychology, 43, 29-42. M. (2016). How Much Can High-Quality Universal Pre-K Reduce 31 Walters, 2015. Achievement Gaps? Washington DC: Center for American 32 Progress. Yoshikawa et al., 2013. Kopack Klein et al. (2013). 33 44 Ibid. Barnett et al. (2016). 24

27 State(s) of Head Start NATIONAL FIGURES 25

28 ** FIGURE 1. HEAD START ENROLLMENT AS PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN POVERTY UNDER 3 YEARS OLD IN 2014-2015 District of Columbia 13.07% North Dakota 12.77% Vermont 11.05% Montana 10.06% South Dakota 9.87% Wyoming 9.09% Alaska 8.52% Maine 8.51% Nebraska 8.34% New Hampshire 7. 27% Kansas 7.21% Iowa 6.80% 6.16% Hawaii 6.10% Rhode Island 6.03% Oklahoma 5.80% Illinois 5.54% New Mexico 5.51% Connecticut 5.51% Washington 5.48% Michigan Arkansas 5.31% 5.15% Minnesota 5.04% Oregon 4.98% Pennsylvania Wisconsin 4.96% West Virginia 4.93% California 4.91% Missouri 4.85% Mississippi 4.75% 4.44% Kentucky 4.38% National Average* 4.35% Massachusetts 4.29% Delaware 4.29% Virginia 4.28% New York 4.24% Louisiana 4.20% Idaho 4.10% Colorado 4.09% Ohio 4.04% Utah 3.92% North Carolina 3.91% Maryland 3.81% New Jersey 3.64% Florida 3.59% Arizona 3.51% South Carolina 3.25% Alabama 3.17% Georgia 3.14% Indiana 2.88% Tennessee 2.85% Texa s 2.70% Nevada 11% 12% 14% 13% 15% 6% 4% 5% 3% 1% 2% 7% 8% 10% 0% 9% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Children in poverty are those children from families with income below the FPL. Not all Head Start children’s families are below the FPL. 26

29 ** HEAD START ENROLLMENT AS PERCENT OF 3-YEAR-OLDS IN POVERTY IN 2014-2015 FIGURE 2. North Dakota 97.34% 75.21% Mississippi 73.63% Alaska 66.80% South Dakota 59.20% Montana 58.91% Louisiana 57.29% District of Columbia 55.35% Wisconsin 51.18% Oklahoma 48.18% Rhode Island 47.73% Wyoming 44.33% Illinois 41.87% Massachusetts 41.21% Maryland 40.71% Minnesota 39.93% Iowa 38.94% Michigan 38.35% Kentucky 37. 27% Vermont 37.21% Arkansas 36.77% Ohio 35.69% Delaware 35.45% New Mexico 35.30% Missouri 34.90% Pennsylvania 34.67% New Hampshire 34.21% Hawaii 34.17% West Virginia 34.15% New York 33.87% Kansas 33.16% Alabama 33.03% New Jersey 32.90% National Average* 32.15% South Carolina 31.69% California 31.21% Connecticut 30.50% Nebraska 29.58% Georgia 28.78% Colorado 27.1 5% Tennessee 26.23% Maine 25.89% Utah 25.61% Virginia 25.48% Texa s 25.14% Indiana 23.44% Arizona 23.17% Florida 22.19% Washington 19.27% North Carolina 18.04% Oregon 15.92% Nevada 15.00% Idaho 80% 70% 0% 90% 100% 40% 30% 20% 10% 50% 60% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Children in poverty are those children from families with income below the FPL. Not all Head Start children’s families are below the FPL. 27

30 ** 4-YEAR-OLDS IN POVERTY IN 2014-2015 FIGURE 3. HEAD START ENROLLMENT AS PERCENT OF 100.00% North Dakota 90.44% Montana 89.52% West Virginia 88.61% Mississippi 88.06% Alaska 70.80% South Dakota 69.92% Hawaii 68.36% District of Columbia 61.50% Wyoming 61.09% Maine 60.66% Vermont 51.13% New Mexico 49.72% Minnesota 48.65% Kentucky 47.47% Alabama 47.1 5% New Hampshire 46.51% Illinois 46.16% Michigan 45.94% Ohio 45.11% Oklahoma 44.45% Pennsylvania 43.78% Rhode Island 43.40% Utah 43.40% Nebraska 42.20% Connecticut 41.56% New York 40.52% Louisiana 40.47% Idaho 40.36% Iowa 39.97% Colorado 39.73% Massachusetts 39.68% Delaware 38.41% National Average* 38.34% Virginia 37. 4 3 % New Jersey 36.87% Arizona 36.83% Tennessee 36.23% Missouri 35.70% Arkansas 35.37% Maryland 34.76% Washington 34.73% California 33.50% Indiana 32.19% Wisconsin 31.92% Kansas 3 1 .74 % Florida 31.23% Texa s 29.07% North Carolina 28.89% Oregon 24.36% South Carolina 22.13% Georgia 16.91% Nevada 70% 0% 90% 100% 40% 30% 20% 10% 50% 80% 60% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Children in poverty are those children from families with income below the FPL. Not all Head Start children’s families are below the FPL. 28

31 ** ENROLLED IN HEAD START IN 2014-2015 LOW-INCOME CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OLD FIGURE 4. PERCENT OF 7.69% District of Columbia 5.27% North Dakota 5.11% Vermont 5.07% South Dakota 4.55% Wyoming 4.01% Maine 3.93% Alaska 3.81% Montana 3.77% Rhode Island 3.67% Nebraska 3.44% Kansas 3.30% New Mexico 3.15% Michigan 3.08% Illinois 3.05% Iowa 3.03% Oklahoma 2.94% Mississippi 2.90% Connecticut 2.89% Arkansas 2.87% Hawaii 2.73% West Virginia 2.71% Pennsylvania 2.67% Oregon 2.66% New Hampshire 2.65% Wisconsin 2.64% Kentucky 2.56% Washington 2.56% Missouri 2.52% California 2.50% Minnesota 2.41% Louisiana 2.38% New York 2.37% Ohio 2.35% Massachusetts 2.32% National Average* 2.25% Delaware 2.12% North Carolina 2.02% New Jersey 2.00% South Carolina 1.99% Virginia 1.97% Colorado 1.94% Arizona 1.92% Florida 1.86% Maryland 1.84% Alabama 1 .74 % Georgia 1.68% Idaho 1.62% Indiana 1.60% Tennessee 1.53% Texa s 1.52% Utah 1.28% Nevada 6% 7% 8% 9% 2% 1% 0% 4% 5% 3% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Low-income children are those children from families with incomes below 200% FPL. 29

32 ** FIGURE 5. PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME 3-YEAR-OLDS ENROLLED IN HEAD START IN 2014-2015 45.29% Mississippi 39.33% North Dakota 34.91% Louisiana 34.41% District of Columbia South Dakota 34.17% 27.78 % Montana 27.1 7% Wisconsin 25.51% Oklahoma 24.00% Rhode Island Alaska 23.48% 2 2 .74 % Illinois 22.18% Massachusetts 22.08% Kentucky 21.83% Wyoming Michigan 21.65% New Mexico 20.66% Ohio 20.42% Arkansas 19.42% Alabama 19.39% Maryland 19.01% 18.95% New York 18.67% West Virginia South Carolina 18.63% 18.63% Missouri Pennsylvania 18.52% 1 7.9 6% Vermont Iowa 1 7.76% Minnesota 17.16% 17.08% National Average* Connecticut 16.95% 16.77% New Jersey Delaware 16.39% Georgia 16.28% California 16.16% 15.99% Kansas 14.67% Tennessee Nebraska 14.54% 14.32% Maine 14.10% Hawaii 13.64% New Hampshire 13.47% Colorado 13.44% Texa s 12.93% Virginia 12.79% Indiana 11.87% Arizona Florida 11.59% 10.39% Washington North Carolina 10.29% 9.30% Oregon Utah 9.19% 7. 32 % Nevada Idaho 5.80% 60% 10% 20% 50% 40% 0% 30% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Low-income children are those children from families with incomes below 200% FPL. 30

33 ** FIGURE 6. PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME 4-YEAR-OLDS ENROLLED IN HEAD START IN 2014-2015 52.41% Mississippi 47.11% West Virginia 46.45% North Dakota 40.76% South Dakota Montana 34.85% 34.31% Alaska 31.13% District of Columbia 29.20% Hawaii 27.72 % Wyoming Kentucky 27.40% 27.10% Alabama 25.56% Michigan 25.12% New Mexico 24 .74 % Maine Illinois 24.58% Ohio 24.28% Rhode Island 23.39% Pennsylvania 23.30% Oklahoma 22.82% Louisiana 22.81% 22.77% Massachusetts 22.03% New York Nebraska 20.05% 19.89% Minnesota National Average* 19.67% 19.48% Vermont Tennessee 19.44% Delaware 19.24% 19.21% Arizona Missouri 19.11% 18.78% Connecticut Virginia 18.59% New Jersey 18.45% Iowa 18.36% 18.20% Colorado 17.98% Arkansas California 17.59% 16.97% Indiana 16.44% Texa s 16.23% New Hampshire 16.18% Florida 16.15% Wisconsin 16.01% Maryland 15.92% Kansas 15.80% Washington North Carolina 15.52% 14.71% Utah Idaho 14.53% 14.21% South Carolina Oregon 14.18% 12.57% Georgia Nevada 6.96% 60% 10% 20% 50% 40% 0% 30% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Low-income children are those children from families with incomes below 200% FPL. 31

34 ** FIGURE 7. AVERAGE CLASS INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT SCORES Vermont 3.72 Kentucky 3.29 Utah 3.25 Rhode Island 3.20 Maine 3.19 Tennessee 3.14 Colorado 3.12 Indiana 3.11 Delaware 3.09 Hawaii 3.09 Illinois 3.02 Washington 3.02 Minnesota 3.00 Wyoming 3.00 Connecticut 2.98 Massachusetts 2.97 New Hampshire 2.97 Ohio 2.97 Pennsylvania 2.92 Missouri 2.91 Montana 2.91 South Dakota 2.90 Oregon 2.89 Michigan 2.88 New York 2.88 Idaho 2.86 Kansas 2.86 National Average* 2.85 Iowa 2.84 Alaska 2.83 California 2.83 Virginia 2.83 New Jersey 2.81 North Dakota 2.80 Wisconsin 2.80 2.79 Nebraska 2.79 West Virginia 2.77 Arkansas 2.77 Nevada 2.77 North Carolina 2 .74 Florida 2 .74 Maryland 2.73 Texa s 2.71 Puerto Rico 2.68 District of Columbia 2.63 Georgia 2.62 Mississippi 2.61 Arizona 2.58 AIAN HS 2.57 Louisiana 2.56 Oklahoma 2.55 Migrant & Seasonal HS 2.49 South Carolina 2.48 Alabama 2.47 New Mexico Guam, Northern Mariana 2.27 Islands, Virgin Islands 0 1 6 7 2 5 4 3 Research-based threshold for high quality (3) *National Average includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, AIAN and MSHS. ** Scores are averages across grantees in each state that received an on-site review as part of the grant renewal process between 2012 and 2015. 32

35 ** FIGURE 8. AVERAGE CLASS EMOTIONAL SUPPORT SCORES Vermont 6.47 Rhode Island 6.24 Colorado 6.22 Maine 6.17 Washington 6.16 Wyoming 6.15 Utah 6.14 Massachusetts 6.13 Nevada 6.13 Oregon 6.13 Delaware 6.12 Illinois 6.12 Minnesota 6.12 Connecticut 6.11 California 6.10 Hawaii 6.10 Kentucky 6.10 Kansas 6.08 Guam, Northern Mariana 6.06 Islands, Virgin Islands Michigan 6.05 Arizona 6.04 Wisconsin 6.04 New Jersey 6.03 North Dakota 6.03 Arkansas 6.02 Iowa 6.02 New York 6.02 North Carolina 6.02 Migrant & Seasonal HS 6.01 Indiana 6.01 Ohio 6.01 Tennessee 6.01 District of Columbia 6.01 Puerto Rico 6.01 National Average* 6.00 New Mexico 6.00 Pennsylvania 6.00 AIAN HS 5.99 5.97 New Hampshire 5.96 Montana 5.94 Nebraska 5.93 West Virginia 5.92 Virginia 5.91 Alaska 5.91 Idaho 5.89 Missouri 5.87 Texa s 5.84 Florida 5.84 Georgia 5.84 Maryland 5.83 Oklahoma 5.83 South Dakota 5.82 Mississippi 5.80 Alabama 5.79 Louisiana 5.71 South Carolina 0 1 6 7 2 5 4 3 Research-based threshold for high quality (5.5) *National Average includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, AIAN and MSHS. ** Scores are averages across grantees in each state that received an on-site review as part of the grant renewal process between 2012 and 2015. 33

36 ** FIGURE 9. AVERAGE CLASS CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION SCORES Vermont 6.21 Rhode Island 6.08 Nevada 5.96 Hawaii 5.95 Colorado 5.94 Kentucky 5.94 Kansas 5.91 Utah 5.89 Minnesota 5.86 Washington 5.85 Delaware 5.84 District of Columbia 5.84 Oregon 5.80 Illinois 5.79 Massachusetts 5.77 Tennessee 5.77 California 5.73 Wisconsin 5.73 Wyoming 5.73 Connecticut 5.71 Indiana 5.71 Iowa 5.71 Maine 5.70 North Carolina 5.70 Arizona 5.69 New York 5.69 Pennsylvania 5.69 North Dakota 5.68 National Average* 5.67 Arkansas 5.67 Michigan 5.67 Virginia 5.67 Ohio 5.65 Guam, Northern Mariana 5.64 Islands, Virgin Islands Idaho 5.62 5.62 New Jersey 5.62 Texa s 5.61 AIAN HS 5.61 West Virginia 5.60 Migrant & Seasonal HS 5.58 Puerto Rico 5.55 Florida 5.54 Alaska 5.53 Montana 5.52 Nebraska 5.52 New Mexico 5.49 Maryland 5.49 Oklahoma 5.47 Georgia 5.45 Louisiana 5.45 Mississippi 5.44 Missouri 5.43 New Hampshire 5.40 Alabama 5.37 South Carolina 5.35 South Dakota 0 1 6 7 2 5 4 3 Research-based threshold for high quality (5.5) *National Average includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, AIAN and MSHS. ** Scores are averages across grantees in each state that received an on-site review as part of the grant renewal process between 2012 and 2015. 34

37 FIGURE 10. PERCENT OF EARLY HEAD START TEACHERS WITH A BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR HIGHER District of Columbia 64.29% Nebraska 54.70% Vermont 50.00% Utah 46.43% Maine 45.10% Wyoming 42.86% Mississippi 42.20% Michigan 41.48% Pennsylvania 40.99% Oregon 40.67% Arizona 40.00% North Dakota 39.53% Delaware 37.1 4% California 36.33% 36.11% New Hampshire 34.62% Connecticut 34.07% North Carolina 33.42% New York 32.60% Tennessee 32.50% Hawaii 32.08% Iowa 32.00% Massachusetts 31.54% Maryland 31.12% Illinois 30.51% Alabama 30.29% Missouri 29.81% Washington 29.60% Georgia 29.51% South Carolina 29.50% Ohio 29.41% Wisconsin 28.30% Indiana 27.48% National Average* 24.57% Kansas 24.36% South Dakota 23.44% Minnesota 22.89% Kentucky 22.41% West Virginia 21.68% Virginia 21.66% Colorado 21.43% Alaska 21.34% Oklahoma 20.12% Arkansas 19.64% Montana 1 7. 35% Texa s 16.36% New Jersey 16.16% Nevada 15.72% Louisiana 13.64% Rhode Island 12.20% Idaho 12.17% Florida 11.55% New Mexico 10% 100% 80% 70% 50% 90% 20% 30% 40% 0% 60% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 35

38 FIGURE 11. PERCENT OF HEAD START TEACHERS WITH A BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR HIGHER District of Columbia 99.10% West Virginia 91.60% New York 89.09% New Jersey 88.83% Nebraska 88.67% Iowa 88.39% Delaware 87. 3 0 % Vermont 84.78% Pennsylvania 84.32% Illinois 84.20% Maryland 81.29% Michigan 80.64% Rhode Island 80.13% 78.47% North Carolina 78.23% Virginia 77.77% Georgia 77.03% Kansas 75.73% Maine 74.76% Tennessee 73.97% Texa s 73.64% Wisconsin 72.14% National Average* 70.71% Florida 70.18% Mississippi 69.41% Ohio 68.82% South Dakota 68.00% Oklahoma 67. 57% Kentucky 66.87% South Carolina 66.36% Minnesota 66.04% New Hampshire 65.87% Louisiana 65.26% Connecticut 65.02% California 64.67% Missouri 64.34% Oregon 64.13% Wyoming 63.98% Utah 63.06% Colorado 61.93% Indiana 61.78% Massachusetts 61.33% Arkansas 60.26% North Dakota 56.85% Idaho Hawaii 56.15% 55.91% Alabama 53.04% Washington 50.75% Nevada 50.43% Montana 44.65% Arizona 40.52% Alaska 36.36% New Mexico 10% 100% 80% 70% 50% 90% 20% 30% 40% 0% 60% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 36

39 DIFFERENCE IN SALARY BETWEEN EARLY HEAD START FIGURE 12. TEACHERS WITH A BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR HIGHER AND PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS South Dakota $6,272 Oklahoma $10,286 New Mexico $10,436 Arizona $12,111 Virginia $12,607 Washington $12,784 Arkansas $15,687 West Virginia $16,251 Kansas $16,332 Colorado $16,858 Mississippi $17,233 Utah $17,466 Nebraska $18,309 Missouri $18,645 $18,698 North Carolina $18,930 Louisiana $19,283 Idaho $19,310 Maine $19,989 Florida $20,028 South Carolina $20,102 Tennessee $20,690 Wisconsin $20,838 Iowa $21,365 Texa s $21,383 Indiana $22,006 North Dakota $22,578 Alabama $22,804 Kentucky $22,986 Georgia $23,533 Hawaii $23,846 Minnesota $24,075 New Hampshire $24,680 Delaware $24,908 Montana $25,848 National Average* $26,110 Nevada $26,409 Ohio $ 27, 673 Oregon $ 27,793 Illinois $27,984 Wyoming $28,803 Vermont $29,132 Alaska $29,431 Michigan $30,822 District of Columbia $32,900 Pennsylvania $33,199 Maryland $35,102 Rhode Island $36,977 California $39,559 Connecticut $41,819 New Jersey $42,604 Massachusetts $46,600 New York $20,000 $0 $40,000 $50,000 $30,000 $10,000 *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 37

40 FIGURE 13. DIFFERENCE IN SALARY BETWEEN HEAD START TEACHERS WITH A BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR HIGHER AND PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS District of Columbia $0 West Virginia $ 7, 87 9 South Dakota $9,101 Florida $11,590 Oklahoma $11,888 Virginia $12,496 Texa s $12,556 Colorado $13,655 New Mexico $13,825 Arizona $14,207 Kansas $14,308 Nebraska $15,037 Tennessee $15,143 Arkansas $15,200 $16,912 Hawaii $17,134 Louisiana $17,193 Kentucky $17,799 North Dakota $17,893 Missouri $19,181 Wisconsin $19,805 North Carolina $20,452 Maryland $ 2 0 ,74 6 Utah $20,873 Washington $20,926 Mississippi $21,266 Idaho $21,367 Illinois $21,562 Iowa $21,909 Alabama $22,332 South Carolina $22,567 Georgia $22,957 National Average* $22,992 New Jersey $23,562 Maine $23,711 Indiana $24,075 Nevada $24,486 Minnesota $24,693 Wyoming $25,782 Ohio $26,508 Vermont $27,104 Montana $29,778 Alaska $30,096 Oregon $33,006 Michigan $33,164 New Hampshire $33,437 Rhode Island $33,530 Connecticut $35,451 Pennsylvania $36,168 Delaware $ 37, 228 California $40,418 New York $46,610 Massachusetts $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $0 $50,000 $10,000 *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 38

41 FIGURE 14. PERCENT OF EARLY HEAD START CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS Louisiana 89.95% Arkansas 89.07% Georgia 87.29% South Carolina 78.13% Oklahoma 76.72% Mississippi 75.27% Alabama 73.44% Texa s 72.81% Florida 71.52% District of Columbia 55.89% Nevada 54.07% Missouri 53.01% Tennessee 50.43% New Mexico 50.16% New Jersey 48.63% Kentucky 47.9 1 % Illinois 47.56% North Dakota 46.47% Montana 4 3 .74 % Virginia 42.94% Connecticut 42.25% National Average* 41.00% North Carolina 40.87% Massachusetts 38.06% Delaware 36.92% South Dakota 36.90% New York 33.72% Colorado 30.94% New Hampshire 29.33% Maine 29.09% Ohio 28.35% Nebraska 27.40% Rhode Island 25.90% California 25.45% Iowa 25.20% Indiana 23.93% Michigan 23.24% Kansas 22.73% Arizona 22.65% Vermont 22.19% Wisconsin 21.04% Minnesota 19.49% Oregon 19.05% West Virginia 19.05% Hawaii 18.81% Utah 17.30% Maryland 16.26% Washington 12.81% Pennsylvania 10.24% Alaska 6.78% Idaho 0.00% Wyoming 0.00% 70% 90% 80% 0% 50% 100% 20% 30% 40% 10% 60% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 39

42 FIGURE 15. CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS PERCENT OF HEAD START District of Columbia 99.83% Georgia 99.06% Arkansas 88.99% South Carolina 86.98% Florida 85.97% Alabama 82.31% New Jersey 80.23% Mississippi 75.15% North Carolina 74.76% Louisiana 74 . 3 5 % New York 71.96% Texa s 68.77% Virginia 64.44% Tennessee 61.87% Connecticut 61.86% Oklahoma 60.60% Maryland 47.14% National Average* 44.27% Pennsylvania 36.63% Iowa 34.43% Illinois 33.64% South Dakota 29.06% Vermont 28.16% Massachusetts 27.09% Nebraska 25.70% New Mexico 25.53% Missouri 23.51% Hawaii 21.89% Kentucky 20.50% Nevada 20.02% California 19.92% Ohio 15.80% Kansas 14.95% Montana 14.78% Wisconsin 13.83% Michigan 13.49% Delaware 12.02% North Dakota 10.65% Colorado 10.63% Rhode Island 10.34% Maine 10.30% Oregon 9.89% Washington 7.84% Minnesota 7.21% New Hampshire 5.50% Indiana 4.24% Arizona 3.40% West Virginia 3.03% Utah 2.30% Alaska 1.87% Wyoming 1.10% Idaho 0.72% 70% 90% 80% 0% 50% 100% 20% 30% 40% 10% 60% *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 40

43 EARLY HEAD START FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD ADJUSTED FOR COST OF LIVING 2014-2015 FIGURE 16. Maine $15,777 Vermont $15,536 Mississippi $14,487 Arkansas $14,255 Nebraska $14,248 Oregon $14,223 Nevada $14,197 Indiana $14,142 Louisiana $14,119 New Mexico $14,117 Alabama $14,002 Kentucky $13,981 Montana $13,975 Arizona $13,837 $13,734 South Dakota $13,723 North Dakota $13,653 Tennessee $13,636 Idaho $13,551 South Carolina $13,384 Michigan $13,264 Massachusetts $13,242 West Virginia $13,064 Florida $13,025 Oklahoma $12,961 Missouri $12,896 North Carolina $12,773 Wisconsin $12,575 National Average* $12,572 Washington $12,532 Colorado $12,439 Delaware $12,424 Minnesota $12,413 Georgia $12,375 Utah $12,305 New Hampshire $12,255 Rhode Island $12,102 Hawaii $12,020 Maryland $11,991 Alaska $11,976 Iowa $11,896 Texa s $11,723 Ohio $11,702 Connecticut $11,222 California $11,156 Wyoming $10,993 Pennsylvania $10,335 New Jersey $10,262 Virginia $10,195 New York $9,992 Illinois $8,462 Kansas $8,325 District of Columbia** $20,000 $15,000 $10,000 $5,000 $0 *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **The cost of living adjustment for DC is exceptionally large and may overestimate the necessary adjustment for Head Start. 41

44 2014-2015 HEAD START FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD ADJUSTED FOR COST OF LIVING FIGURE 17. Alaska $10,995 Oregon $10,716 Maine $10,684 Vermont $10,579 Idaho $9,825 Montana $9,486 South Dakota $9,257 New Hampshire $9,221 Washington $8,842 Nevada $8,807 Arizona $8,781 Missouri $8,630 Connecticut $8,611 Massachusetts $8,567 $8,370 Michigan $8,344 North Dakota $8,336 Rhode Island $8,334 Iowa $8,290 Nebraska $8,289 Kansas $8,271 New York $8,181 Pennsylvania $8,159 Wyoming $8,093 National Average* $8,066 Florida $8,028 California $7,981 Minnesota $7,909 Ohio $ 7, 8 33 Tennessee $ 7,7 94 Indiana $7,777 New Jersey $ 7,74 1 New Mexico $ 7,733 West Virginia $7,731 South Carolina $ 7,70 4 North Carolina $ 7, 678 Kentucky $7,663 Wisconsin $ 7, 572 Arkansas $ 7, 570 Hawaii $7,531 Georgia $7,438 Louisiana $7,412 Mississippi $7,398 Utah $ 7, 23 0 Colorado $ 7,1 93 Alabama $ 7,1 77 Oklahoma $ 7,1 74 Maryland $6,970 Illinois $6,799 Virginia $6,747 Texa s $6,580 Delaware $5,507 District of Columbia** $12,000 $0 $6,000 $2,000 $4,000 $8,000 $10,000 *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **The cost of living adjustment for DC is exceptionally large and may overestimate the necessary adjustment for Head Start. 42

45 3-YEAR-OLDS FIGURE 18. PERCENT OF IN THE STATE ENROLLED IN HEAD START AND ** STATE-FUNDED PRESCHOOL IN 2014-2015 63.59% District of Columbia 33.87% Vermont 32.41% Arkansas 29.48% Illinois 28.95% Mississippi New Jersey 24.64% Nebraska 20.77% Kentucky 20.31% 18.95% Louisiana 16.23% California 15.09% Connecticut 14.99% South Carolina Oklahoma 14.70% Texa s 14.43% West Virginia 14.36% 14.22% South Dakota 14.09% Colorado Montana 14.05% 13.69% Pennsylvania New Mexico 13.00% National Average* 12.91% North Dakota 12.80% 12.77% Massachusetts Ohio 12.43% 11.45% Wisconsin 11.21% Michigan 10.98% Oregon 10.80% Alabama 10.77% Missouri Maryland 10.70% Iowa 10.19% Alaska 9.82% Arizona 9.44% Rhode Island 9.07% 8.89% Georgia Tennessee 8.69% Wyoming 8.35% 8.27% New York 8.14% Maine 8.00% Washington 7.62% Kansas 6.80% Minnesota Delaware 6.59% 6.56% Indiana 6.29% Florida 5.64% North Carolina 5.04% Hawaii 4.80% Virginia 4.57% Nevada 4.34% New Hampshire Utah 4.09% Idaho 3.56% 70% 0% 10% 50% 40% 60% 20% 30% State supplement to Head Start Federally funded Head Start State-funded preschool *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Total can overstate public enrollment as some or all state-funded preschool children may be served in Head Start. Where possible an unduplicated percentage is provided. 43

46 4-YEAR-OLDS PERCENT OF IN THE STATE ENROLLED IN HEAD START AND FIGURE 19. ** STATE-FUNDED PRESCHOOL IN 2014-2015 91.16% Vermont 87.51% Oklahoma 86.25% District of Columbia 85.02% Florida 72.01% West Virginia 71.18% Wisconsin 66.55% Iowa 61.98% Georgia 58.62% New York 56.48% Texa s South Carolina 55.26% Arkansas 48.83% 47.01% Maine New Mexico 44.82% Louisiana 43.80% Maryland 41.70% 39.90% Kentucky Michigan 39.63% Nebraska 39.17% National Average* 37.7 9 % Illinois 37.74 % 34.82% New Jersey 34.65% Mississippi 30.86% Colorado Tennessee 30.46% 28.79% Connecticut 28.10% Kansas North Carolina 26.69% California 26.15% Virginia 24.78% 24.47% Alabama Pennsylvania 22.50% Montana 19.30% Alaska 18.06% 1 7. 38 % Ohio South Dakota 17.27% Oregon 17.16% Arizona 16.35% North Dakota 16.08% Delaware 15.37% Washington 15.03% 14.36% Rhode Island 13.07% Missouri Massachusetts 12.09% Hawaii 11.75% 11.64% Wyoming Indiana 9.28% Minnesota 8.69% Idaho 8.35% Nevada 6.72% 6.63% Utah New Hampshire 5.49% 50% 70% 90% 100% 0% 10% 60% 80% 40% 20% 30% Federally funded Head Start State-funded preschool State supplement to Head Start *National Average includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. **Total can overstate public enrollment as some or all state-funded preschool children may be served in Head Start. Where possible an unduplicated percentage is provided. 44

47 STATE(S) OF HEAD START GUIDE TO THE STATE PROFILES For each state and territory, the report provides a (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, one-page overview of Head Start and Early Head Palau, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands), and includes Start in 2014-2015. An additional six pages provide data on the American Indian and Alaska Native in-depth data on enrollment, funding, child and family (AIAN) programs. Data on the National Overview characteristics, support services, staff, and program page also include MSHS. type and duration for the 2014-15 program year with historical data back to 2006-2007. See the full report HEAD START & EARLY HEAD START at nieer.org for this information for all states and 2014-2015 OVERVIEW territories. The one-page overview for each state reports Each state’s information includes data on Head Start specific information from the 2014-2015 school year. (HS), Early Head Start (EHS), HS AIAN, and EHS AIAN State-specific information is presented in green and programs (unless otherwise noted). Migrant and national averages in purple. The overview is divided Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) data are not reported by into eight sections: state and territory, but are summarized in a separate MSHS section. AIAN programs are summarized in a The first column Federally Funded Enrollment: separate section as well. shows the number of federally-funded children and 1 The second pregnant women enrolled in Head Start. For comparison purposes, each state profile includes column shows the percent of children in the state information on national averages. The national enrolled in Head Start, and the third column shows average on the state pages is based on the 50 the percent of low-income children (less than 200 states, District of Columbia, and six U.S. territories 45

48 percent of the FPL) in the state enrolled in Head in each state for Early Head Start and Head Start teachers holding a bachelor’s degree or higher (green Start. We do this because family income is not locked bars). The average salary of a public elementary below the FPL permanently after children enter school teacher in each state is the third green bar. Head Start and children are not required to leave the For comparison, the national averages are provided, program if their family income rises above the FPL in purple. after they enroll. For many children served by Head Start, family income ends up above the FPL by the This figure shows the percent Program Duration: 2 For each of these three end of their 4-year-old year. of the Early Head Start and Head Start funded data points, the first row of the enrollment table enrollment served in school-day, 5-day per week shows the total number of children and pregnant programs. Green bars present this information women served by Head Start. Subsequent rows show for the state and purple bars provide the national the number of pregnant women, children under age average. School-day programs are those that operate 3 3, 3-year-olds and 4-year-olds. more than 6 hours per day. Federal Funding: The first row presents the total Funding: This final figure presents the average 4 federal funding for Head Start programs in the state. federal funding per child enrolled in Early Head Start The second and third rows split this into funding for and Head Start in the state (green bars). The light Early Head Start and Head Start, respectively. EHS green bars show federal funding per child that has AIAN funding was not reported by state and is not been adjusted to account for differences in the cost reported here, but HS AIAN is included. of living across states. The purple bars show the national average Early Head Start and Head Start Enrollment: This figure shows the percent of federal funding per child. The EHS spending per low-income children under age 3, age 3, and age 4 child in each state does not include EHS AIAN as this enrolled in Head Start in the state (in green) and 5 funding was not reported by state. However, on the Percentages reported on the nationally (in purple). national overview page Early Head Start funding per national overview page include MSHS but this is not child figure does includes EHS and EHS AIAN. the case on the individual state profiles. This figure presents average scores for each Quality: state on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System DETAILED HEAD START & EARLY HEAD 6 CLASS data are from the Head Start (CLASS). START STATE PROFILES monitoring process and may not reflect all grantees For each state, the report provides an additional six in a state. Green bars show the average scores pages of data, divided into eight sections described across observed classrooms on the three CLASS below. These pages focus primarily on the 2014- domains: Instructional Support, Emotional Support, 2015 program year but also show trends over time, and Classroom Organization. National averages for beginning with the 2006-2007 program year. The each domain are purple. For each CLASS domain, first four sections (two pages) present information a research-based threshold is also presented by a combined across Early Head Start (EHS and EHS red X black line. A above a state’s data indicates the AIAN) and Head Start (HS and HS AIAN). The next score is statistically significantly below the research- two sections focus on Early Head Start (including based threshold. A green 4 above a state’s data EHS AIAN) while the final two show data on Head indicates the score is statistically significantly above Start (including HS AIAN). the research-based threshold. No mark indicates the Enrollment: The enrollment section begins with score is not statistically different from the research- a table showing the number of children and total based threshold. pregnant women enrolled, and per Early Head Start The green bars in this figure Teacher Degree: and Head Start. The first row shows the total number present the percentage of all Early Head Start and of funded slots for children and pregnant women. Head Start teachers in the state holding a bachelor’s The second row shows the number of children and degree or higher in early childhood education or a pregnant women who participated in Head Start related field. For comparison, national averages are and were funded by federal dollars. This second provided in purple. Early Head Start and Head Start row includes funded children and pregnant women teachers include lead teachers and co-lead teachers. in Early Head Start and Head Start, but does not All Early Head Start infant and toddler classrooms include those funded by the AIAN programs. The must have two teachers. third row shows the number of children and pregnant women who were enrolled through state funding that This figure shows the average salary Teacher Salary: 46

49 supplemented federal Head Start funding. The fourth columns. The first row shows the total federal funding, row shows the number of children and pregnant including funding for AIAN programs, plus any state supplemental funding. The second row shows the women who participated in Early Head Start and total federal funding for Head Start and Early Head Head Start who were funded by the federal Maternal, Start programs (including HS AIAN and EHS AIAN). Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) This amount is broken out in the third and fourth program. The fifth row shows the number of children rows: the third row reflects HS and EHS whereas the funded by the AIAN programs. When added together, fourth row reflects HS AIAN and EHS AIAN. Note that rows two through five equal the total in row one. EHS AIAN funding could not be broken out by state Row six shows the cumulative enrollment for Early and is listed as “Not available” in this table for states Head Start and Head Start. Cumulative enrollment that had EHS AIAN funded enrollment. The fifth row is different from, and typically exceeds, funded in this table shows the amount of state supplemental enrollment. It represents the total number of children funding for Head Start. This information was not and pregnant women who have been enrolled in available for Early Head Start (with two exceptions) the program at any time during the program year, and is listed as “Not available” in the table. including children who may have left early or started late. Some children may be counted more than once The “Federal Funding Per Child (2015 Dollars)” figure in the cumulative enrollment count if they leave shows how federal funding per child has changed one location and re-enroll in another. The final row between 2006-2007 and 2014-2015. All dollar represents data on the number of children served amounts are adjusted for inflation and converted to through a partnership between Head Start and a “2015 Dollars.” From 2006-2007 through 2010-2011, center-based child care program. spending could not be separately allocated for EHS and HS so only one amount is shown. The green The “Number of Children Enrolled Over Time, By bars show the amount of federal funding for HS and Age” figure illustrates how the number of federally- EHS divided by the total federally-funded enrollment funded children has changed from 2006-2007 to in HS and EHS. Beginning in 2011-2012, funding per 2014-2015. This figure also shows how enrollment age child is separated into EHS and HS. As a transitional composition has changed over time. Note the scale of comparison, the overall funding per child is also the vertical axis is not fixed across states in order to presented for 2011-2012. Purple bars show the federal accommodate both small and large states. funding per child for EHS while the pink bars show The “Percent of Children in the State Served” figure the federal funding per child for HS (including HS illustrates how the percentage of children in the state AIAN in 2014 and 2015). The darker purple and pink funded by Early Head Start and Head Start changed bars show the EHS and HS (respectively) 2014-2015 from 2006-2007 to 2014-2015. Note that the vertical federal funding per child that have been adjusted axis is the same for all states, always 0 to 100 percent. for cost of living differences across the states. The “Percent of Low-Income Children in the State Finally, the light purple and pink hashed bars show Served” figure shows how the percent of children the average federal funding per child across the 50 from low-income families in the state funded to enroll states, DC, and 6 U.S. territories. in Head Start changed from 2006-2007 to 2014-2015. Child and Family Characteristics: This section This figure focuses on the state’s low-income children describes the children and families enrolled in HS and (defined as less than 200 percent FPL), rather than EHS programs during the 2014-2015 program year. all children in the state. Note that the vertical axis is Information in this section is based on cumulative the same for all states, always 0 to 100 percent. enrollment (i.e., all children who attended HS or EHS at any point during the 2014-2015 school year). Funding: The funding section begins with a table showing the amounts of Early Head Start and Head • The “Ethnicity” figure shows the percent of Start federal funding and state supplements. Early children who are Hispanic/Latino and the percent Head Start and Head Start programs receive other of children who are Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino. funding that is not captured by this report. For The “Race” figure shows the percent of children by • example, Head Start providers are required to obtain their racial background: American Indian/Alaska a 20 percent match which may be cash or in-kind (i.e., Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native donated goods and services). The first column shows Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, White, Biracial/Multi- the total funding for Head Start and Early Head Start racial, and other or unspecified race. programs in the state and this amount is broken out The “Home Language” figure shows the percent • into Early Head Start and Head Start in the next two 47

50 of children by the primary language spoken by the The “Children Receiving Health Support Services: child’s family at home. The languages presented Services” figure shows five health services indicators for each state vary in order to show the languages for 2014-2015 at the time of entry and at the end of represented in each state. If a language is not enrollment. shown on a state’s page, that means the percent of Up-to-date immunizations • shows the percent of children reported to have that home language was HS and EHS children who had received all age- less than half a percent. appropriate immunizations, had received all The “Parent Education” figure shows the percent • possible immunizations (although not all of those of HS and EHS families in the state by highest appropriate for their age), or met the state’s level of education earned by either parent. Some guidelines for exemption from immunizations. families did not report their highest level of shows the percent of HS and EHS • Health insurance education; therefore, percentages may not always children who had health insurance. add up to 100 percent. shows the percent of HS and • Medical home The “Family Use of Public Assistance” figure • EHS children in who had “an ongoing source of shows the percent of HS and EHS families in the continuous, accessible health care excluding urgent state who received each of four different types of care centers and emergency room settings.” public assistance: federal Temporary Assistance • Up-to-date on age-appropriate preventive and for Needy Families (TANF); Supplemental Security primary health shows the percent of HS and EHS Income (SSI); Special Supplemental Nutrition children who had received all screenings and Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); health care as stipulated by the state’s Early and and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (SNAP). (EPSDT) guidelines. The “Other Child and Family Characteristics” figure • Dental home • shows the percent of HS and EHS provides data on some additional characteristics of children who had “an ongoing source of continuous, HS and EHS children and families in the state: accessible dental care provided by a dentist.” is the percent of Meets income requirement — The “Children Receiving Transportation” pie chart children enrolled in EHS or HS in the state who shows the percent of HS and EHS children for whom were eligible for HS or EHS based on family Head Start provided transportation. income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level, being homeless, or receiving public The “Families’ Use of Support Services” figure shows assistance. the percent of HS and EHS families who used any of five of the many support services offered by Head — Child has an IEP/IFSP is the percent of children Start programs. The five support services included enrolled in HS or EHS in the state who (parenting education; health education; emergency/ were eligible for special education or early crisis intervention such as meeting immediate needs intervention at any point during the 2014-2015 for food, clothing, or shelter; adult education such program year. as GED programs and college selection; and mental — Child was referred to Head Start by child welfare health services) were selected because they were the is the percent of children enrolled in HS or EHS five most frequently used support services across the in the state who were referred to the program by country. Families can utilize more than one support a child welfare agency. service. is the percent of — Child experienced homelessness The “Families Receiving at Least One Support children enrolled in HS or EHS in the state who Service” pie chart shows the percent of HS and EHS experienced homelessness at some point during families who utilized at least one of the support the 2014-2015 program year. services offered by their Head Start program. — Single parent family is the percent of HS and The “Percent of Teachers by Early Head Start Staff: EHS families in the state who were one-parent Highest Degree in ECE or Related Field” figure shows households. how EHS teacher qualifications in the state changed is the percent of HS and — Parental unemployment from 2006-2007 to 2014-2015. Each bar shows the EHS families in the state where no parents were percentage of teachers by degree level in a given employed. This number includes both one- and year. Higher qualifications are at the bottom, fewer two-parent families. qualifications are at the top. All degrees are in ECE or 48

51 a related field. Teachers include lead teachers and co- program year. lead teachers. All Early Head Start infant and toddler The three “Additional Staff Qualifications” pie charts classrooms are required to have two teachers. show the degree qualifications for EHS assistant The “Average Teacher Salary” figure provides teachers, EHS home visitors, and EHS ECD managers information about average EHS teacher and assistant in the state. EHS assistant teachers are the third paid teacher salaries in the state overall and by level of staff in infant and toddler classrooms working as qualifications. It also shows the difference in average teacher aides. salary between EHS teachers in the state with a BA The two “Staff Demographic Characteristics” pie or higher and public elementary school teachers in charts show additional information on EHS “Child the state. Development” staff, including language proficiency The “Staff Characteristics” figure provides additional and self-identified race. information about EHS staff including the percent Type and Duration of Early Head Start Services: of EHS “child development” staff in the state who The three “Program Type and Duration” pie charts identify as Hispanic or Latino and the percent provide information about the types of EHS programs who speak a language other than English. “Child serving children in the state and the number of hours development” staff includes EHS teacher and per day, days per week, and years children attended. assistant teachers, home-based visitors, and family • The “Enrollment by program type” pie chart child care providers. Also reported is the percent of shows the percent of the funded EHS enrollment all EHS staff who currently are, or previously were, by setting. Children enrolled in center-based EHS parents of Head Start children. received services in classroom-based settings. The “Staff Turnover” figure provides information Children in home-based EHS received services about EHS staff turnover among teachers and home primarily in their own home alongside their parents visitors in the state. and family. Some children received both types, Teacher left shows the percent of EHS teachers in • referred to as “combination.” Children in family the state who left their Head Start program during care received EHS services in the home of a family the 2014-2015 school year. child care provider. Other children received EHS services through other means that were approved • Teacher left for better compensation is the percent by the Office of Head Start, referred to here as of all EHS teachers in the state who left their “Locally-designed.” The pie chart also includes Head Start program for a job in ECE with higher the percent of EHS funded enrollment that were compensation and/or a better benefits package. pregnant women. • Teacher vacancies over 3 months shows the • The “Enrollment in center-based programs by percent of all EHS teacher positions in the state operating schedule” pie chart shows the percent that remained unfilled for 3 months or longer. of EHS children in centers who attended for a filled shows the percent of EHS Teacher vacancies • school-day, 5 days per week; a school-day, 4 days teacher vacancies in the state that were filled due per week; a part-day, 5 days per week; or a part- to hiring new teachers during the program year. day 4 days per week. School-day programs provide shows the percent of EHS home • Home visitor left services for more than 6 hours per day. Part-day visitors in the state who left their Head Start programs provide services for 6 hours or less per program during the 2014-2015 school year. day. is the Home visitor left for better compensation • • The “Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start” percent of all EHS home visitors in the state who pie chart shows the percent of EHS children in left their Head Start program for a job in ECE with each state who have been enrolled in Head Start higher compensation and/or a better benefits for three or more years, two years, or only one package. year (the current year). Prior enrollment is only included if the child was enrolled for at least half of Home visitor vacancies over 3 months shows the • the program year. percent of all EHS home visitor positions in the state that remained unfilled for 3 months or longer. The “Percent of Children in School-Day, 5-Day Per Week Programs” figure shows the percent of EHS • shows the percent of Home visitor vacancies filled funded enrollment in the state who attended center- EHS home visitor vacancies in the state that were based EHS programs for a school-day, five days per filled due to hiring new home visitors during the 49

52 week. This figure also shows how this percentage based visitors, and family child care providers. changed from 2006-2007 to 2014-2015. • shows the Current/Former Head Start parent The “Percent of Children in Child Care Partnerships” percent of all HS staff in the state who currently are figure shows the percent of EHS funded enrollment or previously were parents of Head Start children. in the state who attended EHS through enrollment shows the • Speaks a language other than English in either center-based child care or family child care percent of all HS “child development” staff who are that had a formal contractual agreement with Head proficient in a language other than English. Start to provide child care services that met the Head The “Staff Turnover” figure provides information Start Program Performance Standards. This figure about HS staff turnover among teachers and home also shows how this percentage changed between visitors in the state. 2006-2007 and 2014-2015. • shows the percent of HS teachers in Teacher left This section includes three other figures that the state who left their Head Start program during provide additional information about the type of EHS the 2014-2015 school year. programs and the amount of services received by EHS participants in the state. is the percent • Teacher left for better compensation of all HS teachers in the state who left their shows the percent of children Child turnover rate • Head Start program for a job in ECE with higher who left their EHS program before the end of the compensation and/or a better benefits package. program year. This is calculated as the difference between cumulative enrollment and funded Teacher vacancies over 3 months • shows the enrollment divided by funded enrollment (as percent of all HS teacher positions in the state that reported in the PIR). remained unfilled for 3 months or longer. • Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy • Teacher vacancies filled shows the percent of HS shows the percent of EHS children with care paid teacher vacancies in the state that were filled due for by a child care subsidy. to hiring new teachers during the program year. • Percent of pregnant women who left the program • shows the percent of HS home Home visitor left before giving birth shows the percent of pregnant visitors in the state who left their Head Start women receiving EHS services who left the program during the 2014-2015 school year. program prior to giving birth and did not re-enroll • Home visitor left for better compensation is the in the program. percent of all HS home visitors in the state who The “Percent of Teachers by Head Start Staff: left their Head Start program for a job in ECE with Highest Degree in ECE or Related Field” figure shows higher compensation and/or a better benefits how Head Start teacher qualifications in the state package. changed from 2006-2007 to 2014-2015. Each bar shows the Home visitor vacancies over 3 months • shows the percentage of teachers by degree level in percent of all HS home visitor positions in the state a given year. Higher qualifications are at the bottom, that remained unfilled for 3 months or longer. fewer qualifications are at the top. All degrees are in • shows the percent of Home visitor vacancies filled ECE or a related field. HS home visitor vacancies in the state that were The “Average Teacher Salary” bar graph provides filled due to hiring new home visitors during the information about average HS teacher and assistant program year. teacher salaries in the state overall and by level of The three “Additional Staff Qualifications” pie charts qualifications. The report also presents the average show the degree qualifications for HS assistant salary for public elementary school teachers in the teachers, HS home visitors, and HS ECD managers in state for comparison, and the difference in average the state. salary between HS teachers with a BA or higher and public elementary school teachers. The two “Staff Demographic Characteristics” pie charts show the percent of HS staff in the state by The “Staff Characteristics” figure provides additional language proficiency and self-identified race. information about HS staff. Type and Duration of Head Start Services: The three • Hispanic or Latino shows the percent of HS “child “Program Type and Duration” pie charts provide development” staff in the state who identify as information about the types of HS programs children Hispanic or Latino. “Child development” staff in the state are enrolled in and the number of hours includes HS teachers and assistant teachers, home- 50

53 participants in the state. per day, days per week, and years of HS children attend. shows • Percent of children in school-day programs the percent of funded HS children in school-day • The “Enrollment by program type” pie chart shows center-based programs and family child care the percent of the funded HS enrollment by setting. arrangements (either 4 or 5 days per week). Children enrolled in center-based HS received services in classroom-based settings. Children Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar- • in home-based HS received services primarily shows the percent of funded HS year programs in their own home alongside their parents and children who attended programs providing services family. Some children received both, referred to as every week day other than legal public holidays for “combination.” Children in family care received HS 10 hours per day or more (in accordance with State services in the home of a family child care provider. law). Other children received HS services through other • shows Percent of children in 5-day/week programs means that were approved by the Office of Head the percent of funded HS children in each state who Start, referred to here as “Locally-designed.” attended center-based HS programs 5 days per • The “Enrollment in center-based programs by week (either school- or part-day). operating schedule” pie chart shows the percent Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours • of HS children in center-based programs who of Head Start per year shows the percent of HS attended for a school-day, 5 days per week; a children in each state who received at least 1,020 school-day, 4 days per week; a part-day, 5 days per hours of Head Start in 2014-2015. The 1,020 hours week; or a part-day 4 days per week. School-day is equivalent to a 6-hour day for 170 days per year programs provide services for more than 6 hours (similar to public school schedules exclusive of staff per day. Part-day programs provide services for 6 professional development days). However, programs hours or less per day. can decide how to distribute those 1,020 hours per year. For example, programs could offer fewer hours • The “Number of years enrolled in Head Start” per day for a full-calendar year. pie chart shows the percent of HS children in each state who have been enrolled in Head Start Child turnover rate • shows the percent of children for three or more years, two years, or only one who left their HS program before the end of the year (the current year). Years enrolled includes program year. This is calculated as the difference enrollment in HS as well as EHS. Prior enrollment between cumulative enrollment and funded is only included if the child was enrolled for at least enrollment divided by funded enrollment (as half of the program year. reported in the PIR). The “Percent of Children in School-Day, 5-Day Per • Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy Week Programs” figure shows the percent of HS shows the percent of HS children in the state funded children who attended center-based HS for whom the Head Start program (or a partner) programs for a school-day, five days per week. This received a child care subsidy. figure also shows how this percentage changed shows the • Percent of children in double sessions between 2006-2007 and 2014-2015. percent of HS-funded children in the state who This section includes seven other figures that were enrolled in part-day center-based programs in provide additional information about the type of HS which the same teacher had a morning class and an programs and the amount of services received by HS afternoon class. FOOTNOTES 1 4 This section reports on only federally funded Head Start This section reports on only federal funds for Head Start. Additional state, local, and/or private funding, including a enrollment. Additional children may be enrolled in Head Start but mandatory 20 percent match, may also be used to support Head funded by other sources. Start programs. 2 For example, over 35 percent of children in the 2009 Head Start 5 This section reports on only federally funded Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey had a household income enrollment. Additional children may be enrolled in Head Start but above the FPL. funded by other sources. 3 6 Due to rounding, enrollment numbers by age may not add up to Pianta, R. C., LaParo, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom the total. See methodology for additional information. Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Baltimore, MDL: Brookes. 51

54 REPORT STATE(S) OF HEAD START DATA POINTS IN THE the research-based threshold (3) HEAD START AND EARLY HEAD START 2014-2015 OVERVIEW • CLASS Emotional Support score Federally Funding Enrollment Is the score significantly higher or lower than – the research-based threshold (5.5) • Total number of children and pregnant women enrolled (funded by federal dollars) CLASS Classroom Organization score • – Total (children and pregnant women) – s the score significantly higher or lower than I the research-based threshold (5.5) – Pregnant women – Children under 3 years old (Percent of Teachers with a Teacher Degree – 3-year-olds Bachelor’s Degree or Higher) – 4-year-olds • Percent of Early Head Start teachers with a Percent of children in the state enrolled in Head • bachelor’s degree or higher in infant and toddler Start (funded by federal dollars) development or a related field – Total children birth through 5 years • Percent of Head Start teachers with a bachelor’s – Children under 3 years old degree or higher in ECE or a related field – 3-year-olds – 4-year-olds Teacher Salary (Average Salary of Teachers with a Bachelor’s Degree) • Percent of low-income children in the state enrolled in Head Start (funded by federal dollars) Average salary of Early Head Start teachers with • a bachelor’s degree or higher in infant and toddler – Total children birth through 5 years development or a related field – Children under 3 years old • Average salary of Head Start teachers with a – 3-year-olds bachelor’s degree or higher in ECE or a related – 4-year-olds field • Average salary of public elementary school Federal Funding teachers Total federal funding for Head Start and Early • Head Start Program Duration (Percent of Children in School- Total federal funding for Early Head Start (does – Day, 5-Day per Week Programs) not include AIAN EHS other than on national Percent of Early Head Start children enrolled in • overview) school-day (more than 6 hours), 5-day per week – Total federal funding for Head Start (includes programs HS AIAN) • Percent of Head Start children enrolled in school- day (more than 6 hours), 5-day per week programs Enrollment (Percent of Low-Income Children Served by Head Start) Funding • Percent of low-income children under 3 years old Federal funding per child enrolled in Early Head • enrolled in Head Start Start (does not include EHS AIAN other than on • Percent of low-income 3-year-olds enrolled in the national overview) Head Start • Federal funding per child enrolled in Early Head • Percent of low-income 4-year-olds enrolled in Start, adjusted for state cost of living Head Start Federal funding per child enrolled in Head Start • Federal funding per child enrolled in Head Start, • Quality (Classroom Quality Scores) adjusted for state cost of living CLASS Instructional Support score • – Is the score significantly higher or lower than 52

55 – Head Start federal funding (Total, Early Head DETAILED HEAD START & EARLY HEAD START Start, and Head Start) STATE PROFILES – Head Start federal funding for American Enrollment Indian/Alaska Native programs (Total, Early • Total funded enrollment (Total, Early Head Start, Head Start, and Head Start) and Head Start) – State supplemental funding for Head Start (Total, Federally funded enrollment (Total, Early Head – Early Head Start, and Head Start) Start, and Head Start) • Federal Funding Per Child (2015 Dollars) Enrollment funded by state supplement (Total, – – Federal funding per child for Head Start and Early Head Start, and Head Start) Early Head Start (together) each year from 2007 Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home – through 2012 Visiting enrollment (Total, Early Head Start, and – Federal funding per child for Early Head Start Head Start) each year from 2012 through 2015 – American Indian and Alaska Native funded Federal funding per child for Head Start each – enrollment (Total, Early Head Start, and Head year from 2012 through 2015 Start) Federal funding per child for Early Head Start – Cumulative enrollment (Total, Early Head Start, • and Head Start in 2015 adjusted for state cost of and Head Start) living Funded enrollment in center-based child care • – National average f ederal funding per child in 2015 partner (Total, Early Head Start, and Head Start) for Early Head Start and Head Start • Number of Children Enrolled Ov er Time, By Age Number of children under 3 ye – ars old enrolled in Child and Family Characteristics Head Start each year from 2007 through 2015 Ethnicity: Percent of children enrolled in Head • – Number of 3-ye ar-olds enrolled in Head Start Start and Early Head Start who are: each year from 2007 through 2015 – Hispanic/Latino – ear-olds enrolled in Head Start Number of 4-y each year from 2007 through 2015 Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino – • Percent of Children In the State Served • Race: Percent of children enrolled in Head Start and Early Head Start who are: Percent of children under 3 years old in the state – enrolled in Head Start each year from 2007 American Indian/Alaskan Native – through 2015 Asian – Percent of 3-year-olds in the state enrolled in – Black or African American – Head Start each year from 2007 through 2015 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander – – Percent of 4-year-olds in the state enrolled in – White Head Start each year from 2007 through 2015 Biracial/Multi-racial – Percent of Low Income Children In the State • – Other or unspecified races Served t of children enrolled in Home Language: Percen • – Percent of low-income children under 3 years old Head Start and Early Head Start whose home in the state enrolled in Head Start each year from language is: 2007 through 2015 – English – Percent of low-income 3-year-olds in the state enrolled in Head Start each year from 2007 – Spanish through 2015 Native Central American, South American, or – Mexican Percent of low-income 4-year-olds in the state – enrolled in Head Start each year from 2007 Caribbean – through 2015 Middle Eastern or S – outh Asian East Asian – Funding Native North American or Alaska Native – • Total funding (including federal and state – Pacific Island supplemental funding) for Head Start (Total, Early – European or Slavic Head Start, and Head Start) – African – Total federal funding for Head Start (Total, Early Another or unspecified languages Head Start, and Head Start) – 53

56 • Parent Education: Percent of parents of children Early Head Start who had a dental home enrolled in Head Start and Early Head Start whose – At enrollment to Head Start highest educational attainment is: – At the end of Head Start enrollment Bachelor’s degree or higher – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start and • – Associates degree, vocational school, or some Early Head Start receiving transportation college Families’ Use of Support Services • – High school diploma or a GED Percent of families who used the following – Less than a high school diploma or a GED – support services: Family Use of Public Assistance: Percent of Head • – Parenting education Start and Early Head Start families who receive: – Health education Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) – Emergency or crisis int – ervention Social Security Income (SSI) – Adult education – – Special Supplemental Nutrition Pr ogram for Mental health services – Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Percent of Head Start and Early Head Start • – Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program families who used at least one support service (SNAP) • tics: Percent Other Child and Family Characteris Early Head Start Staff of Children or Families enrolled in Head Start and Early Head Start who: Percent of Teachers By Highest Degree in ECE or • – Meet the Head Start Income Requirements Related Field (below 100 percent FPL, homeless, or received – Percent of Early Head Start Teachers each year public assistance) from 2007 through 2015 who had the following Have an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or – educational attainment Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Advanced degree in ECE or a related field – – Were referred to Head Start by child welfare Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field – ss – Experienced homelessne Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – – Are single-parent families CDA – Have no parents employed – – No ECE-related credentials – Education was not reported Support Services • Average Teacher Salary for: • Children Receiving Health Services Early Head Start assistant teachers – – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start Early Head Start teachers – and Early Head Start who had up-to-date Early Head Start teachers with a CDA or no ECE – immunizations credentials At enrollment to Head Start – Early Head Start teachers with an associate’s – – At the end of Head Start enrollment degree Percent of children enrolled in Head Start and – – Early Head Start teachers with a bachelor’s Early Head Start who had health insurance degree or higher At enrollment to Head Start – Difference in salary between public elementary – – At the end of Head Start enrollment school teachers and Early Head Start teachers with a bachelor’s degree or higher Percent of children enrolled in Head Start and – Early Head Start who had a medical home – Public elementary school t eachers – At enrollment to Head Start Staff characteristics: • – At the end of Head Start enrollment Percent of Early Head Start child development – staff who are Hispanic or Latino – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start and Early Head Start who were up-to-date on age- Percent of Early Head Start staff who are current – appropriate preventive and primary health care or former Head Start parents At enrollment to Head Start – Percent of Early Head Start child development – staff who speak a language other than English At the end of Head Start enrollment – – Staff Turnover Percent of children enrolled in Head Start and • 54

57 Percent of Early Head Start teachers who left – – al American, South American, or Native Centr Mexican their job during the year – Caribbean Percent of Early Head Start teachers who left – their job during the year for a job in ECE with – Middle Eastern or S outh Asian higher salaries and/or better benefits East Asian – – Percent of Early Head Start teacher vacancies Native North American or Alask – a Native that were unfilled for more than 3 months – Pacific Island Percent of Early Head Start teacher vacancies – European or Slavic – that were filled through hiring new teachers – African Percent of Early Head Start home visitors who – left their job during the year – Another or unspecified language – Percent of Early Head Start home visitors who – Staff race: Percent of Early Head Start child development staff who self-identify as the left their job during the year for a job in ECE with following races: higher salaries and/or better benefits e American Indian/Alaskan Nativ – – Percent of Early Head Start home visitors vacancies that were unfilled for more than 3 – Asian months – Black or African American Percent of Early Head Start home visitors – – Native Hawaiian/P acific Islander vacancies that were filled through hiring new White – home visitors Biracial/Multi-racial – • Additional Staff Qualifications Other or unspecified races – Assistant teacher degree qualifications: Percent – of Early Head Start assistant teachers with the following educational attainment: Type and Duration of Early Head Start Services – Advanced degree in ECE or a related field Program Type and Duration • – Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field Enrollment by program type: – – Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – Percent of children enrolled in Early Head – CDA Start who are served in the following types of program: No ECE-related credentials – – Center -based ercent of Home visitor degree qualifications: P – Early Head Start home visitors with the following – Home-based educational attainment: Combination – Advanced degree in ECE or a related field – – Family care Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field – signed – Locally-de Associated degree in ECE or a related field – Percent of Early Head Start enrollment who are – CDA – pregnant women – No ECE-related credentials – Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule: Percent of children enrolled ECD management degree qualifications: Percent – in center-based Early Head Start programs who of Early Head Start ECD managers with the are in programs with the following operating following educational attainment: schedules: – Advanced degree in ECE or a related field School-day, 5 days per week (school-day – – Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field programs operated for more than 6 hours per Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – day) – CDA – School-day, 4 days per week No ECE-related credentials – – Part-day, 5 days per week (part-day programs Staff Demographic Characteristics • operate for 6 or fewer hours per day) – Staff language proficiency: Percent of Early Head – Part-day, 4 days per week Start child development staff who speak the – Number of year s enrolled in Early Head Start: following languages: Percent of children who have been enrolled in English – Early Head Start for: – Spanish One year – 55

58 – Two years – Percent of Head Start staff who are current or former Head Start parents Three or more years – Percent of Head Start child development staff – • Percent of Children School-Day, 5-Day Per Week who speak a language other than English Programs • Staff Turnover The percent of children enrolled in Early Head – Percent of Head Start teachers who left their job – Start who are enrolled in school-day (more than 6 during the year hours), 5-day per week programs each year from 2007 through 2015 – Percent of Head Start teachers who left their job during the year for a job in ECE with higher Percent of Children in Child Care Partnerships • salaries and/or better benefits The percent of children enrolled in Early Head – Percent of Head Start teacher vacancies that – Start who are served through partnerships with were unfilled for over 3 months child care (including center-based programs and family child care) – Percent of Head Start teacher vacancies that were filled through hiring new teachers • Additional Type and Duration Information: – Percent of Head Start home visitors who left – Child Turnover: Based on a ratio of funded their job during the year enrollment to cumulative enrollment (State and national average) Percent of Head Start home visitors who left their – job during the year for a job in ECE with higher – Percent of children enrolled in Early Head Start salaries and/or better benefits who received a child care subsidy (State and national average) – Percent of Head Start home visitors vacancies that were unfilled for over 3 months Percent of pregnant women who left Early Head – Start before giving birth (State and national – Percent of Head Start home visitors vacancies average) that were filled through hiring new home visitors Additional Staff Qualifications • Head Start Staff – Assistant teacher degree qualifications: Percent of Head Start assistant teachers with the • Percent of Teachers By Highest Degree in ECE or following educational attainment: Related Field Advanced degree in ECE or a related field – – Percent of Head Start Teachers each year from – Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field 2007 through 2015 who had the following educational attainment – Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – Advanced degree in ECE or a related field – CDA – Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field – No ECE-related credentials – Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – Home visitor degree qualifications: P ercent of Head Start home visitors with the following CDA – educational attainment: – No ECE-related credentials – Advanced degree in ECE or a related field – Education was not reported – Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field Average Teacher Salary for: • Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – Head Start assistant teachers – – CDA Head Start teachers – No ECE-related credentials – Head Start teachers with a CDA or no ECE – ECD management degree qualifications: Percent – credentials of Head Start ECD managers with the following – Head Start teachers with an associate’s degree educational attainment: – Head Start teachers with a bachelor’s degree or Advanced degree in ECE or a related field – higher Bachelor’s degree in ECE or a related field – – Difference in salary between public elementary Associate’s degree in ECE or a related field – school teachers and Head Start teachers with a bachelor’s degree or higher – CDA Public elementary school t eachers – – No ECE-related credentials • Staff characteristics: • Staff Demographic Characteristics Percent of Head Start child development staff – – Staff language proficiency: Percent of Head Start child development staff who speak the following who are Hispanic or Latino 56

59 Two years – languages: Three or more years – – English Percent of Children School-Day, 5 Day Per Week • – Spanish Programs Native Centr al American, South American, or – The percent of children enrolled in Head Start – Mexican who are enrolled in school-day (more than 6 – Caribbean hours), 5-day per week programs each year from outh Asian – Middle Eastern or S 2007 through 2015 – East Asian • Additional Type and Duration Information: a Native Native North American or Alask – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start who – Pacific Island – are in school-day programs (State and national average) European or Slavic – – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start African – who are in full-working-day, full-calendar-year – Another or unspecified language programs (State and national average) Staff race: Percent of Head Start child – – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start who development staff who self-identify as the are in 5-day per week programs (State and following races: national average) e American Indian/Alaskan Nativ – – Percent of children enrolled in Head Start who – Asian received at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per – Black or African American year (State and national average) Native Hawaiian/P – acific Islander Child Turnover: Based on a ratio of funded – enrollment to cumulative enrollment (State and – White national average) – Biracial/Multi-racial Percent of children enrolled in Head Start who – Other or unspecified races – received a child care subsidy (State and national average) Type and Duration of Head Start Services Percent of children enrolled in Head Start who – were enrolled in double sessions • Program Type and Duration – Enrollment by program type: Percent of children enrolled in Head Start who are served in the following types of program: Center-based – – Home-based – Combination Family care – Locally-designed – – Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule: Percent of children enrolled in center-based Head Start programs who are in programs with the following operating schedules: – School-day, 5 days per week (school-day programs operated for more than 6 hours per day) School-day, 4 days per week – – Part-day, 5 days per week (part-day programs operate for 6 or fewer hours per day) – Part-day, 4 days per week – Number of year s enrolled in Head Start: Percent of children who have been enrolled in Head Start (or Early Head Start) for: One year – 57

60 GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS Associate’s of Arts AA Administration for Children and Families ACF American Indian and Alaska Native AIAN American Reco very and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ARRA BA Bachelor’s of Arts Child Development As sociate credentials CDA Classroom Assessment Scoring System CLASS COL Cost of Living ECD Early Childhood Development ECE Early Childhood Education Early Head Start EHS EHSRE Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project FACES Family and Child Experiences Survey FPL Federal Poverty Level GED General Equivalenc y Diploma HHS Department of Health and Human Services HS Head Start HSD High School Diploma HSES Head Start Enterprise System HSIS Head Start Impact Study IEP Individualized Education Plan IFSP Individualized Family Servic e Plan MIECHV Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting MSHS Migrant and Seasonal Head Start OHS Office of Head Start PIR Program Information Report SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SSI Supplemental Security Income TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition As sistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children 58

61 State(s) of Head Start STATE AND TERRITORY PROFILES 59

62 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview ALABAMA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $133,539,663 10% 17,514 6% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $27,608,000 248 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $105,931,663 1,820 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 6,411 11% 19% 4-Year-Olds 9,035 27% 15% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.4 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.5 3 40 2 27% 20% 19% 18% 1 20 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Alabama Research-based threshold Alabama National average ✔ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 56% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $ 47,920 40 $40,000 $33,387 31% 30% $29,769 $26,011 $25,342 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start Head Start Alabama National average National average Alabama PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,002 $13,350 $14,000 82% $12,575 80 73% $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 $ 7,1 93 44% 44% $6,858 42% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Alabama Alabama Alabama (adjusted COL) National average 60

63 ALABAMA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 17,532 2,068 Total Funded Enrollment 15,464 15,000 Federally Funded 2,068 17,514 15,446 18 State Supplemental 18 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 1,966 18,559 Cumulative Enrollment 16,593 0 2013 2014 2015 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 In Center-Based 0 68 68 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2007 2013 2014 2014 2013 2012 2015 2011 2010 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2009 2015 2007 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START HEAD START TOTAL $138,364,563 Total Funding $27,608,000 $110,756,563 $27,608,000 Total Federal Funding $105,931,663 $133,539,663 Head Start Federal Funding $27,608,000 $105,931,663 $133,539,663 $0 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding Head Start State Supplemental Funding $4,824,900 $4,824,900 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,027 $14,683 $15,000 $14,002 $13,682 $13,350 $12,575 $10,000 $8,038 $7,889 $ 7, 594 $7,517 $7,499 $7,313 $ 7, 282 $ 7,1 93 $7,011 $6,906 $6,936 $6,858 $5,000 $0 2011 2015 2010 2014 2009 2015 2008 2015 2007 2013 2012 National average adjusted COL Head Start Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined National average 61

64 ALABAMA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 10% 3% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 16% 90% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 51% HSD/GED 29% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 1% PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 8% 67% TANF Black or African American 10% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 38% 22% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 46% 5% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 92% Meets income requirement 92% 9% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 1% Spanish 8% by child welfare 2% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 79% 0% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 43% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 0% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 96% 96% 92% 93% 91% 88% 85% 60% 14% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 50% 43% 69% 12% 8% 7% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 62

65 ALABAMA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 1% 14% $19,433 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $22,466 All teachers Current/Former 25% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 18% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $19,065 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies Speaks a language 21% filled 3% other than English $21,651 Teachers with an AA 8% Home visitor left Teachers with a $25,342 Home visitor left for BA or higher 8% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $22,578 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 47,920 0% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 63

66 Early Head Start ALABAMA TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 73% 66% 65% 62% 60% 80 58% 57% 54% 54% 60 40 20 0 2007 2015 2014 2011 2012 2010 2009 2008 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 15% 15% 16% 13% 20 8% 7% 0% 0% 0% 0 2011 2012 2010 2009 2014 2008 2007 2015 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 22% 25 25 25 10% 8% 6% 2% 0 0 0 Alabama National average Alabama National average National average Alabama 64

67 ALABAMA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2009 2010 2007 2012 2013 2008 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 4% 15% $17,838 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% $23,417 better compensation All teachers Current/Former 33% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $15,950 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 45% Speaks a language filled 2% other than English $19,511 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $26,011 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No home visitors $21,909 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 47,920 No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications No home visitors ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ BA BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ White Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 65

68 ALABAMA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 92% 90% 89% 89% 89% 88% 85% 82% 82% 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 98% 100 100 100 100 84% 75 75 75 75 65% 57% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 6% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Alabama Alabama National average Alabama National average Alabama Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 13% 4% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Alabama National average Alabama National average National average Alabama 66

69 ALASKA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $30,646,111 6% 3,038 14% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $2,267,000 N/A N/A 12 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $28,379,111 514 2% 4% 3-Year-Olds 9% 1,055 23% 4-Year-Olds 34% 14% 1,457 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 2.9 2.8 3 40 34% 2 23% 20% 18% 1 20 4% 0 2% Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Alaska Research-based threshold Alaska National average Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $66,755 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 41% $37,623 $36,977 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 21% $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school National average Alaska Alaska National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $12,575 $12,321 $11,991 80 $11,297 $12,000 $10,995 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 44% 42% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 7% 2% 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Alaska Alaska (adjusted COL) National average Alaska National average 67

70 ALASKA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START 3,244 Total Funded Enrollment 2,676 568 15,000 Federally Funded 1,387 184 1,203 State Supplemental 206 42 164 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 1,309 342 1,651 Alaska Native 3,819 750 3,069 Cumulative Enrollment 0 2011 2012 2013 2007 2008 2007 2009 2014 2015 2015 2014 2013 2010 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 In Center-Based 0 0 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Child Care Partner PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2014 2007 2013 2010 2014 2015 2009 2015 2012 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START HEAD START TOTAL $37,564,211 Total Funding $39,831,211 $2,267,000 Total Federal Funding $30,646,111 $2,267,000 $28,379,111 $14,697,079 Head Start Federal Funding $12,430,079 $2,267,000 $15,949,032 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $15,949,032 Not available Head Start State Supplemental Funding $9,185,100 $9,185,100 Not available FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,478 $12,321 $11,991 $11,297 $11,202 $11,035 $10,995 $10,831 $10,763 $10,626 $10,285 $10,170 $10,012 $9,983 $10,000 $ 9, 074 $8,504 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 68

71 ALASKA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 6% 5% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 94% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 23% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 57% HSD/GED 61% American Indian/Alaska Native 13% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 4% Asian 3% Black or African American 19% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 2% 4% SSI RACE 19% White 50% WIC 10% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 41% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Other/Unspecified 1% 75% Meets income requirement 89% English 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP 2% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 3% East Asian 2% by child welfare 10% Child experienced homelessness 4% Native North American/Alaska Native 39% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% Pacific Island HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 28% Parental unemployment 2% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 90% 88% 85% 83% 82% 76% 75% 70% 67% 42% 34% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 32% 27% 45% 19% 6% 5% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 69

72 ALASKA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 1% 14% $22,727 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation $32,167 All teachers Current/Former 41% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 50% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,451 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 14% other than English $36,787 Teachers with an AA 24% Home visitor left Teachers with a $37,623 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 42% $29,132 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $66,755 33% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaskan Native White ■ ■ Pacific Island ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 70

73 Early Head Start ALASKA TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 13% 11% 10% 7% 6% 5% 5% 5% 0% 0 2007 2015 2012 2011 2013 2010 2009 2008 2014 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 27% 25 25 25 14% 14% 10% 8% 0 0 0 Alaska Alaska National average National average National average Alaska 71

74 ALASKA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 4% $21,466 19% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $31,241 All teachers Current/Former 35% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 28% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,250 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 72% Speaks a language filled 21% other than English $28,959 Teachers with an AA 39% Home visitor left Teachers with a $36,977 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 44% $29,778 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $66,755 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 72

75 Head Start ALASKA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 0 2015 2014 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 17% 7% 4% 5% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Alaska Alaska Alaska National average Alaska Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 11% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Alaska National average Alaska National average Alaska National average 73

76 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview ARIZONA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $168,005,709 18,197 4% 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $35,675,000 N/A 132 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $132,330,709 2,722 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 12% 7% 5,685 4-Year-Olds 11% 9,658 19% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.6 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 1 20 12% 0 2%2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds Arizona National average Research-based threshold National average Arizona Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $45,406 45% 40% $40,000 40 $33,295 $33,387 $31,199 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 $0 0 Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Arizona National average Arizona PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,837 $13,590 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,781 $8,625 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 23% $4,000 20 $2,000 3% $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Arizona (adjusted COL) Arizona Arizona National average 74

77 ARIZONA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 18,197 Total Funded Enrollment 15,343 2,854 15,000 Federally Funded 14,348 2,625 11,723 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 229 3,620 3,849 Alaska Native 3,359 21,158 Cumulative Enrollment 17,799 0 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2014 2008 2007 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 In Center-Based 23 60 83 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2007 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START $168,005,709 $35,675,000 Total Funding $132,330,709 $132,330,709 Total Federal Funding $168,005,709 $35,675,000 Head Start Federal Funding $35,675,000 $131,546,683 $95,871,683 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $36,459,026 Not available $36,459,026 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,837 $13,733 $13,590 $13,430 $12,575 $12,431 $10,000 $9,369 $9,141 $8,991 $9,047 $8,891 $8,781 $8,668 $8,717 $8,625 $8,242 $8,223 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2012 2007 2015 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 75

78 ARIZONA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 60% 5% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 28% 40% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 37% HSD/GED 30% American Indian/AlaskanNative Less than HSD/GED 21% PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 6% 5% TANF Black or African American 4% 2% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 55% 65% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 55% 4% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 2% Other/Unspecified 90% Meets income requirement 59% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 38% 1% Spanish by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 1% 1% 43% Single parent family African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 32% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 96% 96% 93% 92% 91% 90% 87% 82% 55% 12% Up-to-date Medical home Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 44% 34% 65% 21% 12% 9% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 76

79 ARIZONA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 50% 15% $30,118 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $30,558 All teachers Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 3% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $27,274 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 63% Speaks a language filled 48% other than English $28,335 Teachers with an AA 18% Home visitor left Teachers with a $33,295 Home visitor left for BA or higher 11% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $12,111 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,406 93% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaskan Native ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 77

80 Early Head Start ARIZONA TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 24% 24% 23% 23% 22% 22% 22% 20% 19% 20 0 2007 2013 2014 2015 2012 2009 2008 2010 2011 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 3% 4% 4% 5% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2010 2015 2007 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 42% 50 50 50 38% 21% 25 25 25 10% 8% 1% 0 0 0 National average Arizona Arizona National average National average Arizona 78

81 ARIZONA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 44% $18,718 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation All teachers $28,823 Current/Former 41% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 37% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24, 372 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 57% Speaks a language filled 56% other than English $24,17 1 Teachers with an AA 11% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,199 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 29% $14,207 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,406 86% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 79

82 Head Start ARIZONA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 4% 4% 3% 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 23% 25 25 25 25 7% 6% 3% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Arizona Arizona Arizona National average Arizona Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 27% 18% 25 25 25 14% 11% 4% 1% 0 0 0 Arizona National average Arizona National average Arizona National average 80

83 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview ARKANSAS FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $81,497,122 9% 10,338 5% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $26,950,000 166 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $54,547,122 3% 1,983 2% 3-Year-Olds 19% 11% 4,258 4-Year-Olds 18% 10% 3,931 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Arkansas National average Arkansas ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 61% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $46,400 40 $40,000 $33,387 $31,200 $30,713 30% $29,769 20% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Arkansas National average National average Arkansas PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 89% 89% $14,255 $14,000 $12,541 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7, 572 $8,000 44% 42% $6,661 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Arkansas (adjusted COL) Arkansas Arkansas National average 81

84 Head Start & Early Head Start ARKANSAS ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START Total Funded Enrollment 10,338 2,149 8,189 15,000 8,189 Federally Funded 10,338 2,149 0 0 State Supplemental 0 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 11,712 2,043 9,669 0 2010 2013 2012 2011 2015 2011 2009 2010 2008 2009 2008 2007 2007 2014 2012 2015 2014 2013 In Center-Based 0 152 152 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2009 2010 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $54,547,122 $26,950,000 $81,497,122 $26,950,000 $81,497,122 Total Federal Funding $54,547,122 $54,547,122 Head Start Federal Funding $26,950,000 $81,497,122 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,255 $15,000 $13,066 $12,541 $12,575 $12,019 $10,680 $10,000 $8,038 $ 7, 572 $ 7, 25 8 $7,208 $ 7,0 45 $7,012 $6,894 $6,661 $6,731 $6,594 $6,497 $5,904 $5,000 $0 2010 2011 2008 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2015 2009 2015 National average adjusted COL Early Head Start Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined National average 82

85 ARKANSAS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 15% 5% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 18% 85% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 55% HSD/GED 20% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 1% PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 42% 4% TANF Black or African American 11% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 41% 48% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 52% 7% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 9% Other/Unspecified 88% Meets income requirement 89% 15% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 10% 1% Spanish by child welfare 5% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 67% 0% Single parent family Middle Eastern CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 35% 1% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 97% 96% 96% 95% 94% 93% 89% 83% 79% 53% Up-to-date Medical home Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home 7% preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 69% 56% 79% 15% 9% 9% Mental health services Health education Parenting education Adult education Emergency/Crisis intervention 83

86 ARKANSAS Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 8% 12% $18,411 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation $22,469 All teachers Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 22% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,502 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 8% other than English $23,838 Teachers with an AA 22% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,713 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $15,687 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $46,400 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Pacific Island ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 84

87 ARKANSAS Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 2 years Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Family care ■ ■ Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 95% 95% 100 92% 91% 89% 88% 87% 84% 80% 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 4% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0% 0 2014 2009 2008 2015 2007 2012 2013 2010 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 35% 25 25 25 10% 8% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Arkansas Arkansas National average National average National average Arkansas 85

88 ARKANSAS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 6% $17,150 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $27,250 All teachers Current/Former 32% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,197 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 64% Speaks a language filled 7% other than English $23,538 Teachers with an AA 31% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,200 Home visitor left for BA or higher 6% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 120% $15,200 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $46,400 40% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 86

89 ARKANSAS Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 95% 100 90% 89% 89% 89% 89% 86% 84% 81% 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 98% 100 100 100 100 89% 86% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 4% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Arkansas Arkansas National average Arkansas National average Arkansas Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 13% 4% 0% 0% 0 0 0 Arkansas National average Arkansas National average National average Arkansas 87

90 CALIFORNIA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $1,043,895,938 103,447 4% 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $257,829,000 N/A 1,524 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $786,066,938 18,230 3% 1% 3-Year-Olds 8% 16% 40,259 4-Year-Olds 18% 9% 43,434 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.1 6.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 18% 18% 1 16% 20 3% 0 2% Classroom Organization Instructional Support Emotional Support 0 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds National average Research-based threshold California California National average Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $72,535 65% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 36% $35,558 $35,307 $40,000 40 $33,387 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 $0 0 Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average California California National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $13,129 $12,575 80 $12,000 $11,222 $9,392 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,028 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 25% $4,000 20% 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average California (adjusted COL) California California National average 88

91 Head Start & Early Head Start CALIFORNIA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 120,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 103,447 83,693 19,754 90,000 102,728 19,638 83,090 Federally Funded 0 State Supplemental 0 0 60,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 30,000 603 719 116 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 22,649 102,914 125,563 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 1,461 477 1,938 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Child Care Partner PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2010 2008 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2012 2009 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $1,043,895,938 $257,829,000 $786,066,938 $1,043,895,938 Total Federal Funding $257,829,000 $786,066,938 Head Start Federal Funding $1,037,138,945 $257,829,000 $779,309,945 $6,756,993 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $6,756,993 Not available $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,129 $12,575 $12,376 $12,125 $11,917 $11,222 $9,913 $9,738 $9,713 $9,529 $9,392 $10,000 $9,361 $9,443 $9,144 $9,201 $9,045 $8,038 $8,028 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 89

92 CALIFORNIA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 74 % 5% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 24% 26% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 35% HSD/GED 36% 7% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 5% Asian 9% 25% TANF Black or African American 4% 1% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 52% 74 % WIC White FAMILY USE OF 46% 6% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 20% Other/Unspecified 88% Meets income requirement 48% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 47% 1% Spanish by child welfare 3% 3% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 44% 1% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 31% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 98% 97% 96% 96% 95% 93% 86% 84% 49% 3% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 58% 48% 80% 15% 14% 9% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 90

93 CALIFORNIA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 61% 13% $22,939 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $33,013 All teachers Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 13% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $28,709 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 60% Speaks a language filled 64% other than English $32,259 Teachers with an AA 16% Home visitor left Teachers with a $35,558 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 15% $36,977 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $72,535 70% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 91

94 CALIFORNIA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 31% 31% 30% 30% 29% 28% 27% 26% 25% 20 0 2012 2008 2015 2013 2009 2014 2010 2011 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 17% 16% 14% 20 10% 9% 9% 9% 8% 7% 0 2013 2008 2012 2007 2014 2015 2009 2010 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 44% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 9% 8% 8% 0 0 0 California California National average National average National average California 92

95 CALIFORNIA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 58% $23,419 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $34,698 All teachers Current/Former 23% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 14% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,960 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 44% Speaks a language filled 63% other than English $30,778 Teachers with an AA 11% Home visitor left Teachers with a $35,307 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 30% $ 37, 228 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $72,535 53% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 93

96 Head Start CALIFORNIA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 26% 24% 24% 23% 23% 21% 20% 20% 19% 20 0 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 56% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 21% 21% 25 25 25 25 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average California National average California National average California National average California Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 29% 18% 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 4% 0 0 0 California National average California National average California National average 94

97 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview COLORADO FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $90,137,162 3% 11,136 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $22,345,000 N/A N/A 150 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $67,792,162 1,663 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 13% 4,157 6% 4-Year-Olds 8% 18% 5,166 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 ✔ 7 6.2 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.1 2.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 18% 1 20 13% 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds Colorado National average Research-based threshold National average Colorado Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 63% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $49,828 $36,173 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,970 30% $29,769 22% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Colorado National average Colorado PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,603 $12,575 $12,532 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7, 27 1 $8,000 $ 7, 23 0 44% 42% 40 $6,000 31% $4,000 20 11% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Colorado Colorado (adjusted COL) National average Colorado National average 95

98 COLORADO Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 11,136 Total Funded Enrollment 9,323 1,813 15,000 Federally Funded 10,945 1,773 9,172 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 40 151 191 Alaska Native 2,315 13,688 Cumulative Enrollment 11,373 0 2008 2007 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2007 In Center-Based 220 426 206 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $67,792,162 $22,345,000 $90,137,162 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $90,137,162 $22,345,000 $67,792,162 $22,345,000 $65,911,806 Head Start Federal Funding $88,256,806 $1,880,356 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,880,356 Not available $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,603 $12,532 $12,575 $12,178 $12,066 $11,824 $10,000 $8,274 $8,038 $8,014 $ 7,94 0 $ 7,9 57 $ 7,739 $7,443 $ 7, 27 1 $7,412 $ 7, 324 $ 7, 23 0 $ 7,0 57 $5,000 $0 2012 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 96

99 COLORADO Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 64% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 36% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 30% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 37% HSD/GED 3% American Indian/Alaska Native 27% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 8% Black or African American 12% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 7% SSI RACE 73% White 44% WIC 8% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 50% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 7% Other/Unspecified 88% Meets income requirement 67% English 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP 30% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 2% East Asian 0% by child welfare 8% Child experienced homelessness 1% Middle Eastern 46% Single parent family 1% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 27% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 96% 96% 95% 91% 92% 91% 85% 77% 48% 23% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 45% 37% 62% 19% 9% 8% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 97

100 COLORADO Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 40% 33% $21,521 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% better compensation $28,589 All teachers Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,473 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 76% Speaks a language filled 29% other than English $31,442 Teachers with an AA 27% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,970 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 11% $16,858 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $49,828 89% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 98

101 COLORADO Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 46% 45% 43% 38% 36% 40 35% 33% 33% 31% 20 0 2007 2013 2011 2010 2015 2012 2009 2008 2014 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 26% 24% 23% 21% 20% 20% 18% 17% 14% 20 0 2014 2010 2009 2013 2008 2011 2007 2015 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 62% 50 50 50 38% 17% 25 25 25 13% 10% 8% 0 0 0 National average Colorado National average Colorado National average Colorado 99

102 COLORADO Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 38% $19,570 21% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $32,949 Current/Former 28% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,163 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 82% Speaks a language filled 32% other than English $24,601 Teachers with an AA 47% Home visitor left Teachers with a $36,173 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 44% $13,655 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $49,828 89% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander European & Slavic ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 100

103 Head Start COLORADO TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 14% 13% 13% 13% 13% 13% 12% 12% 11% 0 2015 2014 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 21% 25 25 25 25 15% 13% 7% 4% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Colorado Colorado Colorado National average Colorado Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 44% 50 50 50 21% 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 3% 0 0 0 Colorado National average Colorado National average Colorado National average 101

104 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview CONNECTICUT FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $64,583,555 6,198 3% 9% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $16,036,000 N/A 69 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $48,547,555 1% 3% 1,143 3-Year-Olds 17% 2,317 6% 4-Year-Olds 2,669 7% 19% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.1 6.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.9 3.0 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 17% 1 20 0 3% 2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Research-based threshold National average Connecticut National average Connecticut Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $71,709 65% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $38,179 $40,000 35% 40 $33,387 $32,150 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 $0 0 Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Connecticut National average Connecticut National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,231 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,702 $12,000 62% $9,737 $10,000 60 $8,611 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Connecticut Connecticut (adjusted COL) Connecticut National average 102

105 Head Start & Early Head Start CONNECTICUT ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 6,547 1,294 5,253 15,000 Federally Funded 6,198 1,212 4,986 30 267 297 State Supplemental 10,000 MIECHV Funded 52 52 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 7,581 881 6,700 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2010 2009 2009 2008 2008 2007 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 40 40 0 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $54,291,648 $16,036,000 $70,327,648 $16,036,000 $64,583,555 Total Federal Funding $48,547,555 $48,547,555 Head Start Federal Funding $16,036,000 $64,583,555 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $5,744,093 Not available $5,744,093 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $14,001 $13,231 $12,603 $12,575 $12,192 $11,702 $9,737 $9,716 $10,000 $9,305 $8,942 $8,786 $8,777 $8,611 $8,551 $8,446 $9,312 $8,203 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2014 2012 2015 2015 2007 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 103

106 CONNECTICUT Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 52% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 48% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 19% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 0% American Indian/Alaska Native 27% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 27% Black or African American 16% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 6% SSI 41% White 55% 14% WIC Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 16% 59% Other/Unspecified SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 67% English 85% Meets income requirement 27% Spanish 12% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% Carribean Child was referred to Head Start 4% by child welfare 1% East Asian 6% Child experienced homelessness 2% Middle Eastern 63% HOME LANGUAGE Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% European & Slavic OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 33% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 99% 97% 98% 97% 96% 94% 94% 84% 71% 11% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 59% 58% 83% 31% 10% 8% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 104

107 CONNECTICUT Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 41% 10% $21,962 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $28,988 All teachers Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 20% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,955 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 0% Speaks a language filled 41% other than English $27,596 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,150 Home visitor left for BA or higher 13% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $39,559 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $71,709 75% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Middle Eastern White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 105

108 CONNECTICUT Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 49% 48% 46% 42% 42% 42% 41% 39% 38% 40 20 0 2014 2010 2009 2015 2007 2011 2012 2013 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 9% 8% 6% 5% 3% 3% 3% 3% 1% 0 2009 2011 2008 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 21% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 8% 0 0 0 National average Connecticut Connecticut National average National average Connecticut 106

109 CONNECTICUT Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 30% $23,304 22% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $35,342 All teachers Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,925 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 75% Speaks a language filled 33% other than English Teachers with an AA $30,349 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $38,179 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $33,530 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $71,709 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ White European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 107

110 CONNECTICUT Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 62% 56% 60 54% 54% 53% 52% 49% 47% 39% 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 94% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 62% 49% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 31% 25 25 25 25 7% 0 0 0 0 National average Connecticut National average Connecticut Connecticut National average National average Connecticut Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 6% 4% 4% 0 0 0 Connecticut National average Connecticut National average National average Connecticut 108

111 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview DELAWARE FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $16,306,271 4% 2,009 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $4,775,000 N/A N/A 21 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $11,531,271 340 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 16% 759 7% 4-Year-Olds 8% 19% 889 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.1 2.9 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 1 16% 20 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Research-based threshold Delaware National average National average Delaware Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 87% 80 $80,000 73% $59,195 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 37% 40 $40,000 $34,515 $33,387 30% $29,769 $23,027 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Delaware National average Delaware PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,227 $14,000 $12,575 $12,439 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% $6,997 42% $6,580 37% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 12% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Delaware Delaware (adjusted COL) National average Delaware National average 109

112 Head Start & Early Head Start DELAWARE ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 361 1,920 Total Funded Enrollment 2,281 15,000 Federally Funded 2,009 361 1,648 272 State Supplemental 0 272 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 272 1,540 Cumulative Enrollment 1,268 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 0 72 72 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $22,291,571 $4,775,000 $17,516,571 Total Federal Funding $16,306,271 $4,775,000 $11,531,271 $11,531,271 $4,775,000 $16,306,271 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $5,985,300 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $5,985,300 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $14,056 $13,859 $13,227 $12,833 $12,439 $12,575 $10,000 $8,897 $8,707 $8,483 $8,236 $8,038 $7,476 $ 7, 3 82 $ 7, 3 6 0 $ 7,1 4 9 $6,997 $6,885 $6,580 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 110

113 DELAWARE Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 4% 38% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 26% 62% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 34% HSD/GED 36% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 13% 47% TANF Black or African American 8% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 70% 10% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 77% 9% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 32% Other/Unspecified 92% Meets income requirement 11% 69% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 29% 1% Spanish by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 63% Middle Eastern Single parent family 1% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 38% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 98% 96% 97% 95% 95% 90% 90% 87% 80% 29% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 74 % 43% 85% 29% 24% 11% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 111

114 DELAWARE Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 16% 11% $21,533 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation $29,344 All teachers Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 25% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $25,215 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 16% other than English $28,888 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $34,515 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $24,680 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $59,195 0% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 112

115 DELAWARE Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 64% 64% 59% 60 48% 48% 40% 37% 37% 37% 40 20 0 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2010 2009 2013 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 73% 80 60% 60 40% 39% 37% 37% 37% 40 28% 20 0% 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2010 2015 2007 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 38% 35% 25 25 25 10% 8% 6% 0 0 0 National average Delaware Delaware National average National average Delaware 113

116 DELAWARE Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2011 2008 2007 2010 2012 2015 2013 2014 No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA CDA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 18% 21% $11,912 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $22,275 All teachers Current/Former 32% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA None or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 26% other than English $21,591 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $23,027 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No home visitors $36,168 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $59,195 No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications No home visitors Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 114

117 Head Start DELAWARE TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ Home-based ■ 2 years ■ 3+ years Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 15% 15% 15% 20 12% 10% 8% 6% 5% 5% 0 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 12% 7% 8% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average Delaware National average National average Delaware National average Delaware Delaware Percent of children in double sessions Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 14% 11% 4% 0% 0 0 0 National average Delaware National average Delaware Delaware National average 115

118 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $27,928,766 18% 3,306 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $10,712,000 N/A 98 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $17,216,766 8% 3% 866 3-Year-Olds 34% 15% 1,286 4-Year-Olds 14% 31% 1,056 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 6.06.0 5.8 5.7 6 80 5 60 4 2.9 2.7 3 40 34% 31% 2 20% 18% 1 20 8% 0 2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Research-based threshold District of Columbia* National average District of Columbia National average ✔ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 99% 100 $100,000 $85,819 80 $80,000 $75,490 73% 64% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $44,668 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 20 $20,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start District of Columbia National average National average District of Columbia PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100% 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $11,112 $10,000 56% 60 $8,325** $8,038 $7,351 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $5,507** $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start District of Columbia National average National average District of Columbia (adjusted COL) District of Columbia *Scores for only one grantee were available. It cannot be determined **The cost of living adjustment for DC is exceptionally large and if DC scored significantly above/below the threshold. may overestimate the necessary adjustment for Head Start. 116

119 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 3,306 Total Funded Enrollment 2,342 964 15,000 Federally Funded 3,306 964 2,342 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 5,972 Cumulative Enrollment 7,112 1,140 0 2014 2011 2010 2009 2007 2015 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2008 2007 2012 2008 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $17,216,766 $10,712,000 $27,928,766 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $27,928,766 $10,712,000 $17,216,766 $27,928,766 $17,216,766 $10,712,000 Head Start Federal Funding $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,994 $15,808 $15,000 $12,575 $12,556 $11,112 $10,000 $ 8 ,74 2 $8,575 $8,497 $8,436 $8,325 $8,261 $8,205 $8,038 $7,731 $7,351 $6,897 $6,707 $5,507 $5,000 $0 2011 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2009 2010 adjusted COL* National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average **The cost of living adjustment for DC is exceptionally large and may overestimate the necessary adjustment for Head Start. 117

120 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 21% Hispanic/Latino Data not available BA or higher 79% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino Data not available AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY Data not available HSD/GED American Indian/Alaska Native 1% Data not available Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 70% Black or African American 36% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 6% SSI 16% White 30% WIC 4% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 8% Other/Unspecified 62% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 71% English 49% Meets income requirement 18% Spanish 12% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% East Asian Child was referred to Head Start 1% by child welfare 0% Middle Eastern 9% Child experienced homelessness 1% European & Slavic HOME LANGUAGE 52% Single parent family 1% CHARACTERISTICS African OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 37% Parental unemployment 8% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 92% 91% 89% 86% 79% 75% 68% 57% 50% 32% 100% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home immunizations preventive and primary health At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 56% 23% 11% 6% 4% 2% Mental health services Adult education Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 118

121 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 31% 16% $35,461 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $43,380 All teachers Current/Former 7% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $33,161 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 55% Speaks a language filled 41% other than English $34,828 Teachers with an AA 13% Home visitor left Teachers with a $44,668 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 33% $30,822 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $75,490 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ Pacific Island ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 119

122 Early Head Start DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 75% 74% 57% 56% 60 55% 47% 38% 37% 40 32% 20 0 2007 2015 2012 2011 2010 2013 2009 2008 2014 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 18% 20 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 51% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 14% 10% 8% 3% 0 0 0 District of Columbia District of Columbia National average National average National average District of Columbia 120

123 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 7% $28,847 9% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% All teachers better compensation $73,265 Current/Former 8% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 10% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $40,000 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 48% Speaks a language filled 44% other than English Teachers with an AA $48,000 100% Home visitor left Teachers with a $85,819 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% -$10,329 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $75,490 0% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ East Asian ■ White European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 121

124 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100% 98% 100 94% 90% 90% 86% 80 74% 71% 70% 60 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100% 100% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 20% 25 25 25 25 7% 3% 0 0 0 0 National average District of Columbia National average District of Columbia District of Columbia National average National average District of Columbia Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 1% 1% 0% 0 0 0 District of Columbia National average District of Columbia National average National average District of Columbia 122

125 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FLORIDA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $345,209,973 4% 7% 39,668 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $92,530,000 591 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $252,679,973 1% 6,724 2% 3-Year-Olds 6% 12% 13,750 4-Year-Olds 16% 18,603 9% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.7 3 40 2 20% 18% 16% 1 20 12% 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Florida Research-based threshold National average National average Florida Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 71% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $48,992 $37,402 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 $29,003 $20,000 20 12% 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start Head Start Florida National average Florida National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 86% $14,000 $13,064 $12,649 $12,575 80 72% $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,066 $8,038 $7,810 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Florida (adjusted COL) National average Florida Florida National average 123

126 FLORIDA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 39,676 Total Funded Enrollment 32,353 7,323 45,000 Federally Funded 39,668 7,315 32,353 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 8 0 8 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 7,720 44,986 Cumulative Enrollment 37,266 0 2008 2007 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2007 In Center-Based 1,711 2,254 543 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $252,679,973 $92,530,000 $345,209,973 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $345,209,973 $92,530,000 $252,679,973 $92,530,000 $252,679,973 Head Start Federal Funding $345,209,973 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,064 $12,649 $12,575 $12,495 $12,224 $12,168 $10,000 $8,897 $8,546 $8,539 $8,501 $8,185 $8,266 $8,066 $8,038 $ 7,947 $ 7,92 1 $7,810 $ 7, 538 $5,000 $0 2012 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 124

127 FLORIDA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 5% 35% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 18% 65% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 42% HSD/GED 34% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 50% 7% TANF Black or African American 10% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 46% 34% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 5% 58% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 10% Other/Unspecified 95% Meets income requirement 69% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 24% 1% Spanish by child welfare 2% 3% Child experienced homelessness Mexican and South & Central American 66% 4% Caribbean Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 35% 1% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 96% 96% 96% 94% 89% 84% 78% 62% 9% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 60% 52% 77% 21% 16% 10% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 125

128 FLORIDA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 28% 13% $19,528 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $23,837 Current/Former 19% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,538 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 65% Speaks a language filled 27% other than English $24, 390 Teachers with an AA 30% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,003 Home visitor left for BA or higher 13% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $19,989 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $48,992 90% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 126

129 FLORIDA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 86% 85% 80% 80 72% 69% 66% 64% 63% 63% 60 40 20 0 2014 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2015 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 16% 17% 20 12% 12% 11% 11% 11% 10% 8% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 36% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 2% 0 0 0 Florida Florida National average National average National average Florida 127

130 FLORIDA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 27% 16% $20,660 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $33,014 Current/Former 19% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 4% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,195 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 67% Speaks a language filled 29% other than English $24,979 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $37,402 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $11,590 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $48,992 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Caribbean ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander European & Slavic ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 128

131 FLORIDA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 95% 100 93% 93% 93% 91% 91% 86% 86% 82% 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 95% 100 100 100 100 90% 86% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 11% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Florida Florida National average Florida National average Florida Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 13% 10% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Florida National average Florida National average National average Florida 129

132 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview GEORGIA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $217,487,366 4% 7% 25,205 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $52,259,000 239 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $165,228,366 2% 1% 3,819 3-Year-Olds 9% 16% 11,894 4-Year-Olds 7% 13% 9,253 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.6 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 16% 20 13% 0 2%2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Georgia Research-based threshold National average Georgia Significantly below threshold Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 78% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $52,906 $40,000 40 $33,387 30% 30% $30,339 $29,769 $29,920 $20,000 20 $0 0 Public elementary school Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Georgia National average Georgia National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 99% 100 $16,000 87% $14,000 $12,878 $12,575 $12,413 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,813 $7,531 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Georgia National average Georgia (adjusted COL) National average Georgia 130

133 Head Start & Early Head Start GEORGIA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 25,217 4,070 21,147 45,000 Federally Funded 25,205 4,058 21,147 0 0 0 State Supplemental 30,000 MIECHV Funded 12 12 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 28,025 3,685 24,340 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2010 2009 2009 2008 2008 2007 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 1,964 152 1,812 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $165,228,366 $52,259,000 $217,487,366 $52,259,000 $217,487,366 Total Federal Funding $165,228,366 $165,228,366 Head Start Federal Funding $52,259,000 $217,487,366 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,179 $12,878 $12,588 $12,575 $12,497 $12,413 $10,000 $8,640 $8,256 $8,280 $8,248 $8,038 $8,022 $7,975 $ 7, 89 1 $7,813 $ 7,725 $7,531 $ 7, 593 $5,000 $0 2010 2014 2015 2011 2012 2015 2007 2015 2009 2013 2008 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 131

134 Head Start & Early Head Start GEORGIA CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 4% 17% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 18% 83% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 28% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 68% 3% Black or African American TANF 7% 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander SSI RACE 43% 21% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 58% 4% Biracial/Multi-racial SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 6% Other/Unspecified 93% Meets income requirement 88% 9% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 11% 1% Spanish by child welfare 2% 0% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 76% Middle Eastern Single parent family 0% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 40% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 99% 99% 98% 97% 95% 95% 90% 88% 84% 45% 21% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 51% 48% 67% 12% 8% 4% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 132

135 GEORGIA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 4% 10% $18,592 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $24,528 Current/Former 13% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 12% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $18,953 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 70% Speaks a language filled 5% other than English $22,499 Teachers with an AA 24% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,920 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 25% $22,986 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $52,906 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 133

136 GEORGIA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 2 years Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Family care ■ ■ Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 96% 96% 100 91% 88% 87% 87% 82% 81% 81% 80 60 40 20 0 2013 2007 2015 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2014 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 12% 11% 10% 10% 9% 9% 7% 6% 5% 0 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 2015 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 23% 25 25 25 10% 8% 6% 2% 0 0 0 Georgia National average Georgia National average National average Georgia 134

137 GEORGIA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 5% 17% $17,608 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 9% better compensation $28,297 All teachers Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 14% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $19,933 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 66% Speaks a language filled 5% other than English $22,661 Teachers with an AA 100% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,339 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $22,567 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $52,906 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 135

138 GEORGIA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 99% 100 94% 93% 93% 92% 90% 89% 86% 86% 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100% 99% 94% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 3% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Georgia Georgia National average Georgia National average Georgia Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 14% 4% 0% 0% 0 0 0 Georgia National average Georgia National average National average Georgia 136

139 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview HAWAII FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $27,259,782 3% 10% 3,217 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $7,235,000 50 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $20,024,782 1% 543 3% 3-Year-Olds 5% 14% 938 4-Year-Olds 29% 10% 1,686 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ ✔ 100 7 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.1 2.9 3 40 2 29% 20% 18% 1 20 14% 0 3% 2% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds National average Hawaii Research-based threshold Hawaii National average Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,1 89 $ 57,0 92 56% 60 $60,000 $40,277 40 $40,000 $33,656 33% $33,387 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Hawaii Hawaii National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $12,575 $12,201 $12,102 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7, 570 $7,631 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 22% $4,000 19% 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average Hawaii (adjusted COL) Hawaii Hawaii National average 137

140 HAWAII Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 593 3,217 2,624 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 3,217 593 2,624 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 771 3,113 3,884 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 4 0 4 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $27,259,782 $7,235,000 $20,024,782 $7,235,000 Total Federal Funding $27,259,782 $20,024,782 Head Start Federal Funding $27,259,782 $7,235,000 $20,024,782 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,201 $12,102 $11,802 $11,677 $11,472 $10,000 $8,738 $8,644 $8,582 $8,384 $8,347 $8,281 $8,038 $ 7,7 76 $ 7,757 $7,631 $ 7, 570 $7,413 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 138

141 HAWAII Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 16% 15% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 17% 85% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 46% HSD/GED 21% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 1% PARENT EDUCATION 18% Asian 20% 3% TANF Black or African American 3% 45% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 45% 12% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 52% 18% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 3% Other/Unspecified 84% Meets income requirement 10% 81% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 2% 2% Spanish by child welfare 6% 6% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 39% 11% Single parent family Pacific Island CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 29% 0% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 100% 100% 99% 99% 96% 95% 89% 89% 86% 80% 45% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 79% 50% 91% 15% 8% 4% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 139

142 HAWAII Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 8% 15% $25,631 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $32,805 All teachers Current/Former 19% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,002 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 16% other than English $32,769 Teachers with an AA 31% Home visitor left Teachers with a $33,656 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $23,533 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,1 89 75% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Pacific Island White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 140

143 HAWAII Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 27% 27% 26% 25% 23% 21% 20% 20% 19% 20 0 2007 2014 2015 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 49% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 6% 5% 0 0 0 Hawaii Hawaii National average National average National average Hawaii 141

144 HAWAII Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 4% $25,893 17% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation All teachers $38,144 Current/Former 44% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 14% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $34,008 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 86% Speaks a language filled 16% other than English $36,846 Teachers with an AA 7% Home visitor left Teachers with a $40,277 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $16,912 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,1 89 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ East Asian ■ White Pacific Island ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 142

145 HAWAII Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 44% 42% 40% 37% 40 34% 24% 24% 22% 20% 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 92% 75 75 75 75 65% 54% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 22% 25 25 25 25 7% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average Hawaii National average Hawaii Hawaii National average National average Hawaii Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 17% 14% 7% 4% 4% 0 0 0 Hawaii National average Hawaii National average National average Hawaii 143

146 IDAHO Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $29,845,930 3,369 5% 3% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $7,250,000 N/A 88 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $22,595,930 638 2% 1% 3-Year-Olds 777 6% 3% 4-Year-Olds 8% 1,866 15% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 15% 20 6% 0 2%2% Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Research-based threshold Idaho National average National average Idaho Significantly below threshold ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 57% $60,000 60 $45,218 $40,000 40 $33,387 30% $29,769 $25,935 $23,952 $20,000 20 12% $0 0 Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Idaho National average National average Idaho PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $13,636 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,866 $12,000 $9,825 $10,000 60 $8,549 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 1% 0% $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average Idaho (adjusted COL) Idaho Idaho National average 144

147 Head Start & Early Head Start IDAHO ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 3,512 754 2,758 15,000 Federally Funded 3,050 611 2,439 17 115 132 State Supplemental 10,000 MIECHV Funded 11 11 0 American Indian/ 5,000 319 115 204 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 4,244 1,029 3,215 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2009 2010 2009 2008 2007 2008 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 8 0 8 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $24,095,930 $7,250,000 $31,345,930 $7,250,000 $29,845,930 Total Federal Funding $22,595,930 $20,656,466 Head Start Federal Funding $7,250,000 $27,906,466 Not available $1,939,464 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,939,464 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $1,500,000 Not available $1,500,000 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,636 $13,687 $13,227 $12,575 $11,866 $10,770 $9,825 $9,675 $9,519 $9,502 $10,000 $9,110 $8,886 $8,927 $8,803 $8,703 $8,739 $8,549 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2014 2012 2015 2015 2007 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 145

148 IDAHO Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 7% 42% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 25% 58% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 42% HSD/GED 8% 26% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 5% 1% TANF Black or African American 8% 1% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 55% 79% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 56% 5% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 87% Meets income requirement 14% 70% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 26% 4% Spanish by child welfare 11% 1% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 41% 1% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 28% 2% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 97% 97% 94% 92% 89% 88% 75% 53% 37% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 59% 59% 75% 27% 20% 19% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 146

149 Early Head Start IDAHO EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2012 2013 2014 2011 2010 No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 20% 20% No assistant teachers Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $23,875 All teachers Current/Former 37% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,503 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 18% other than English $24,220 Teachers with an AA 21% Home visitor left Teachers with a $25,935 Home visitor left for BA or higher 6% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 9% $19,283 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,218 64% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications No assistant teachers Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Pacific Island ■ ■ White Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 147

150 IDAHO Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 13% 2% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2007 2015 2014 2012 2011 2013 2010 2009 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 3% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 42% 50 50 50 38% 15% 25 25 25 10% 8% 0% 0 0 0 National average Idaho National average Idaho National average Idaho 148

151 IDAHO Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 22% $14,182 18% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $22,639 All teachers Current/Former 30% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 4% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $15,573 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 58% Speaks a language filled 21% other than English $21,146 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $23,952 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $21,266 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,218 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 149

152 Head Start IDAHO TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 3% 3% 3% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0 2015 2011 2013 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 9% 7% 2% 1% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Idaho Idaho Idaho National average Idaho Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 15% 14% 4% 2% 1% 0 0 0 Idaho National average Idaho National average Idaho National average 150

153 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview ILLINOIS FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $334,780,363 5% 12% 41,188 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $75,122,000 526 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $259,658,363 1% 6,391 3% 3-Year-Olds 10% 23% 16,145 4-Year-Olds 25% 18,126 11% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.0 2.9 3 40 2 25% 23% 20% 18% 1 20 3% 0 2% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds Illinois National average Research-based threshold Illinois National average ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 84% 80 $80,000 73% $61,083 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $39,716 40 $40,000 $33,290 $33,387 31% 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Illinois Illinois National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,860 $9,992 $10,000 60 $8,038 48% $ 7, 57 7 $8,000 44% $6,970 42% 40 34% $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Illinois (adjusted COL) National average Illinois Illinois National average 151

154 ILLINOIS Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 6,917 41,188 34,271 Total Funded Enrollment 45,000 Federally Funded 41,188 6,917 34,271 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 8,656 41,730 50,386 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 5,691 840 6,531 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $334,780,363 $75,122,000 $259,658,363 $75,122,000 Total Federal Funding $334,780,363 $259,658,363 Head Start Federal Funding $334,780,363 $75,122,000 $259,658,363 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $10,860 $10,625 $10,507 $10,232 $9,992 $10,000 $8,088 $8,038 $7,866 $7,850 $7,880 $7,633 $7,616 $ 7, 577 $7,563 $7,617 $7,222 $6,970 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 152

155 ILLINOIS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 31% 4% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 69% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 26% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 36% HSD/GED 1% American Indian/Alaska Native 34% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 42% Black or African American 12% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 6% RACE SSI 31% White 50% WIC 8% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 47% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 16% Other/Unspecified 90% Meets income requirement English 72% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP 24% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 1% 1% East Asian by child welfare 5% Child experienced homelessness 1% Middle Eastern 66% Single parent family 1% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 37% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 96% 95% 91% 91% 90% 89% 80% 77% 75% 28% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 50% 76% 30% 26% 15% 12% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 153

156 ILLINOIS Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 26% 11% $24,385 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $28,652 Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 17% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,482 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 75% Speaks a language filled 21% other than English $26,677 Teachers with an AA 21% Home visitor left Teachers with a $33,290 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 18% $ 27,7 93 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $61,083 83% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic White ■ ■ African ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 154

157 ILLINOIS Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 48% 43% 41% 41% 38% 37% 37% 37% 36% 40 20 0 2013 2009 2007 2015 2010 2014 2011 2012 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 21% 20% 19% 17% 17% 15% 12% 20 9% 8% 0 2014 2015 2009 2012 2008 2007 2013 2010 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 41% 50 50 50 38% 31% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 0 0 0 Illinois National average National average Illinois National average Illinois 155

158 ILLINOIS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 23% $22,491 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% better compensation $ 37, 57 1 All teachers Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 10% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,910 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 53% Speaks a language filled 23% other than English $24,030 Teachers with an AA 21% Home visitor left Teachers with a $39,716 Home visitor left for BA or higher 7% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 28% $21,367 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $61,083 69% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ MIddle Eastern ■ ■ White ■ East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 156

159 Head Start ILLINOIS TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 41% 41% 40% 35% 40 34% 31% 31% 31% 30% 20 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 59% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 35% 26% 21% 25 25 25 25 7% 0 0 0 0 National average Illinois National average Illinois National average Illinois National average Illinois Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50% 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 16% 14% 14% 4% 0 0 0 Illinois National average Illinois National average Illinois National average 157

160 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview INDIANA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $122,333,306 7% 4% 15,310 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $29,849,000 N/A 223 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $92,484,306 2% 2,089 1% 3-Year-Olds 7% 13% 5,525 4-Year-Olds 7,473 9% 17% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.1 2.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 17% 1 20 13% 0 2%2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds Indiana National average Research-based threshold National average Indiana Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 62% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $50,877 $40,000 40 $33,387 30% $29,494 $29,769 28% $27,166 $20,000 20 $0 0 Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Indiana National average Indiana PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,142 $14,000 $12,910 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7,7 94 $8,000 44% $7,115 42% 40 $6,000 24% $4,000 20 $2,000 4% $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Indiana (adjusted COL) Indiana Indiana National average 158

161 Head Start & Early Head Start INDIANA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 15,310 2,312 12,998 15,000 Federally Funded 15,310 2,312 12,998 0 0 0 State Supplemental 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 19,196 3,189 16,007 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2009 2010 2008 2009 2008 2007 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 63 0 63 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $92,484,306 $29,849,000 $122,333,306 $29,849,000 $122,333,306 Total Federal Funding $92,484,306 $92,484,306 Head Start Federal Funding $29,849,000 $122,333,306 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $14,142 $12,910 $12,775 $12,575 $12,343 $11,167 $10,000 $8,049 $8,038 $ 7,7 94 $ 7,7 94 $ 7,7 76 $ 7,753 $ 7, 539 $7,411 $7,115 $7,056 $ 7,03 3 $6,887 $5,000 $0 2011 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 2007 2008 2015 2010 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined National average 159

162 Head Start & Early Head Start INDIANA CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 17% 5% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 83% 25% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 46% HSD/GED 1% 24% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 23% 5% Black or African American TANF 10% 1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander SSI RACE 54% 59% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 10% 60% Biracial/Multi-racial SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 89% Meets income requirement 14% 88% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 3% 10% Spanish by child welfare 6% 0% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 63% 1% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 38% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 95% 95% 94% 91% 90% 85% 81% 51% 33% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 53% 51% 74 % 28% 22% 13% Health education Parenting education Adult education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 160

163 INDIANA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 5% 26% $15,824 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation $26,468 All teachers Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 17% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,636 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 71% Speaks a language filled 7% other than English $24,601 Teachers with an AA 26% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,494 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 3% $21,383 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,877 76% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 161

164 INDIANA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 30% 29% 25% 25% 24% 24% 24% 23% 21% 20 0 2007 2015 2012 2011 2010 2014 2013 2009 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 4% 4% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 60% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 2% 0 0 0 Indiana Indiana National average National average National average Indiana 162

165 INDIANA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 6% $16,161 21% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $25,671 All teachers Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 19% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $14,876 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 76% Speaks a language filled 8% other than English $22,820 Teachers with an AA 35% Home visitor left Teachers with a $27,166 Home visitor left for BA or higher 14% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 15% $23,711 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,877 54% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ BA ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 163

166 Head Start INDIANA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 19% 18% 18% 18% 17% 17% 20 9% 5% 4% 0 2013 2014 2015 2011 2008 2007 2012 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 15% 14% 7% 5% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Indiana Indiana Indiana National average Indiana Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 43% 50 50 50 20% 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 1% 0 0 0 Indiana National average Indiana National average Indiana National average 164

167 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview IOWA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $62,633,672 4% 9% 7,756 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $16,533,000 N/A 134 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $46,100,672 3% 1% 1,415 3-Year-Olds 18% 7% 2,805 4-Year-Olds 9% 3,402 18% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 ✘ 60 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 18%18% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Iowa Research-based threshold National average Iowa National average Significantly above threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 88% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $53,524 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,686 32% $31,962 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Iowa National average National average Iowa PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 $11,976 80 $12,000 $10,673 $10,000 60 $8,334 $8,038 $7,427 $8,000 44% 42% 40 34% $6,000 25% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Iowa Iowa (adjusted COL) Iowa National average 165

168 IOWA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 1,644 7,851 6,207 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 7,756 1,549 6,207 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 95 MIECHV Funded 95 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 2,097 7,010 9,107 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 324 0 324 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $62,633,672 $16,533,000 $46,100,672 $16,533,000 Total Federal Funding $62,633,672 $46,100,672 Head Start Federal Funding $62,633,672 $16,533,000 $46,100,672 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $11,976 $10,673 $10,286 $9,986 $10,023 $10,000 $8,334 $8,038 $ 7,925 $ 7,70 0 $ 7, 67 7 $7,608 $7,467 $7,427 $7,411 $7,431 $7,311 $7,109 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 166

169 IOWA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 20% 5% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 80% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 25% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 46% HSD/GED 2% American Indian/Alaska Native 21% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 3% Asian 16% Black or African American 23% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 8% SSI 64% White 56% WIC 11% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 63% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 4% Other/Unspecified 85% Meets income requirement 83% English 12% Child has an IEP/IFSP 12% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 2% 1% East Asian by child welfare 7% Child experienced homelessness 2% Middle Eastern 56% Single parent family 1% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 31% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 97% 95% 94% 94% 93% 90% 84% 67% 11% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 66% 54% 77% 35% 14% 11% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 167

170 IOWA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 5% 19% $14,409 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $28,624 All teachers Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $25,214 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 65% Speaks a language filled 9% other than English $27,436 Teachers with an AA 29% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,686 Home visitor left for BA or higher 10% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 17% $20,838 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $53,524 90% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 168

171 IOWA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 33% 33% 33% 31% 29% 28% 28% 27% 25% 20 0 2012 2008 2015 2009 2014 2010 2011 2007 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 34% 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 7% 0 0 0 Iowa Iowa National average National average National average Iowa 169

172 IOWA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 4% $19,283 19% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $30,210 Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,204 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 78% Speaks a language filled 7% other than English $24,073 Teachers with an AA 15% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,962 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $21,562 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $53,524 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ European & Slavic ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 170

173 Head Start IOWA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 46% 45% 42% 40% 39% 40 34% 34% 32% 32% 20 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 45% 45% 50 50 50 50 42% 20% 25 25 25 25 7% 6% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Iowa Iowa Iowa National average Iowa Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 21% 18% 25 25 25 14% 11% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Iowa National average Iowa National average Iowa National average 171

174 KANSAS Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $63,763,428 9% 4% 8,444 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $16,170,000 N/A 195 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $47,593,428 3% 1,933 2% 3-Year-Olds 3,047 8% 16% 4-Year-Olds 16% 8% 3,269 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 16% 16% 1 20 3% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds Kansas Research-based threshold National average Kansas National average ✔ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 77% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $48,990 40 $40,000 $34,682 $33,387 $32,658 30% $29,769 25% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Kansas National average Kansas National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,462 $8,289 $8,038 $ 7, 693 $ 7, 535 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 23% $4,000 20 15% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Kansas (adjusted COL) Kansas Kansas National average 172

175 KANSAS Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 2,200 8,516 6,316 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 8,356 2,102 6,254 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 72 MIECHV Funded 72 0 American Indian/ 5,000 26 88 62 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 3,507 7,663 11,170 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 579 265 844 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $63,763,428 $16,170,000 $47,593,428 $16,170,000 Total Federal Funding $63,763,428 $47,593,428 Head Start Federal Funding $62,945,707 $16,170,000 $46,775,707 Not available American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $817,721 $817,721 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $10,000 $8,462 $8,289 $8,038 $ 7,94 5 $ 7,7 1 5 $ 7, 693 $ 7, 535 $ 7, 3 0 5 $ 7, 255 $ 7, 27 1 $ 7,1 20 $ 7,1 7 1 $7,209 $ 7,0 92 $6,941 $6,887 $6,804 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 173

176 KANSAS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 32% 5% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 68% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 32% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 37% HSD/GED 2% American Indian/Alaska Native 25% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 19% Black or African American 9% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 8% SSI 54% White 51% WIC 11% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 45% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 13% Other/Unspecified 87% Meets income requirement 78% English 17% Child has an IEP/IFSP 19% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 3% 1% East Asian by child welfare 7% Child experienced homelessness 1% Middle Eastern 57% Single parent family 1% African HOME LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTICS OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 0% 27% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 96% 95% 94% 92% 89% 84% 80% 58% 24% Up-to-date Medical home Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 71% 65% 85% 28% 14% 12% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 174

177 KANSAS Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2007 2013 2012 2011 2015 2009 2008 2014 2010 BA AA Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 15% 20% $ 2 2 ,7 74 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% All teachers better compensation $25,481 Current/Former 15% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,378 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 69% Speaks a language filled 15% other than English $23,594 Teachers with an AA 21% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,658 Home visitor left for BA or higher 2% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 11% $16,332 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $48,990 46% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Native North American/Alaskan Native ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 175

178 KANSAS Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ Home-based 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 3+ years Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Family care ■ ■ Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 26% 25% 25% 26% 26% 25% 23% 21% 21% 20 0 2007 2013 2014 2010 2015 2011 2009 2012 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 41% 39% 40 22% 21% 20% 19% 19% 16% 14% 20 0 2011 2012 2010 2009 2014 2008 2007 2015 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 11% 10% 8% 2% 0 0 0 Kansas National average Kansas National average National average Kansas 176

179 KANSAS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 13% $16,307 26% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $34,200 All teachers Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 2% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $30,713 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 58% Speaks a language filled 13% other than English $22,870 Teachers with an AA 22% Home visitor left Teachers with a $34,682 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $14,308 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $48,990 88% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ BA ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 177

180 Head Start KANSAS TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 22% 21% 20% 20% 19% 19% 18% 15% 20 12% 0 2013 2014 2015 2011 2008 2007 2012 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 35% 25 25 25 25 18% 11% 7% 6% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Kansas Kansas Kansas National average Kansas Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 62% 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 15% 14% 4% 1% 0 0 0 Kansas National average Kansas National average Kansas National average 178

181 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview KENTUCKY FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $136,136,497 16,961 12% 6% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $31,953,000 145 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $104,183,497 3% 2,300 1% 3-Year-Olds 6,703 22% 12% 4-Year-Olds 27% 14% 7,813 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 ✔ 7 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 80 5 ✔ 4 60 3.3 2.9 3 40 2 27% 22% 20% 18% 1 20 3% 0 2% Classroom Organization Instructional Support Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Kentucky National average Kentucky ✔ Significantly below threshold Significantly above threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 68% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $50,992 40 $40,000 $33,799 $33,387 30% $29,769 $28,188 23% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start National average Kentucky Kentucky National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $13,981 $14,000 $13,069 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7, 678 48% $8,000 $ 7,1 7 7 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20% 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average Kentucky (adjusted COL) Kentucky Kentucky National average 179

182 Head Start & Early Head Start KENTUCKY ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 16,961 2,445 14,516 15,000 Federally Funded 16,961 2,445 14,516 0 0 0 State Supplemental 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 19,711 2,836 16,875 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2009 2010 2008 2009 2007 2008 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 567 129 438 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $104,183,497 $31,953,000 $136,136,497 $31,953,000 $136,136,497 Total Federal Funding $104,183,497 $104,183,497 Head Start Federal Funding $31,953,000 $136,136,497 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,981 $13,069 $12,957 $12,575 $12,345 $12,021 $10,000 $8,035 $8,038 $ 7,725 $ 7, 678 $ 7,728 $ 7,736 $7,495 $7,482 $7,503 $ 7,1 7 7 $7,148 $6,998 $5,000 $0 2011 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 2008 2007 2015 2010 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined National average 180

183 Head Start & Early Head Start KENTUCKY CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 9% 6% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 28% 91% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 49% HSD/GED 17% 0% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 16% 18% Black or African American TANF 10% 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander SSI RACE 49% 69% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 9% 61% Biracial/Multi-racial SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 89% Meets income requirement 15% 93% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 2% 6% Spanish by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 56% 1% Single parent family Middle Eastern CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 0% 41% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 98% 97% 97% 96% 93% 92% 88% 81% 52% 56% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 64% 57% 77% 23% 9% 5% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 181

184 KENTUCKY Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 3% 12% $13,656 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% better compensation All teachers $23,871 Current/Former 27% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 8% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,104 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 75% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $23,116 Teachers with an AA 13% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,188 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $22,804 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,992 89% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 182

185 KENTUCKY Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60% 60% 57% 60 49% 48% 44% 41% 41% 40% 40 20 0 2011 2008 2010 2009 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 17% 14% 13% 20 12% 8% 7% 7% 6% 5% 0 2015 2012 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 2011 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 40% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 9% 8% 8% 0 0 0 Kentucky National average Kentucky National average National average Kentucky 183

186 KENTUCKY Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 2% $15,619 14% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $29,714 Current/Former 37% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,354 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 2% other than English $21,491 Teachers with an AA 17% Home visitor left Teachers with a $33,799 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $17,193 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,992 83% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ BA ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 184

187 Head Start KENTUCKY TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 29% 28% 27% 27% 27% 26% 23% 22% 20% 20 0 2014 2015 2012 2009 2008 2007 2013 2010 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 57% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 27% 25 25 25 25 8% 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average Kentucky National average Kentucky Kentucky National average National average Kentucky Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 22% 18% 25 25 25 14% 14% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Kentucky National average Kentucky National average Kentucky National average 185

188 LOUISIANA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME OF STATE ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $172,715,999 13% 21,655 7% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $35,580,000 N/A 180 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $137,135,999 2% 1% 2,424 3-Year-Olds 35% 19% 11,701 4-Year-Olds 12% 23% 7,350 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.6 3 35% 40 2 23% 20% 18% 1 20 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Instructional Support Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Louisiana Louisiana National average ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 66% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $47,886 $40,000 40 $33,387 $30,752 30% $29,769 $28,956 16% $20,000 20 $0 0 Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Louisiana National average Louisiana PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 90% $14,119 $13,664 $14,000 $12,575 80 74 % $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,438 $8,000 $7,198 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Louisiana (adjusted COL) Louisiana Louisiana National average 186

189 Head Start & Early Head Start LOUISIANA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 2,604 19,051 Total Funded Enrollment 21,655 45,000 Federally Funded 21,655 2,604 19,051 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 2,516 24,156 Cumulative Enrollment 21,640 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 208 570 362 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $172,715,999 $35,580,000 $137,135,999 Total Federal Funding $172,715,999 $35,580,000 $137,135,999 $137,135,999 $35,580,000 $172,715,999 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $14,119 $13,664 $13,576 $13,432 $12,764 $12,575 $10,000 $8,078 $8,038 $ 7,9 52 $7,822 $ 7,782 $7,624 $7,604 $7,490 $7,438 $7,430 $7,198 $7,211 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 187

190 LOUISIANA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 4% 5% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 19% 96% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 51% HSD/GED 25% 1% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 80% 4% TANF Black or African American 10% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 41% 14% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 3% 58% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 2% Other/Unspecified 92% Meets income requirement 9% 96% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 1% 3% Spanish by child welfare 3% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 80% 0% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 34% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 99% 97% 97% 97% 96% 95% 94% 92% 87% 77% 44% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 43% 37% 63% 11% 11% 8% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 188

191 LOUISIANA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 3% 9% $19,807 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $23,894 All teachers Current/Former 31% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,004 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 43% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $25,210 Teachers with an AA 27% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,956 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 33% $18,930 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $47,886 33% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 189

192 LOUISIANA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 90% 87% 86% 84% 82% 80% 80% 80% 79% 80 60 40 20 0 2007 2012 2011 2009 2013 2008 2014 2015 2010 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 19% 20 8% 7% 7% 7% 3% 3% 2% 3% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 18% 25 25 25 10% 8% 2% 1% 0 0 0 Louisiana Louisiana National average National average National average Louisiana 190

193 LOUISIANA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 8% $16,835 11% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $28,009 All teachers Current/Former 44% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 6% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,563 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 84% Speaks a language filled 2% other than English Teachers with an AA $24,708 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,752 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $17,134 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $47,886 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ BA ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 191

194 LOUISIANA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 78% 77% 77% 77% 75% 80 74% 74% 74% 72% 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 99% 100 100 100 100 75% 75 75 75 75 65% 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 12% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Louisiana Louisiana National average Louisiana National average Louisiana Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 4% 0% 0% 0 0 0 Louisiana National average Louisiana National average National average Louisiana 192

195 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview MAINE FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $34,607,389 5% 3,274 10% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $11,135,000 N/A N/A 50 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $23,472,389 746 2% 4% 3-Year-Olds 14% 1,051 8% 4-Year-Olds 11% 25% 1,427 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.2 6.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.2 2.9 3 40 2 25% 20% 18% 1 20 14% 4% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Maine National average Research-based threshold National average Maine Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 76% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $50,017 45% 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $30,707 $29,769 $26,455 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Maine National average Maine PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $15,777 100 $16,000 $13,989 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,684 $9,472 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 29% $4,000 20 10% $2,000 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Maine National average National average Maine Maine (adjusted COL) 193

196 Head Start & Early Head Start MAINE ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 3,303 825 2,478 15,000 Federally Funded 3,214 796 2,418 29 0 29 State Supplemental 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 60 0 60 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 4,154 1,251 2,903 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2009 2010 2008 2009 2007 2008 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 8 8 0 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $25,985,119 $11,135,000 $37,120,119 $11,135,000 $34,607,389 Total Federal Funding $23,472,389 $22,716,382 Head Start Federal Funding $11,135,000 $33,851,382 $0 $756,007 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $756,007 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $2,512,730 Not available $2,512,730 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,777 $15,000 $13,989 $13,164 $12,575 $12,248 $12,172 $10,684 $9,910 $9,863 $9,737 $9,772 $9,472 $9,420 $10,000 $9,411 $9,118 $8,214 $8,038 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2014 2012 2015 2015 2007 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 194

197 MAINE Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 3% 8% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 33% 97% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 45% HSD/GED 14% 2% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 25% 7% TANF Black or African American 10% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 64% 82% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 8% 65% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 0% Other/Unspecified 83% Meets income requirement 92% 20% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 3% 0% Spanish by child welfare 12% 2% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 48% 4% African Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 2% 45% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 96% 93% 93% 85% 76% 74 % 59% 42% 11% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 86% 81% 93% 25% 21% 14% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 195

198 MAINE Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 1% 22% $20,875 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $29,724 All teachers Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 14% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,890 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 50% Speaks a language filled 2% other than English $28,899 Teachers with an AA 9% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,707 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $19,310 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,017 75% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 196

199 MAINE Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 34% 34% 31% 30% 29% 29% 27% 24% 20% 20 0 2011 2008 2015 2013 2014 2009 2010 2007 2012 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 12% 20 6% 7% 6% 4% 4% 1% 1% 1% 0 2015 2013 2009 2012 2008 2007 2010 2014 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 51% 50 50 50 38% 20% 25 25 25 10% 8% 6% 0 0 0 National average Maine National average Maine National average Maine 197

200 MAINE Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 1% $17,912 15% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $25,378 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 13% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $25,331 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 60% Speaks a language filled 2% other than English $25,300 Teachers with an AA 7% Home visitor left Teachers with a $26,455 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $23,562 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,017 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ European & Slavic ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 198

201 Head Start MAINE TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 17% 17% 17% 15% 20 14% 14% 11% 11% 10% 0 2015 2014 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 18% 25 25 25 25 17% 12% 10% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Maine Maine Maine National average Maine Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 13% 13% 14% 14% 4% 0 0 0 Maine National average Maine National average Maine National average 199

202 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview MARYLAND FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $94,631,931 10,426 3% 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $21,608,000 N/A N/A 144 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $73,023,931 2% 1% 1,421 3-Year-Olds 6% 4,605 19% 4-Year-Olds 4,256 16% 6% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 ✘ 60 2.9 2.7 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 16% 1 20 0 2%2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Maryland Research-based threshold National average Maryland Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 81% 80 $80,000 73% $64,952 $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $44,500 $40,000 40 $33,387 32% $31,753 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 $0 0 Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Maryland National average Maryland PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $13,807 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,020 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,241 $8,038 47% $8,000 $ 7,1 74 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 16% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Maryland (adjusted COL) Maryland Maryland National average 200

203 MARYLAND Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 10,426 Total Funded Enrollment 8,861 1,565 15,000 Federally Funded 10,426 1,565 8,861 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 2,330 12,335 Cumulative Enrollment 10,005 0 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2014 2008 2007 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2011 2009 2010 In Center-Based 75 0 75 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2007 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START $96,431,931 $21,608,000 Total Funding $74,823,931 $73,023,931 Total Federal Funding $94,631,931 $21,608,000 Head Start Federal Funding $21,608,000 $94,631,931 $73,023,931 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $1,800,000 $0 $1,800,000 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,807 $13,313 $13,193 $13,051 $12,575 $12,020 $10,000 $8,919 $8,639 $8,685 $8,574 $8,387 $8,370 $8,376 $8,241 $8,038 $ 7,93 6 $ 7, 678 $ 7,1 74 $5,000 $0 2012 2009 2014 2007 2015 2013 2015 2011 2008 2015 2010 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 201

204 MARYLAND Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 18% 7% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 26% 82% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 42% HSD/GED 25% 2% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 58% 15% TANF Black or African American 8% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 64% 24% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 10% 65% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 91% Meets income requirement 80% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 2% 16% Spanish by child welfare 5% 1% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 67% 1% African Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 38% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 100% 99% 98% 98% 97% 96% 96% 95% 93% 86% 34% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 68% 84% 47% 21% 11% 9% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 202

205 Early Head Start MARYLAND EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2015 2007 2008 2014 2009 2013 2010 2012 BA Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA Not reported AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 22% 13% $20,626 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $27,899 Current/Former 13% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,719 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 79% Speaks a language filled 25% other than English $29,296 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,753 Home visitor left for BA or higher 7% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $33,199 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $64,952 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA AA CDA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 203

206 MARYLAND Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 34% 32% 32% 30% 29% 29% 28% 28% 16% 20 0 2012 2007 2009 2013 2010 2014 2011 2008 2015 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 13% 20 7% 5% 6% 4% 4% 3% 3% 2% 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 13% 10% 8% 1% 0 0 0 National average Maryland Maryland National average National average Maryland 204

207 MARYLAND Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 6% $20,808 14% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $42,398 All teachers Current/Former 24% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 3% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $16,006 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 74 % Speaks a language filled 11% other than English $25,112 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $44,500 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $20,452 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $64,952 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ Middle Eastern White ■ East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ African ■ Other/Unspecified 205

208 MARYLAND Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 58% 55% 60 51% 47% 47% 47% 44% 36% 40 26% 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 81% 75 75 75 75 65% 51% 49% 48% 50 50 50 50 42% 20% 25 25 25 25 7% 0 0 0 0 National average Maryland National average Maryland Maryland National average National average Maryland Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 17% 14% 12% 4% 1% 0 0 0 Maryland National average Maryland National average National average Maryland 206

209 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview MASSACHUSETTS FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $130,475,571 10% 3% 12,422 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $27,133,000 N/A 133 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $103,342,571 2% 1,670 1% 3-Year-Olds 7% 22% 5,339 4-Year-Olds 5,280 7% 23% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 ✔ 7 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.0 2.9 3 40 2 23% 22% 20% 18% 1 20 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Massachusetts National average Research-based threshold National average Massachusetts Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 $75,398 73% 62% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 40 $40,000 $33,387 32% $32,794 30% $29,769 $28,788 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Massachusetts National average National average Massachusetts PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $15,066 $14,000 $13,264 $12,575 80 $12,000 $9,730 $10,000 60 $8,567 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 38% 40 $6,000 27% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Massachusetts (adjusted COL) Massachusetts Massachusetts National average 207

210 MASSACHUSETTS Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 12,647 Total Funded Enrollment 10,806 1,841 15,000 Federally Funded 12,422 1,801 10,621 20 State Supplemental 205 185 10,000 0 20 20 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 2,577 15,430 Cumulative Enrollment 12,853 0 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2014 2008 2007 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 In Center-Based 0 8 8 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2007 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START $139,575,571 $27,133,000 Total Funding $112,442,571 $103,342,571 Total Federal Funding $130,475,571 $27,133,000 Head Start Federal Funding $27,133,000 $130,475,571 $103,342,571 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $9,100,000 Not available $9,100,000 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,066 $15,000 $13,264 $13,130 $12,634 $12,575 $12,419 $10,208 $10,170 $9,998 $9,907 $9,827 $9,730 $ 9,74 3 $9,489 $9,456 $9,445 $10,000 $8,567 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2012 2007 2015 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 208

211 MASSACHUSETTS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 43% Hispanic/Latino 8% BA or higher 57% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 26% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 40% HSD/GED 2% American Indian/Alaska Native 26% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 5% Asian 19% Black or African American 0% 27% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander TANF 36% White 13% SSI RACE 11% Biracial/Multi-racial 70% WIC 27% Other/Unspecified FAMILY USE OF 63% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 56% English 88% Meets income requirement 27% Spanish 3% Caribbean 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP 3% East Asian Child was referred to Head Start 6% by child welfare 4% Middle Eastern 12% Child experienced homelessness 4% European & Slavic 64% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 2% African HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 39% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 99% 98% 97% 97% 96% 90% 86% 83% 79% 28% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 60% 55% 79% 22% 12% 9% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 209

212 Early Head Start MASSACHUSETTS EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2007 2009 Not reported Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 33% $25,291 15% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $30,300 Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 59% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $ 27, 359 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies Speaks a language 83% filled 44% other than English $29,370 Teachers with an AA 16% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,794 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 25% $42,604 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $75,398 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Middle Eastern White ■ ■ East Asian Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ European & Slavic Other/Unspecified ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 210

213 MASSACHUSETTS Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 56% 60 51% 50% 43% 38% 37% 36% 40 34% 34% 20 0 2015 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 10% 7% 7% 4% 4% 4% 4% 5% 3% 0 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 2008 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 64% 50 50 50 38% 28% 25 25 25 10% 8% 7% 0 0 0 National average Massachusetts Massachusetts National average National average Massachusetts 211

214 MASSACHUSETTS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 30% $21,105 14% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation All teachers $28,132 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 19% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,456 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 70% Speaks a language filled 32% other than English $26,819 Teachers with an AA 19% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,788 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $46,610 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $75,398 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ White East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 212

215 Head Start MASSACHUSETTS TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 36% 40 34% 31% 31% 30% 29% 27% 27% 25% 20 0 2014 2015 2008 2011 2007 2012 2013 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 92% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 28% 20% 25 25 25 25 15% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average Massachusetts National average Massachusetts National average Massachusetts National average Massachusetts Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 30% 18% 25 25 25 18% 14% 4% 1% 0 0 0 Massachusetts National average Massachusetts National average Massachusetts National average 213

216 MICHIGAN Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $288,804,124 33,261 11% 6% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $72,442,000 N/A 465 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $216,362,124 5,493 3% 2% 3-Year-Olds 12,890 22% 11% 4-Year-Olds 12% 14,413 26% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.1 6.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 2 26% 22% 20% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Michigan Michigan National average ✔ Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 81% 80 $80,000 73% $63,856 $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 41% $40,000 40 $34,425 $33,387 $30,850 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 $0 0 Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Michigan National average National average Michigan PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,384 $14,000 $12,671 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,370 $ 7,924 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 23% $4,000 20 13% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Michigan Michigan (adjusted COL) National average Michigan National average 214

217 MICHIGAN Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 33,357 Total Funded Enrollment 27,303 6,054 45,000 Federally Funded 32,662 5,717 26,945 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 96 0 96 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 15,000 241 358 599 Alaska Native 7,017 38,996 Cumulative Enrollment 31,979 0 2008 2007 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2007 In Center-Based 626 727 101 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $216,362,124 $72,442,000 $288,804,124 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $288,804,124 $72,442,000 $216,362,124 $72,442,000 $212,417,570 Head Start Federal Funding $284,859,570 $3,944,554 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $3,944,554 Not available $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,384 $12,671 $12,575 $10,970 $10,759 $10,705 $10,000 $8,370 $8,050 $8,038 $ 7,924 $ 7,9 97 $7,852 $ 7,78 6 $ 7,703 $ 7, 679 $7,463 $7,398 $ 7, 263 $5,000 $0 2012 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 215

218 MICHIGAN Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 12% 6% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 34% 88% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 40% HSD/GED 20% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 2% PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 13% 32% TANF Black or African American 9% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 59% 51% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 10% 62% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 3% Other/Unspecified 90% Meets income requirement 91% 12% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 2% 5% Spanish by child welfare 6% 1% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 58% 2% Single parent family Middle Eastern CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 33% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 97% 97% 94% 94% 92% 88% 86% 74 % 55% 35% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 45% 43% 68% 25% 8% 7% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 216

219 MICHIGAN Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2014 2008 2007 2009 CDA Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 9% 14% $20,843 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $30,368 All teachers Current/Former 27% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 4% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,935 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 31% Speaks a language filled 6% other than English $ 27,9 1 2 Teachers with an AA 17% Home visitor left Teachers with a $34,425 Home visitor left for BA or higher 2% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $29,431 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $63,856 75% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 217

220 MICHIGAN Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 32% 29% 29% 25% 23% 21% 19% 17% 16% 20 0 2015 2008 2007 2009 2010 2014 2011 2012 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 6% 6% 4% 2% 2% 1% 1% 0% 0 2015 2014 2008 2011 2007 2012 2013 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 30% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 2% 0 0 0 Michigan National average National average Michigan National average Michigan 218

221 MICHIGAN Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 6% $18,886 18% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation $29,885 All teachers Current/Former 29% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,928 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 70% Speaks a language filled 6% other than English Teachers with an AA $26,259 Home visitor left 6% Teachers with a $30,850 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 50% $33,006 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $63,856 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 219

222 Head Start MICHIGAN TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 13% 12% 10% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 0 2012 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 2015 2013 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 35% 25 25 25 25 15% 12% 7% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Michigan Michigan Michigan National average Michigan Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50% 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 11% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Michigan National average Michigan National average Michigan National average 220

223 MINNESOTA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $98,443,454 11,701 3% 9% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $22,787,000 N/A 228 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $75,656,454 1,896 1% 3% 3-Year-Olds 4,214 17% 6% 4-Year-Olds 8% 20% 5,363 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ ✔ 7 100 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.9 3.0 3 40 2 20% 20% 18% 1 17% 20 0 3% 2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Research-based threshold National average Minnesota Minnesota National average ✔ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 66% $ 57,0 92 $56,670 60 $60,000 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,824 $32,184 30% $29,769 23% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start Minnesota National average National average Minnesota PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 $12,424 $12,297 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $7,981 $8,038 $7,899 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 19% 20 $2,000 7% $0 0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Minnesota (adjusted COL) Minnesota Minnesota National average 221

224 MINNESOTA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 2,201 12,391 10,190 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 10,769 1,853 8,916 612 State Supplemental 690 78 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 270 932 662 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 2,981 13,199 16,180 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 145 114 259 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $118,543,454 $32,082,056 $86,461,398 $22,787,000 Total Federal Funding $98,443,454 $75,656,454 Head Start Federal Funding $91,416,875 $22,787,000 $68,629,875 Not available American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $7,026,579 $7,026,579 $9,295,056 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $20,100,000 $10,804,944 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,424 $12,297 $11,931 $11,241 $11,244 $10,000 $8,457 $8,163 $8,152 $8,025 $7,981 $8,038 $7,899 $ 7,922 $ 7, 89 5 $ 7,75 4 $ 7,769 $ 7,789 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 222

225 MINNESOTA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 22% Hispanic/Latino 7% BA or higher Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 78% 21% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 9% American Indian/Alaska Native 23% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 5% Asian 25% Black or African American 22% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% 7% SSI RACE 48% White 61% WIC 8% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 53% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 87% Meets income requirement 69% English 14% Child has an IEP/IFSP 14% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 2% 4% East Asian by child welfare 9% Child experienced homelessness 2% Middle Eastern 49% Single parent family 10% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 29% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 94% 95% 91% 91% 91% 89% 86% 74 % 67% 56% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 61% 54% 82% 27% 18% 12% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 223

226 Early Head Start MINNESOTA EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2015 2007 2008 2014 2009 2013 2010 2012 BA Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA Not reported AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 7% $21,740 22% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $31,234 All teachers Current/Former 25% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 12% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $27,814 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 77% Speaks a language filled 20% other than English $29,861 Teachers with an AA 24% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,824 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 8% $23,846 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,670 73% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA AA CDA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 224

227 MINNESOTA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ School-day, 4 days/week Home-based 2 years ■ ■ Combination 3+ years ■ ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Family care ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 23% 21% 19% 18% 17% 17% 16% 16% 16% 20 0 2007 2014 2015 2013 2010 2009 2008 2012 2011 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 19% 13% 20 11% 9% 9% 5% 4% 3% 3% 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 39% 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 7% 0 0 0 National average Minnesota Minnesota National average National average Minnesota 225

228 MINNESOTA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 7% $20,376 14% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% better compensation $31,617 All teachers Current/Former 32% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 8% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,747 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 75% Speaks a language filled 15% other than English $29,775 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,184 Home visitor left for BA or higher 7% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 10% $24,486 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,670 81% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ East Asian ■ White European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 226

229 Head Start MINNESOTA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2015 2007 2010 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 16% 10% 11% 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota National average Minnesota Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 19% 18% 25 25 25 16% 14% 4% 4% 0 0 0 Minnesota National average Minnesota National average Minnesota National average 227

230 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview MISSISSIPPI FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $194,116,725 26,750 14% 22% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $30,147,000 N/A N/A 243 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $163,969,725 2,119 2% 3% 3-Year-Olds 11,346 45% 29% 4-Year-Olds 33% 13,042 52% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 ✘ 52% 2.9 2.6 45% 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Mississippi National average Mississippi ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 70% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $42,564 42% $40,000 40 $33,387 30% $29,769 $25,331 $21,638 $20,000 20 $0 0 Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Mississippi National average Mississippi National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,487 $14,000 $13,142 $12,575 80 75% 75% $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,412 $8,000 44% 42% $6,723 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Mississippi Mississippi (adjusted COL) Mississippi National average 228

231 MISSISSIPPI Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 26,750 Total Funded Enrollment 24,388 2,362 45,000 Federally Funded 26,474 2,294 24,180 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 15,000 68 208 276 Alaska Native 2,368 29,077 Cumulative Enrollment 26,709 0 2008 2007 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2007 In Center-Based 151 159 8 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $163,969,725 $30,147,000 $194,116,725 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $194,116,725 $30,147,000 $163,969,725 $30,147,000 $162,345,216 Head Start Federal Funding $192,492,216 $1,624,509 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,624,509 Not available $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,487 $15,000 $13,142 $12,575 $12,140 $11,929 $11,221 $10,000 $8,038 $7,412 $ 7,1 5 2 $6,985 $6,971 $6,890 $6,796 $6,751 $6,723 $6,566 $6,539 $6,377 $5,000 $0 2012 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 229

232 MISSISSIPPI Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 4% 4% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 96% 25% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 41% HSD/GED 28% 1% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 80% 6% TANF Black or African American 8% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 48% 13% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 53% 3% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 3% Other/Unspecified 92% Meets income requirement 10% 96% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 1% 3% Spanish by child welfare 1% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 84% Middle Eastern Single parent family 0% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 46% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 98% 94% 93% 93% 93% 90% 88% 84% 48% 56% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 47% 38% 62% 23% 9% 6% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 230

233 MISSISSIPPI Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 5% $18,426 8% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $22,634 Current/Former 30% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 21% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $19,479 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 82% Speaks a language filled 3% other than English $20,395 Teachers with an AA 7% Home visitor left Teachers with a $25,331 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 100% $17,233 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $42,564 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaskan Native ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 231

234 MISSISSIPPI Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 92% 90% 82% 82% 81% 81% 80% 77% 75% 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2008 2015 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 8% 7% 6% 5% 5% 3% 2% 2% 1% 0 2013 2014 2015 2012 2011 2009 2008 2007 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 17% 25 25 25 10% 8% 5% 0% 0 0 0 Mississippi National average National average Mississippi National average Mississippi 232

235 MISSISSIPPI Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2014 2009 2010 2013 2011 2012 2007 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 11% 1% $14,229 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $20,226 All teachers Current/Former 40% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 25% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $12,618 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 74 % Speaks a language filled 1% other than English $16,056 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $21,638 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No home visitors $20,926 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $42,564 No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications No home visitors Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 233

236 MISSISSIPPI Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 81% 80% 79% 76% 80 75% 75% 75% 75% 68% 60 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 99% 100 100 100 100 75% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 40% 25 25 25 25 7% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average Mississippi National average Mississippi Mississippi National average National average Mississippi Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 9% 4% 1% 0% 0 0 0 Mississippi National average Mississippi National average National average Mississippi 234

237 MISSOURI Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT PERCENT OF NUMBER FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $149,016,605 9% 4% 16,919 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $38,504,000 N/A 282 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $110,512,605 3% 2,904 1% 3-Year-Olds 9% 19% 6,786 4-Year-Olds 6,947 9% 19% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 5.4 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 2 20% 19% 19% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Missouri Research-based threshold National average National average Missouri ✘ ✔ Significantly below threshold Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 65% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $46,796 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% 30% $29,769 $28,903 $28,151 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Missouri National average National average Missouri PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $12,961 $12,575 $12,085 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,630 53% $8,047 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 24% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Missouri (adjusted COL) Missouri Missouri National average 235

238 Head Start & Early Head Start MISSOURI ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 17,141 13,733 3,408 15,000 16,919 3,186 13,733 Federally Funded 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 222 MIECHV Funded 222 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 4,083 17,204 21,287 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 673 356 1,029 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2010 2008 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2012 2009 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $152,516,605 $42,004,000 $110,512,605 $149,016,605 Total Federal Funding $38,504,000 $110,512,605 Head Start Federal Funding $149,016,605 $38,504,000 $110,512,605 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Not available $3,500,000 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $3,500,000 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,961 $12,575 $12,085 $11,211 $11,089 $10,910 $10,000 $8,630 $8,097 $8,047 $8,038 $ 7,9 92 $7,850 $7,800 $7,800 $ 7,70 8 $7,590 $7,619 $7,547 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 236

239 MISSOURI Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 16% 4% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 84% 27% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 45% HSD/GED 23% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 33% 23% TANF Black or African American 8% 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 46% 52% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 53% 8% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 6% Other/Unspecified 90% Meets income requirement 11% 91% Child has an IEP/IFSP English 2% 6% Child was referred to Head Start Spanish by child welfare 6% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 1% 66% African Single parent family 1% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 35% 1% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 96% 94% 91% 91% 90% 88% 87% 73% 52% 31% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 52% 47% 69% 18% 11% 9% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 237

240 MISSOURI Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2014 2008 2007 2009 No ECE-related credentials BA Advanced Not reported AA CDA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 5% $19,922 18% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% All teachers better compensation $25,392 Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 6% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,694 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 77% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $26,594 Teachers with an AA 24% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,151 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $18,645 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $46,796 71% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 238

241 MISSOURI Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 65% 63% 63% 61% 59% 59% 55% 55% 60 53% 40 20 0 2010 2015 2009 2008 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 58% 60 49% 40 23% 22% 22% 22% 18% 17% 17% 20 0 2013 2014 2015 2012 2009 2011 2008 2007 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 60% 50 50 50 38% 17% 25 25 25 15% 10% 8% 0 0 0 Missouri National average National average Missouri National average Missouri 239

242 MISSOURI Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 4% $18,328 19% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $26,832 Current/Former 27% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 3% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $18,422 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 74 % Speaks a language filled 5% other than English $22,100 Teachers with an AA Home visitor left 14% Teachers with a $28,903 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $17,893 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $46,796 38% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 240

243 Head Start MISSOURI TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 34% 33% 33% 32% 31% 29% 26% 24% 24% 20 0 2013 2014 2015 2011 2008 2007 2012 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 36% 31% 20% 25 25 25 25 11% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Missouri Missouri Missouri National average Missouri Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 21% 18% 25 25 25 18% 14% 9% 4% 0 0 0 Missouri National average Missouri National average Missouri National average 241

244 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview MONTANA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $39,510,370 15% 8% 4,901 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $6,599,000 N/A 64 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $32,911,370 4% 2% 738 3-Year-Olds 1,719 28% 14% 4-Year-Olds 2,380 19% 35% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.06.0 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 35% 2 28% 20% 18% 1 20 0 4% 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Montana Research-based threshold Montana National average Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $50,670 50% $40,000 40 $33,387 30% $29,769 $25,762 $23,566 20% $20,000 20 $0 0 Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Montana National average Montana PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $13,975 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,826 $12,000 $9,486 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,027 $8,000 44% 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 15% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Montana (adjusted COL) Montana Montana National average 242

245 Head Start & Early Head Start MONTANA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 4,901 4,100 801 15,000 3,193 558 2,635 Federally Funded 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 1,465 1,708 243 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 959 4,269 5,228 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 0 40 40 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2010 2008 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2012 2009 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $39,510,370 $6,599,000 $32,911,370 $39,510,370 Total Federal Funding $6,599,000 $32,911,370 Head Start Federal Funding $26,537,354 $6,599,000 $19,938,354 $12,973,016 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $12,973,016 Not available $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,975 $12,575 $11,826 $11,490 $11,166 $11,055 $9,486 $10,000 $8,467 $8,265 $8,254 $8,027 $8,154 $7,981 $8,038 $ 7,93 4 $8,060 $ 7,7 1 4 $7,640 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 243

246 MONTANA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 6% Hispanic/Latino 7% BA or higher 94% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 29% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 46% HSD/GED 35% American Indian/Alaska Native 11% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 0% 1% Black or African American 14% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 6% SSI 54% White 46% WIC 9% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 54% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Other/Unspecified 1% 83% Meets income requirement 99% English 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP Spanish 0% Child was referred to Head Start 3% 0% East Asian by child welfare 11% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 0% 46% Single parent family 0% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 33% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 95% 94% 91% 90% 90% 86% 82% 81% 66% 36% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 53% 46% 68% 29% 15% 9% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 244

247 MONTANA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 4% $19,944 40% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $23,857 All teachers Current/Former 39% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 4% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,596 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 87% Speaks a language filled 3% other than English $25,041 Teachers with an AA 58% Home visitor left Teachers with a $25,762 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $24,908 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,670 64% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Native North American/Alaskan Native Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 245

248 MONTANA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 64% 63% 60 52% 48% 47% 45% 44% 44% 40% 40 20 0 2007 2014 2008 2009 2015 2010 2011 2012 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 9% 6% 6% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2013 2008 2007 2015 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 43% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 15% 10% 8% 3% 0 0 0 Montana Montana National average National average National average Montana 246

249 MONTANA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 3% $14,287 24% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% better compensation $20,562 All teachers Current/Former 44% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $17,404 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 63% Speaks a language filled 3% other than English $19,678 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $23,566 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $27,104 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,670 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 247

250 Head Start MONTANA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20% 20% 19% 19% 18% 18% 17% 15% 20 14% 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 27% 25% 25 25 25 25 14% 7% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Montana Montana Montana National average Montana Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 4% 2% 1% 0 0 0 Montana National average Montana National average Montana National average 248

251 NEBRASKA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $48,380,064 4% 9% 5,560 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $17,708,000 N/A 110 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $30,672,064 1,288 2% 4% 3-Year-Olds 7% 15% 1,879 4-Year-Olds 20% 9% 2,283 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 20% 18% 1 15% 20 0 4% 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds Nebraska Research-based threshold National average Nebraska National average Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 89% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 55% $50,597 $35,560 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,288 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school National average Nebraska Nebraska National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,248 $14,000 $12,667 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,290 $8,038 $ 7, 370 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 27% 26% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Nebraska (adjusted COL) National average Nebraska Nebraska National average 249

252 NEBRASKA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 5,560 Total Funded Enrollment 4,162 1,398 15,000 Federally Funded 5,334 1,398 3,936 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 226 226 Alaska Native 1,674 6,404 Cumulative Enrollment 4,730 0 2008 2007 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2007 In Center-Based 76 76 0 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $30,672,064 $17,708,000 $48,380,064 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $48,380,064 $17,708,000 $30,672,064 $17,708,000 $28,706,012 Head Start Federal Funding $46,414,012 $1,966,052 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,966,052 $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,248 $15,000 $12,667 $12,575 $11,932 $11,580 $11,107 $10,000 $8,418 $8,290 $8,174 $8,149 $8,079 $8,038 $ 7,926 $7,808 $ 7, 370 $ 7, 372 $ 7,1 9 5 $7,087 $5,000 $0 2012 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 250

253 NEBRASKA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 33% Hispanic/Latino 8% BA or higher 67% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 23% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 39% HSD/GED 7% American Indian/Alaska Native 25% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 2% 12% Black or African American 10% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 7% SSI RACE 59% White 48% WIC 9% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 48% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 11% Other/Unspecified 83% Meets income requirement 73% English 15% Child has an IEP/IFSP 21% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 1% 1% East Asian by child welfare 6% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 3% 50% Single parent family 1% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 26% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 95% 91% 90% 90% 89% 88% 87% 76% 52% 21% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 67% 57% 77% 26% 19% 12% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 251

254 NEBRASKA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 23% $20,844 44% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 11% better compensation All teachers $29,547 Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 6% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,420 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 41% Speaks a language filled 25% other than English $28,819 Teachers with an AA 24% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,288 Home visitor left for BA or higher 8% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 4% $18,309 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,597 84% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ White ■ ■ African ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 252

255 NEBRASKA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 32% 31% 30% 28% 28% 28% 27% 26% 22% 20 0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2014 2010 2011 2012 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 0% 0 2010 2012 2009 2013 2014 2015 2007 2008 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 32% 25 25 25 12% 10% 9% 8% 0 0 0 National average Nebraska Nebraska National average National average Nebraska 253

256 NEBRASKA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 14% $15,295 8% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% better compensation $35,387 All teachers Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $19,049 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 87% Speaks a language filled 15% other than English $25,540 Teachers with an AA 6% Home visitor left Teachers with a $35,560 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $15,037 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,597 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ European & Slavic ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 254

257 Head Start NEBRASKA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 26% 23% 21% 21% 21% 19% 17% 16% 16% 20 0 2011 2008 2007 2013 2014 2015 2012 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 42% 33% 27% 25 25 25 25 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Nebraska Nebraska Nebraska National average Nebraska Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 22% 18% 25 25 25 14% 10% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Nebraska National average Nebraska National average Nebraska National average 255

258 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview NEVADA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $37,002,575 4% 2% 3,490 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $11,912,000 N/A 75 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $25,090,575 1% 1% 719 3-Year-Olds 7% 4% 1,316 4-Year-Olds 7% 1,380 4% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 20 7% 7% 0 2% 1% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Research-based threshold Nevada National average Nevada National average Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 $56,703 $60,000 60 51% $40,000 40 $33,387 $32,628 $30,593 30% $29,769 16% $20,000 20 $0 0 Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Nevada Nevada National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $15,003 $14,197 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $9,307 $10,000 60 $8,807 54% $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20% 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average Nevada (adjusted COL) Nevada Nevada National average 256

259 Head Start & Early Head Start NEVADA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 849 2,696 Total Funded Enrollment 3,545 15,000 Federally Funded 3,128 794 2,334 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 MIECHV Funded 55 55 0 American Indian/ 5,000 362 0 362 Alaska Native 893 4,364 Cumulative Enrollment 3,471 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 0 24 24 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $37,002,575 $11,912,000 $25,090,575 Total Federal Funding $37,002,575 $11,912,000 $25,090,575 $21,529,731 $11,912,000 $33,441,731 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $3,560,844 $0 $3,560,844 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $17,384 $17,045 $15,527 $15,003 $14,197 $15,000 $12,575 $10,513 $10,153 $10,090 $10,080 $9,804 $9,512 $9,307 $10,000 $8,807 $8,727 $8,629 $8,038 $6,381 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 257

260 NEVADA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 53% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 47% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 22% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 9% American Indian/Alaska Native 24% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 2% 26% Black or African American 12% TANF 1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 8% SSI RACE 43% White 50% WIC 5% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 51% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 14% Other/Unspecified 89% Meets income requirement 70% English 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP 28% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 15% 0% East Asian by child welfare 9% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 0% 56% Single parent family 1% African CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 31% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 97% 93% 93% 92% 90% 90% 80% 74 % 43% 0% Up-to-date Medical home Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 58% 42% 82% 19% 18% 10% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 258

261 NEVADA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF CHARACTERISTICS Hispanic or 25% $17,628 28% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $28,204 All teachers Current/Former 13% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 32% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,628 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 75% Speaks a language filled 29% other than English $31,153 Teachers with an AA 36% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,593 Home visitor left for BA or higher 8% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $26,110 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,703 89% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ Pacific Islander ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 259

262 Early Head Start NEVADA TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Combination Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 59% 58% 60 54% 54% 53% 49% 49% 45% 45% 40 20 0 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2008 2009 2010 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 8% 6% 6% 5% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0 2009 2008 2014 2015 2007 2012 2010 2013 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 45% 50 50 50 38% 29% 25 25 25 10% 8% 6% 0 0 0 National average Nevada National average Nevada National average Nevada 260

263 NEVADA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2011 2008 2007 2010 2012 2015 2013 2014 No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA CDA STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF CHARACTERISTICS Hispanic or 29% 31% Teacher left $22,822 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 9% better compensation All teachers $30,098 Current/Former 27% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 10% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,154 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 86% Speaks a language filled 33% other than English $30,107 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,628 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No home visitors $24,075 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,703 No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications No home visitors Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Middle Eastern ■ ■ White ■ East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 261

264 Head Start NEVADA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20% 18% 17% 15% 20 11% 11% 11% 11% 3% 0 2013 2010 2011 2012 2009 2014 2015 2007 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 23% 21% 25 25 25 25 7% 1% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Nevada Nevada Nevada National average Nevada Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 68% 75 75 75 50 50 50 28% 18% 25 25 25 14% 7% 4% 0 0 0 Nevada National average Nevada National average Nevada National average 262

265 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview NEW HAMPSHIRE FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $16,527,328 7% 3% 1,686 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $4,679,000 N/A 22 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $11,848,328 1% 363 3% 3-Year-Olds 4% 14% 581 4-Year-Olds 720 5% 16% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.06.0 5.7 6 5.4 80 5 60 4 3.0 2.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 16% 1 20 14% 3% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds National average New Hampshire Research-based threshold National average New Hampshire Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 66% $58,554 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 36% 40 $40,000 $34,479 $33,387 30% $29,769 $25,390 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start New Hampshire National average New Hampshire National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 $12,305 $12,153 80 $12,000 $10,000 $9,221 $9,107 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 29% $4,000 20 $2,000 6% $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average New Hampshire (adjusted COL) New Hampshire New Hampshire National average 263

266 NEW HAMPSHIRE Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 385 1,686 1,301 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 1,686 385 1,301 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 565 1,489 2,054 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $16,527,328 $4,679,000 $11,848,328 $4,679,000 Total Federal Funding $16,527,328 $11,848,328 Head Start Federal Funding $16,527,328 $4,679,000 $11,848,328 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,305 $12,153 $12,013 $11,628 $11,195 $9,585 $9,446 $9,378 $10,000 $9,221 $9,197 $9,107 $9,164 $9,121 $8,914 $8,578 $8,109 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 264

267 NEW HAMPSHIRE Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 11% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 89% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 30% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 43% HSD/GED 0% American Indian/Alaska Native 20% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 4% Asian 3% Black or African American 15% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 16% SSI 75% White RACE 69% WIC 10% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 8% Other/Unspecified SNAP 76% PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 87% English 90% Meets income requirement 6% Spanish 15% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% East Asian Child was referred to Head Start 2% by child welfare 3% Middle Eastern 9% Child experienced homelessness 1% European & Slavic 58% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% African HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 47% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 100% 98% 98% 97% 96% 96% 89% 84% 68% 60% 2% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 97% 96% 97% 25% 18% 11% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 265

268 Early Head Start NEW HAMPSHIRE EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2008 2007 2013 2015 2009 2010 2011 2012 No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 5% No assistant teachers 19% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $29,758 All teachers Current/Former 4% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,983 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 86% Speaks a language filled 10% other than English $29,431 Teachers with an AA 12% Home visitor left Teachers with a $34,479 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $24,075 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $58,554 33% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications No assistant teachers ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American European & Slavic ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified ■ ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 266

269 NEW HAMPSHIRE Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 38% 38% 38% 40 31% 31% 31% 31% 29% 28% 20 0 2007 2009 2014 2015 2010 2011 2008 2013 2012 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 61% 50 50 50 38% 28% 18% 25 25 25 10% 8% 0 0 0 New Hampshire New Hampshire National average National average National average New Hampshire 267

270 NEW HAMPSHIRE Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 1% 15% Teacher left $17,998 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% better compensation $25,126 All teachers Current/Former 17% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 6% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,998 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 50% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $25,101 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $25,390 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $33,164 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $58,554 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 268

271 Head Start NEW HAMPSHIRE TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 0 2015 2012 2013 2009 2014 2010 2007 2011 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 91% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 6% 6% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average New Hampshire National average New Hampshire National average New Hampshire National average New Hampshire Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 14% 11% 10% 4% 0 0 0 New Hampshire National average New Hampshire National average New Hampshire National average 269

272 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview NEW JERSEY FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $156,887,556 3% 8% 16,021 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $34,583,000 459 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $122,304,556 2% 1% 2,352 3-Year-Olds 6% 17% 6,527 4-Year-Olds 18% 6,683 6% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.06.0 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 60 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 18% 18% 17% 1 20 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Instructional Support Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds Research-based threshold National average New Jersey National average New Jersey ✘ Significantly below threshold Significantly above threshold ✔ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 89% 80 $80,000 73% $69,038 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $46,046 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 $27,219 16% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start New Jersey National average National average New Jersey PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 80% $12,575 $12,303 80 $12,000 $10,335 $10,000 $9,258 60 $8,038 49% $7,777 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start New Jersey (adjusted COL) National average New Jersey New Jersey National average 270

273 NEW JERSEY Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 16,021 Total Funded Enrollment 13,210 2,811 15,000 Federally Funded 16,021 2,811 13,210 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 13,992 Cumulative Enrollment 16,693 2,701 0 2014 2011 2010 2009 2007 2015 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2013 2008 2007 2012 2008 In Center-Based 1,168 825 343 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2011 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2009 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $122,304,556 $34,583,000 $156,887,556 Total Funding Total Federal Funding $156,887,556 $34,583,000 $122,304,556 $156,887,556 $122,304,556 $34,583,000 Head Start Federal Funding $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $16,009 $15,000 $13,765 $12,575 $12,303 $11,418 $10,335 $10,193 $10,197 $9,971 $10,002 $9,934 $9,661 $9,494 $9,425 $9,258 $9,313 $10,000 $8,038 $7,777 $5,000 $0 2012 2015 2007 2015 2008 2015 2014 2013 2009 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 271

274 NEW JERSEY Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 51% Hispanic/Latino 8% BA or higher 49% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 20% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 40% HSD/GED 2% American Indian/Alaska Native 29% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 3% Asian 35% Black or African American 11% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 6% SSI 26% White 50% WIC 6% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 28% Other/Unspecified SNAP 45% PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 52% English 89% Meets income requirement 39% Spanish 7% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% Caribbean 4% Child was referred to Head Start 5% Middle Eastern by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness 1% European & Slavic HOME LANGUAGE 54% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% African OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 34% 1% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 95% 92% 92% 88% 87% 84% 82% 76% 71% 14% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 46% 39% 63% 17% 11% 7% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 272

275 NEW JERSEY Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $16,773 46% 10% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% better compensation $24,567 All teachers Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 14% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,023 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 71% Speaks a language filled 41% other than English Teachers with an AA $24,461 19% Home visitor left Teachers with a $27,219 Home visitor left for BA or higher 8% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 13% $41,819 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $69,038 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 273

276 NEW JERSEY Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 54% 53% 51% 49% 47% 46% 45% 41% 38% 40 20 0 2007 2015 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 17% 20 5% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0 2015 2008 2014 2007 2010 2013 2009 2011 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 14% 11% 10% 7% 8% 0 0 0 New Jersey National average New Jersey National average National average New Jersey 274

277 NEW JERSEY Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 34% 15% Teacher left $21,758 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation $41,127 All teachers Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 10% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,618 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 92% Speaks a language filled 41% other than English Teachers with an AA $23,054 22% Home visitor left Teachers with a $46,046 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $22,992 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $69,038 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ ■ BA BA BA AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Caribbean ■ ■ White ■ Middle Eastern ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial East Asian ■ ■ Other/Unspecified European & Slavic ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 275

278 NEW JERSEY Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 91% 89% 89% 88% 88% 86% 85% 84% 80% 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 93% 100 100 100 100 80% 73% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 5% 0 0 0 0 National average National average New Jersey New Jersey National average New Jersey National average New Jersey Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 8% 7% 7% 4% 0 0 0 New Jersey National average New Jersey National average National average New Jersey 276

279 NEW MEXICO Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $77,806,738 7% 11% 9,540 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $19,960,000 N/A 163 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $57,846,738 1,618 2% 3% 3-Year-Olds 13% 21% 3,613 4-Year-Olds 25% 15% 4,146 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 6.06.0 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 60 4 ✘ 2.9 2.5 3 40 2 25% 21% 20% 18% 1 20 3% 0 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold New Mexico New Mexico National average Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $45,683 36% $35,247 40 $40,000 $33,387 $31,858 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 12% 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school National average New Mexico New Mexico National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,117 $13,597 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 50% $ 7,74 1 $7,455 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 26% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start New Mexico (adjusted COL) National average New Mexico New Mexico National average 277

280 Head Start & Early Head Start NEW MEXICO ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 1,781 7,759 Total Funded Enrollment 9,540 15,000 Federally Funded 7,851 1,468 6,383 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 1,376 313 1,689 Alaska Native 2,092 10,491 Cumulative Enrollment 8,399 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 0 40 40 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $77,806,738 $19,960,000 $57,846,738 Total Federal Funding $77,806,738 $19,960,000 $57,846,738 $45,164,060 $19,960,000 $65,124,060 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $12,682,678 Not available $12,682,678 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,117 $15,000 $13,945 $13,855 $13,597 $12,747 $12,575 $10,000 $8,628 $8,249 $8,331 $8,274 $ 7,920 $8,023 $8,038 $ 7,74 1 $7,648 $7,455 $ 7, 3 0 0 $7,118 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 278

281 Head Start & Early Head Start NEW MEXICO CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 62% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 38% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 31% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 42% HSD/GED 23% American Indian/Alaska Native 1% Asian 21% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Black or African American 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 57% White 11% TANF 6% Biracial/Multi-racial 6% SSI 11% Other/Unspecified 47% WIC FAMILY USE OF 76% English 55% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 16% Spanish 0% Mexican and South & Central America 81% Meets income requirement Caribbean 0% East Asian 0% 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP 0% Middle Eastern 1% Child was referred to Head Start 4% Native North American/Alaska Native by child welfare 4% Pacific Island 0% Child experienced homelessness HOME LANGUAGE 0% European & Slavic 52% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS African 0% OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 29% Parental unemployment 4% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 95% 95% 93% 93% 92% 90% 87% 86% 61% 21% Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Medical home Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 33% 57% 19% 10% 10% 6% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 279

282 NEW MEXICO Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $27,547 51% 22% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $26,865 All teachers Current/Former 34% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 21% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,427 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 82% Speaks a language filled 47% other than English $29,547 Teachers with an AA 13% Home visitor left Teachers with a $35,247 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 33% $10,436 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,683 83% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Native North American/Alaska Native Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 280

283 Early Head Start NEW MEXICO TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 59% 58% 56% 60 54% 53% 51% 51% 50% 50% 40 20 0 2007 2015 2014 2011 2010 2012 2013 2009 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 7% 5% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 0 2009 2011 2008 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 30% 25 25 25 10% 8% 5% 3% 0 0 0 National average New Mexico New Mexico National average National average New Mexico 281

284 NEW MEXICO Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 56% 18% Teacher left $16,052 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% All teachers better compensation $26,524 Current/Former 44% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 30% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,499 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 73% Speaks a language filled 50% other than English $23,923 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,858 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $13,825 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,683 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 282

285 Head Start NEW MEXICO TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 34% 34% 31% 30% 30% 29% 28% 26% 25% 20 0 2013 2011 2010 2015 2009 2008 2007 2014 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 52% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 31% 21% 25 25 25 25 8% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average New Mexico National average New Mexico National average New Mexico National average New Mexico Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 19% 18% 25 25 25 14% 7% 4% 1% 0 0 0 New Mexico National average New Mexico National average New Mexico National average 283

286 NEW YORK Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $527,831,135 10% 4% 51,130 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $105,669,000 N/A 1,061 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $422,162,135 2% 7,569 1% 3-Year-Olds 8% 19% 19,663 4-Year-Olds 22,837 10% 22% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 60 4 ✘ 2.92.9 3 40 2 22% 20% 19% 18% 1 20 0 2%2% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds New York National average Research-based threshold National average New York ✘ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 89% $77,628 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $37,210 40 $40,000 33% $33,387 $31,028 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start New York National average National average New York PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 $12,244 80 72% $12,000 $10,195 $9,933 $10,000 60 $8,271 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 34% $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average New York (adjusted COL) New York New York National average 284

287 NEW YORK Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 8,630 51,130 42,500 Total Funded Enrollment 45,000 Federally Funded 50,987 8,630 42,357 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 143 143 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 9,777 54,954 64,731 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 397 284 681 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $527,831,135 $105,669,000 $422,162,135 $105,669,000 Total Federal Funding $527,831,135 $422,162,135 Head Start Federal Funding $526,522,384 $105,669,000 $420,853,384 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,308,751 $1,308,751 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,244 $11,834 $11,487 $11,265 $10,436 $10,316 $10,219 $10,195 $10,019 $10,036 $9,976 $9,933 $9,798 $ 9,74 6 $9,700 $10,000 $8,271 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 285

288 NEW YORK Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 39% Hispanic/Latino 8% BA or higher 61% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 22% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 45% HSD/GED 2% American Indian/Alaska Native 25% Less than HSD/GED 4% Asian PARENT EDUCATION 27% Black or African American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 15% TANF 34% White 7% SSI 11% Biracial/Multi-racial 56% WIC 22% Other/Unspecified FAMILY USE OF SNAP 56% PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 57% English 27% Spanish 89% Meets income requirement 1% Mexican and South & Central American 16% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% Caribbean Child was referred to Head Start 3% East Asian 3% by child welfare 2% Middle Eastern 6% Child experienced homelessness HOME LANGUAGE 6% European & Slavic 50% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 2% African OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 27% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 99% 99% 97% 97% 96% 92% 90% 80% 78% 16% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 54% 45% 71% 14% 10% 10% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 286

289 Early Head Start NEW YORK EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2007 2009 Not reported Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or $21,054 34% 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $27,512 All teachers Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 16% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,148 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 78% Speaks a language filled 45% other than English $26,725 Teachers with an AA 22% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,028 Home visitor left for BA or higher 8% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 12% $46,600 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $77,628 78% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Middle Eastern White ■ ■ East Asian Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ European & Slavic Other/Unspecified ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 287

290 Early Head Start NEW YORK TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Combination Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 34% 33% 32% 32% 31% 31% 30% 30% 29% 20 0 2014 2013 2011 2008 2015 2007 2012 2010 2009 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 11% 10% 10% 7% 7% 7% 6% 5% 5% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 27% 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 6% 0 0 0 New York New York National average National average National average New York 288

291 NEW YORK Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 30% 26% Teacher left $22,736 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 13% better compensation $36,290 All teachers Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,172 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 77% Speaks a language filled 44% other than English $26,835 Teachers with an AA 26% Home visitor left Teachers with a $37,210 Home visitor left for BA or higher 8% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 15% $40,418 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $77,628 88% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ Middle Eastern White ■ East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ African ■ Other/Unspecified 289

292 NEW YORK Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 72% 69% 69% 57% 56% 56% 60 55% 55% 54% 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 84% 74 % 74 % 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 27% 25 25 25 25 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average New York New York National average New York National average New York Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 11% 11% 4% 0 0 0 New York National average New York National average National average New York 290

293 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview NORTH CAROLINA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $192,383,889 7% 22,020 4% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $57,056,000 325 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $135,327,889 2% 4,166 1% 3-Year-Olds 10% 6% 6,873 4-Year-Olds 9% 10,656 16% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 60 4 ✘ 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 18% 16% 1 20 10% 0 2%2% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Research-based threshold National average North Carolina North Carolina National average ✘ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 78% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $47,819 40 $40,000 34% $33,387 30% $29,769 $29,121 $28,014 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school North Carolina National average National average North Carolina PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $12,923 $12,896 $12,575 80 75% $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7,720 $ 7,70 4 $8,000 44% 42% 41% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start North Carolina North Carolina (adjusted COL) National average North Carolina National average 291

294 Head Start & Early Head Start NORTH CAROLINA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 4,491 17,529 Total Funded Enrollment 22,020 45,000 Federally Funded 21,800 4,415 17,385 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 15,000 144 76 220 Alaska Native 4,342 24,913 Cumulative Enrollment 20,571 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 1,028 1,061 33 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $192,383,889 $57,056,000 $135,327,889 Total Federal Funding $192,383,889 $57,056,000 $135,327,889 $133,751,343 $57,056,000 $190,807,343 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,576,546 Not available $1,576,546 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,348 $15,000 $13,787 $12,923 $12,896 $12,720 $12,575 $10,000 $8,938 $8,753 $8,579 $8,545 $8,311 $8,143 $8,038 $ 7, 8 3 0 $ 7, 8 53 $ 7,720 $ 7,70 4 $ 7, 597 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 292

295 NORTH CAROLINA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 29% 4% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 17% 71% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 43% HSD/GED 3% 34% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 46% 7% TANF Black or African American 8% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 51% 27% White WIC FAMILY USE OF 10% 59% Biracial/Multi-racial SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 13% Other/Unspecified 93% Meets income requirement 72% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 25% 2% Spanish by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 1% 63% Middle Eastern Single parent family 1% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 38% 1% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 95% 95% 92% 92% 90% 89% 88% 74 % 63% 38% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 52% 43% 70% 15% 10% 7% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 293

296 NORTH CAROLINA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2014 2008 2007 2009 No ECE-related credentials BA Advanced Not reported AA CDA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 11% $20,064 9% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $25,840 Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,359 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 63% Speaks a language filled 13% other than English $24,149 Teachers with an AA 18% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,121 Home visitor left for BA or higher 2% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $18,698 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $47,819 61% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 294

297 NORTH CAROLINA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 61% 55% 60 50% 45% 42% 41% 41% 41% 39% 40 20 0 2014 2008 2010 2011 2009 2012 2013 2007 2015 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 6% 5% 5% 3% 3% 3% 2% 1% 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 27% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 7% 0 0 0 National average North Carolina North Carolina National average National average North Carolina 295

298 NORTH CAROLINA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 6% 18% Teacher left $18,417 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation $26,428 All teachers Current/Former 25% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,470 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 59% Speaks a language filled 7% other than English $21,361 Teachers with an AA 16% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,014 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $19,805 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $47,819 40% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 296

299 NORTH CAROLINA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 89% 83% 81% 80% 78% 77% 76% 75% 80 74% 60 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 90% 78% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average North Carolina National average North Carolina North Carolina National average National average North Carolina Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 15% 14% 4% 3% 1% 0 0 0 North Carolina National average North Carolina National average National average North Carolina 297

300 NORTH DAKOTA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $29,065,990 3,442 7% 20% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $6,213,000 N/A 52 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $22,852,990 565 2% 5% 3-Year-Olds 13% 39% 1,269 4-Year-Olds 46% 16% 1,556 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.9 2.8 46% 3 39% 40 2 20% 18% 1 20 5% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds North Dakota National average Research-based threshold National average North Dakota ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 60% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $50,025 40% 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,226 30% $29,769 $28,019 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start North Dakota National average National average North Dakota PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,723 $13,304 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,344 $8,090 $8,038 46% $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 11% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average North Dakota (adjusted COL) North Dakota North Dakota National average 298

301 Head Start & Early Head Start NORTH DAKOTA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 617 2,825 Total Funded Enrollment 3,442 15,000 Federally Funded 2,442 467 1,975 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 850 150 1,000 Alaska Native 824 3,994 Cumulative Enrollment 3,170 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $29,065,990 $6,213,000 $22,852,990 Total Federal Funding $29,065,990 $6,213,000 $22,852,990 $15,069,274 $6,213,000 $21,282,274 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $7,783,716 Not available $7,783,716 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,723 $13,304 $13,362 $12,915 $12,779 $12,575 $10,000 $8,736 $8,344 $8,406 $8,383 $8,363 $8,090 $8,109 $8,117 $8,163 $8,038 $7,553 $7,481 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 299

302 NORTH DAKOTA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 8% Hispanic/Latino 10% BA or higher 92% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 27% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 47% HSD/GED 35% American Indian/Alaska Native 14% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 8% Black or African American 9% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 5% SSI 43% White 42% WIC 9% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 3% Other/Unspecified 42% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 92% English 76% Meets income requirement 2% Spanish 15% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% East Asian 5% Child was referred to Head Start 1% Middle Eastern by child welfare 8% Child experienced homelessness 1% European & Slavic HOME LANGUAGE 52% Single parent family 2% CHARACTERISTICS African OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 30% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 95% 93% 92% 89% 89% 86% 84% 75% 75% 28% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 58% 54% 77% 37% 14% 3% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 300

303 NORTH DAKOTA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $20,183 1% 43% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation All teachers $ 27,9 9 5 Current/Former 30% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 24% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,747 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 76% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $29,640 Teachers with an AA 27% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,019 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 14% $22,006 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,025 71% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaska Native White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 301

304 NORTH DAKOTA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 61% 60% 60 53% 48% 47% 47% 46% 46% 46% 40 20 0 2007 2014 2009 2015 2010 2011 2008 2013 2012 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 46% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 2% 0 0 0 North Dakota North Dakota National average National average National average North Dakota 302

305 NORTH DAKOTA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 10% 19% Teacher left $16,902 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% All teachers better compensation $30,022 Current/Former 34% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 3% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $25,958 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 66% Speaks a language filled 5% other than English $30,046 Teachers with an AA 30% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,226 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $17,799 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,025 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 303

306 Head Start NORTH DAKOTA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 12% 12% 12% 12% 11% 11% 10% 6% 5% 0 2014 2010 2012 2015 2009 2008 2007 2013 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 40% 25 25 25 25 16% 12% 7% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average North Dakota North Dakota North Dakota National average North Dakota Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 36% 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 4% 0% 0 0 0 North Dakota National average North Dakota National average North Dakota National average 304

307 OHIO Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $308,867,917 5% 37,032 10% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $61,877,000 N/A N/A 440 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $246,990,917 4,914 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 20% 14,130 10% 4-Year-Olds 24% 13% 17,548 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.0 2.9 3 40 2 24% 20% 20% 18% 1 20 0 2%2% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Research-based threshold National average Ohio National average Ohio Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 69% $ 57,0 92 $56,172 60 $60,000 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $30,390 $29,769 $29,763 29% $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Ohio National average Ohio PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,723 $11,557 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,909 $ 7,7 97 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 28% $4,000 20 16% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Ohio Ohio (adjusted COL) National average Ohio National average 305

308 OHIO Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 5,354 37,128 31,774 Total Funded Enrollment 45,000 Federally Funded 37,032 5,354 31,678 96 State Supplemental 96 0 30,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 6,937 38,721 45,658 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 3,220 304 3,524 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $309,251,917 $61,877,000 $247,374,917 $61,877,000 Total Federal Funding $308,867,917 $246,990,917 Head Start Federal Funding $308,867,917 $61,877,000 $246,990,917 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $384,000 $384,000 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $11,723 $11,557 $10,705 $10,501 $9,788 $10,000 $7,909 $8,038 $7,881 $ 7,7 97 $7,653 $7,615 $7,494 $7,426 $7,416 $ 7, 3 3 0 $7,336 $7,266 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 306

309 OHIO Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 10% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 90% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 27% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 45% HSD/GED American Indian/Alaska Native 1% 21% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 1% 34% Black or African American 18% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% 9% SSI RACE 50% White 52% WIC 10% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 55% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 4% Other/Unspecified 89% Meets income requirement 91% English 9% Child has an IEP/IFSP 5% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 2% East Asian 0% by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness 2% Middle Eastern 62% Single parent family African 1% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 41% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 95% 95% 92% 92% 90% 86% 84% 72% 65% 28% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 47% 40% 62% 15% 8% 7% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 307

310 Early Head Start OHIO EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2012 2011 2010 2015 2008 2007 2009 2013 Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $18,124 3% 24% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation All teachers $ 27,759 Current/Former 19% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 1% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,166 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $27,064 Teachers with an AA 21% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,763 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 5% $26,409 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,172 72% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 308

311 OHIO Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 53% 52% 45% 40 32% 29% 28% 28% 28% 27% 20 0 2007 2015 2013 2012 2011 2014 2010 2009 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 16% 20 8% 7% 5% 5% 5% 5% 4% 2% 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 54% 50 50 50 38% 16% 25 25 25 14% 10% 8% 0 0 0 National average Ohio Ohio National average National average Ohio 309

312 OHIO Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 3% 19% Teacher left $20,244 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% All teachers better compensation $28,635 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 12% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,928 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 57% Speaks a language filled 5% other than English $24,100 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,390 Home visitor left for BA or higher 7% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 14% $25,782 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,172 66% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander European & Slavic ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 310

313 Head Start OHIO TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 19% 18% 18% 17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 16% 20 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 2010 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 21% 18% 25 25 25 25 17% 7% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Ohio Ohio Ohio National average Ohio Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 53% 50 50 50 17% 18% 25 25 25 14% 8% 4% 0 0 0 Ohio National average Ohio National average Ohio National average 311

314 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview OKLAHOMA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $127,411,225 12% 17,439 7% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $29,623,000 N/A N/A 144 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $97,788,225 3% 2,635 2% 3-Year-Olds 15% 26% 7,861 4-Year-Olds 13% 6,799 23% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.5 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.6 3 40 2 26% 23% 20% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Oklahoma Research-based threshold Oklahoma National average ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 68% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $44,827 $40,000 40 $34,541 $33,387 $32,939 30% $29,769 21% $20,000 20 $0 0 Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Oklahoma National average Oklahoma PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $13,025 $12,575 77% $12,106 80 $12,000 61% $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 $ 7,1 7 7 44% 42% $6,670 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Oklahoma Oklahoma (adjusted COL) Oklahoma National average 312

315 Head Start & Early Head Start OKLAHOMA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 17,439 14,660 2,779 15,000 14,641 2,447 12,194 Federally Funded 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 2,466 2,798 332 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 3,081 16,512 19,593 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 416 48 464 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2010 2008 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2012 2009 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $127,411,225 $29,623,000 $97,788,225 $127,411,225 Total Federal Funding $29,623,000 $97,788,225 Head Start Federal Funding $107,630,139 $29,623,000 $78,007,139 $19,781,086 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $19,781,086 Not available $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,025 $12,575 $12,242 $12,106 $10,771 $10,574 $10,000 $8,038 $ 7, 3 0 6 $ 7, 322 $ 7,1 77 $6,860 $6,927 $6,877 $6,747 $6,670 $6,700 $6,689 $6,363 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 313

316 OKLAHOMA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 19% 9% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 23% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 81% ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 19% 24% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 17% 4% TANF Black or African American 7% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 46% 42% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 42% 9% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 7% Other/Unspecified 81% Meets income requirement 86% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 1% 12% Spanish by child welfare 4% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 49% Single parent family Middle Eastern 0% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 27% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified 2% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 96% 94% 94% 93% 91% 90% 84% 77% 47% 18% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 44% 38% 65% 12% 10% 10% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 314

317 OKLAHOMA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $24,894 10% 25% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $23,962 Current/Former 33% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,976 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 56% Speaks a language filled 13% other than English $23,389 Teachers with an AA 29% Home visitor left Teachers with a $34,541 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 17% $10,286 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $44,827 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaska Native White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified Other/Unspecified ■ 315

318 OKLAHOMA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 90% 82% 80% 77% 77% 75% 80 74% 71% 71% 60 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 13% 11% 9% 8% 5% 5% 4% 4% 2% 0 2015 2012 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 2011 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 46% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 11% 10% 10% 8% 0 0 0 Oklahoma National average Oklahoma National average National average Oklahoma 316

319 OKLAHOMA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 8% 20% Teacher left $19,828 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation All teachers $29,696 Current/Former 37% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,295 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 53% Speaks a language filled 8% other than English $24,248 Teachers with an AA 50% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,939 Home visitor left for BA or higher 25% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $11,888 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $44,827 0% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 317

320 OKLAHOMA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 61% 60% 58% 58% 60 53% 53% 52% 48% 48% 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 95% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 62% 49% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Oklahoma Oklahoma National average Oklahoma National average Oklahoma Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 11% 4% 2% 2% 0 0 0 Oklahoma National average Oklahoma National average National average Oklahoma 318

321 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview OREGON FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $81,817,716 3% 7,381 6% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $25,946,000 N/A N/A 142 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $55,871,716 1,817 1% 3% 3-Year-Olds 9% 2,100 5% 4-Year-Olds 7% 14% 3,322 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 20 14% 9% 3% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Oregon National average Research-based threshold National average Oregon ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 64% $59,474 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 41% 40 $40,000 $33,387 $31,801 30% $29,769 $29,378 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Oregon National average Oregon PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,223 $13,677 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,716 $10,305 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 19% 20 10% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Oregon Oregon (adjusted COL) National average Oregon National average 319

322 OREGON Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 13,635 Total Funded Enrollment 11,366 2,269 15,000 Federally Funded 7,015 1,897 5,118 190 State Supplemental 6,134 5,944 10,000 0 120 120 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 62 304 366 Alaska Native 2,476 15,435 Cumulative Enrollment 12,959 0 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2014 2008 2007 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 In Center-Based 37 30 67 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2007 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START $148,080,894 $25,946,000 Total Funding $122,134,894 $55,871,716 Total Federal Funding $81,817,716 $25,946,000 Head Start Federal Funding $25,946,000 $78,684,445 $52,738,445 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $3,133,271 Not available $3,133,271 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $66,263,178 Not available $66,263,178 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,223 $15,000 $13,677 $13,000 $12,601 $12,575 $12,133 $11,141 $10,967 $10,716 $10,692 $10,518 $10,456 $10,305 $10,266 $10,189 $10,000 $8,038 $ 7,7 70 $6,500 $5,000 $0 2011 2015 2015 2015 2014 2013 2012 2007 2010 2009 2008 adjusted COL National average Head Start Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined National average 320

323 OREGON Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 50% Hispanic/Latino 5% BA or higher Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 50% 23% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 38% HSD/GED 4% American Indian/Alaska Native 33% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 2% 7% Black or African American 25% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 1% 6% SSI 68% White RACE 66% WIC 7% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 11% Other/Unspecified 62% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 61% English 85% Meets income requirement 34% Spanish 16% Child has an IEP/IFSP Mexican and South & Central American 1% 7% Child was referred to Head Start 1% East Asian by child welfare 12% Child experienced homelessness 1% Middle Eastern 43% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% African HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 27% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 96% 96% 96% 93% 93% 89% 88% 84% 57% 48% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 60% 49% 79% 27% 14% 11% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 321

324 OREGON Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $19,996 33% 21% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 9% better compensation All teachers $29,585 Current/Former 29% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,061 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 81% Speaks a language filled 37% other than English $26,437 Teachers with an AA 22% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,801 Home visitor left for BA or higher 6% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 14% $ 27, 673 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $59,474 77% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African Other/Unspecified ■ 322

325 OREGON Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 34% 32% 28% 28% 26% 25% 22% 20% 19% 20 0 2014 2008 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 2% 3% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2013 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2015 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 32% 25 25 25 10% 10% 8% 4% 0 0 0 Oregon National average Oregon National average National average Oregon 323

326 OREGON Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF TURNOVER STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 21% 24% Teacher left $17,935 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 9% better compensation $ 27, 237 All teachers Current/Former 31% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 10% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,646 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 74 % Speaks a language filled 23% other than English $24,459 Teachers with an AA 19% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,378 Home visitor left for BA or higher 6% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $30,096 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $59,474 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 324

327 Head Start OREGON TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 14% 20 13% 13% 13% 13% 12% 12% 11% 10% 0 2015 2011 2012 2013 2009 2014 2007 2010 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 19% 25 25 25 25 12% 11% 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Oregon Oregon Oregon National average Oregon Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 14% 6% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Oregon National average Oregon National average Oregon National average 325

328 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview PENNSYLVANIA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $285,662,706 32,040 4% 10% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $63,183,000 N/A 568 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $222,479,706 5,022 1% 3% 3-Year-Olds 19% 8% 11,392 4-Year-Olds 11% 15,058 23% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 40 2 23% 20% 19% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Pennsylvania Research-based threshold National average Pennsylvania National average ✔ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 84% 80 $80,000 73% $64,447 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 41% 40 $40,000 $33,387 $31,547 30% $29,769 $28,996 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Pennsylvania National average Pennsylvania National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,303 $12,000 $10,993 $10,000 60 $8,411 $8,181 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 37% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 10% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Pennsylvania (adjusted COL) Pennsylvania Pennsylvania National average 326

329 PENNSYLVANIA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 5,718 36,733 31,015 Total Funded Enrollment 45,000 Federally Funded 32,040 5,590 26,450 4,565 State Supplemental 4,565 0 30,000 128 MIECHV Funded 128 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 7,038 37,462 44,500 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 5,200 122 5,322 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $324,384,683 $63,183,000 $261,201,683 $63,183,000 Total Federal Funding $285,662,706 $222,479,706 Head Start Federal Funding $285,662,706 $63,183,000 $222,479,706 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $38,721,977 $38,721,977 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $11,303 $10,993 $10,568 $10,607 $10,565 $10,000 $8,690 $8,479 $8,411 $8,408 $8,297 $8,259 $8,124 $8,181 $8,094 $8,038 $7,431 $7,156 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 327

330 PENNSYLVANIA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 22% 6% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 23% 78% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 45% HSD/GED 26% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 3% Asian 30% 18% TANF Black or African American 14% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 44% 53% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 10% 62% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 13% Other/Unspecified 88% Meets income requirement 18% 83% Child has an IEP/IFSP English 3% 10% Child was referred to Head Start Spanish by child welfare 5% 1% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 59% 2% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 44% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 4% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 97% 96% 95% 94% 90% 86% 84% 83% 73% 65% 26% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 46% 40% 66% 20% 9% 8% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 328

331 Early Head Start PENNSYLVANIA EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2012 2011 2010 2015 2008 2007 2009 2013 Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $22,663 9% Teacher left 20% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $28,712 Current/Former 12% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 34% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $25,086 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 88% Speaks a language filled 13% other than English $ 27,74 5 Teachers with an AA 16% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,547 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 15% $32,900 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $64,447 84% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 329

332 Early Head Start PENNSYLVANIA TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Combination Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 11% 10% 10% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 6% 0 2015 2013 2014 2008 2011 2007 2012 2009 2010 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 6% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 0 2009 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 2010 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 48% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 2% 0 0 0 National average Pennsylvania Pennsylvania National average National average Pennsylvania 330

333 PENNSYLVANIA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 10% 14% Teacher left $18,020 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $29,688 Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,189 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 77% Speaks a language filled 11% other than English $24,005 Teachers with an AA 13% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,996 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 15% $35,451 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $64,447 77% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander European & Slavic ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 331

334 Head Start PENNSYLVANIA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 44% 43% 43% 40% 37% 37% 36% 40 34% 31% 20 0 2012 2014 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 62% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 42% 25 25 25 25 17% 7% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average Pennsylvania National average Pennsylvania National average Pennsylvania National average Pennsylvania Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 15% 14% 13% 4% 2% 0 0 0 Pennsylvania National average Pennsylvania National average Pennsylvania National average 332

335 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview RHODE ISLAND FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $27,335,954 5% 2,763 11% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $8,264,000 N/A N/A 39 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $19,071,954 590 2% 4% 3-Year-Olds 24% 943 9% 4-Year-Olds 11% 23% 1,191 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ ✔ 100 7 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.2 2.9 3 40 2 24% 23% 20% 18% 1 20 4% 0 2% Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds Rhode Island Research-based threshold National average National average Rhode Island ✘ ✔ Significantly below threshold Significantly above threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80% 80 $80,000 73% $65,918 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,481 30% $30,816 $29,769 $20,000 20 14% 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Rhode Island National average Rhode Island PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $13,138 $12,575 $12,255 80 $12,000 $10,000 $8,937 60 $8,336 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 26% $4,000 20 10% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Rhode Island Rhode Island (adjusted COL) National average Rhode Island National average 333

336 Head Start & Early Head Start RHODE ISLAND ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 629 2,893 Total Funded Enrollment 2,264 15,000 Federally Funded 2,763 629 2,134 130 State Supplemental 130 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 927 2,742 3,669 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 115 0 115 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2010 2007 2009 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2008 2011 2009 2008 2007 2012 2010 2014 2015 2013 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $28,135,954 $8,264,000 $19,871,954 $27,335,954 Total Federal Funding $8,264,000 $19,071,954 Head Start Federal Funding $27,335,954 $8,264,000 $19,071,954 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $800,000 $800,000 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,138 $12,575 $12,255 $12,281 $12,119 $11,588 $9,622 $9,481 $10,000 $9,309 $9,219 $9,031 $8,937 $8,990 $8,548 $8,336 $8,168 $8,038 $ 7,941 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 334

337 RHODE ISLAND Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 42% 8% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 21% 58% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 43% HSD/GED 26% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 1% PARENT EDUCATION 3% Asian 13% 16% Black or African American TANF 14% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 48% 68% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 75% 16% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 19% Other/Unspecified 93% Meets income requirement 15% 76% Child has an IEP/IFSP English 2% 18% Child was referred to Head Start Spanish by child welfare 5% 1% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 58% 1% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 35% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 4% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 98% 98% 97% 96% 96% 95% 89% 77% 69% 2% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 83% 58% 90% 22% 11% 4% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 335

338 RHODE ISLAND Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $24,232 22% 11% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 9% All teachers better compensation $30,827 Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 100% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,682 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 80% Speaks a language filled 25% other than English $32,626 Teachers with an AA 13% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,816 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 20% $35,102 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $65,918 80% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 336

339 RHODE ISLAND Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 42% 42% 42% 37% 40 32% 26% 26% 26% 20% 20 0 2014 2009 2015 2008 2011 2012 2013 2007 2010 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2011 2012 2010 2014 2009 2008 2007 2015 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 70% 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 21% 25 25 25 12% 10% 8% 0 0 0 Rhode Island National average Rhode Island National average National average Rhode Island 337

340 RHODE ISLAND Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2008 2009 2007 2012 2013 2010 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 19% 18% Teacher left $21,538 All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% better compensation All teachers $31,489 Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,968 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 74 % Speaks a language filled 25% other than English $27,909 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,481 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $33,437 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $65,918 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ White East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 338

341 Head Start RHODE ISLAND TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 23% 22% 18% 20 10% 10% 10% 7% 7% 6% 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 78% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average Rhode Island National average Rhode Island National average Rhode Island National average Rhode Island Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 20% 18% 25 25 25 16% 14% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Rhode Island National average Rhode Island National average Rhode Island National average 339

342 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview SOUTH CAROLINA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED LOW-INCOME OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $110,707,548 13,544 5% 8% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $27,231,000 154 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $83,476,548 2% 1,971 1% 3-Year-Olds 6,377 11% 19% 4-Year-Olds 14% 5,042 8% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ ✘ 6.0 5.7 5.7 6 5.4 80 5 60 4 ✘ 2.9 2.5 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 1 20 14% 0 2%2% Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds National average Research-based threshold South Carolina National average South Carolina ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 67% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $46,533 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% 30% $29,769 $26,505 $24,201 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school South Carolina National average South Carolina National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 87% $13,551 $14,000 $12,815 $12,575 78% 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,731 $7,310 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average South Carolina (adjusted COL) South Carolina South Carolina National average 340

343 SOUTH CAROLINA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 13,544 Total Funded Enrollment 11,419 2,125 15,000 Federally Funded 13,464 2,125 11,339 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 5,000 0 80 80 Alaska Native 1,824 14,925 Cumulative Enrollment 13,101 0 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2014 2008 2007 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 In Center-Based 1 144 145 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2007 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START $110,707,548 $27,231,000 Total Funding $83,476,548 $83,476,548 Total Federal Funding $110,707,548 $27,231,000 Head Start Federal Funding $27,231,000 $109,764,780 $82,533,780 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $942,768 $0 $942,768 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,551 $13,340 $12,815 $12,706 $12,575 $12,526 $10,000 $8,161 $8,038 $7,731 $ 7,757 $ 7, 8 32 $ 7,735 $7,531 $7,491 $7,310 $ 7, 372 $7,160 $6,890 $5,000 $0 2015 2010 2011 2008 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2015 2009 National average adjusted COL Head Start Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined National average 341

344 SOUTH CAROLINA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 10% 8% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 19% 90% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 25% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 78% 8% TANF Black or African American 6% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 12% 41% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 59% 5% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 94% Meets income requirement 8% 92% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 1% 7% Spanish by child welfare 3% 0% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 82% 0% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 39% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 98% 96% 95% 95% 92% 90% 89% 87% 72% 46% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 57% 49% 67% 13% 11% 7% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 342

345 Early Head Start SOUTH CAROLINA EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2012 2011 2010 2015 2008 2007 2009 2013 Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $16,153 2% 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 8% better compensation All teachers $23,225 Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 10% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,952 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 79% Speaks a language filled 3% other than English $23,183 Teachers with an AA 23% Home visitor left Teachers with a $26,505 Home visitor left for BA or higher 19% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 17% $20,028 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $46,533 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 343

346 SOUTH CAROLINA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 85% 83% 81% 78% 80 74% 74% 73% 71% 67% 60 40 20 0 2014 2008 2015 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 16% 13% 20 10% 8% 6% 6% 5% 5% 4% 0 2015 2013 2009 2008 2010 2007 2014 2011 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 14% 10% 8% 6% 3% 0 0 0 South Carolina National average South Carolina National average National average South Carolina 344

347 SOUTH CAROLINA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2013 2009 2008 2007 2014 2012 2010 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 2% $16,578 Teacher left 22% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 11% better compensation All teachers $23,046 Current/Former 29% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $9,500 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 60% Speaks a language filled 2% other than English Teachers with an AA $19,290 No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $24,201 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No home visitors $22,332 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $46,533 No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications No home visitors ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ BA AA ■ ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 345

348 SOUTH CAROLINA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 93% 91% 90% 87% 87% 86% 79% 79% 77% 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 94% 100 100 100 100 87% 75 75 75 75 65% 57% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 4% 0 0 0 0 National average National average South Carolina South Carolina National average South Carolina National average South Carolina Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 14% 4% 1% 0% 0 0 0 South Carolina National average South Carolina National average National average South Carolina 346

349 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview SOUTH DAKOTA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $36,198,557 18% 7% 4,602 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $7,091,000 N/A 87 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $29,107,557 2% 745 5% 3-Year-Olds 14% 34% 1,725 4-Year-Olds 2,045 17% 41% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.8 5.7 6 5.4 80 5 4 60 2.92.9 3 41% 40 34% 2 20% 18% 1 20 5% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds National average South Dakota Research-based threshold National average South Dakota Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 69% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $40,786 40 $40,000 $34,514 $33,387 $31,685 30% $29,769 24% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start South Dakota National average South Dakota National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,734 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,456 $12,000 $9,257 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7,72 1 $8,000 44% 42% 37% 40 $6,000 29% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average South Dakota (adjusted COL) South Dakota South Dakota National average 347

350 Head Start & Early Head Start SOUTH DAKOTA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 4,602 3,770 832 15,000 2,912 619 2,293 Federally Funded 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 1,477 1,690 213 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 1,188 4,209 5,397 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 3 0 3 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2010 2008 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2012 2009 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $36,198,557 $7,091,000 $29,107,557 $36,198,557 Total Federal Funding $7,091,000 $29,107,557 Head Start Federal Funding $22,843,940 $7,091,000 $15,752,940 $13,354,617 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $13,354,617 Not available $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,734 $12,575 $11,456 $11,181 $11,042 $11,026 $9,257 $10,000 $8,038 $ 7, 870 $ 7,72 1 $ 7,74 5 $7,669 $ 7, 552 $7,614 $ 7, 3 6 6 $7,405 $6,743 $6,520 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 348

351 SOUTH DAKOTA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 7% Hispanic/Latino 9% BA or higher 93% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 21% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 47% HSD/GED 48% American Indian/Alaska Native 20% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 5% Black or African American 10% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% 7% SSI RACE 38% White 50% WIC 7% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 59% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 1% Other/Unspecified 86% Meets income requirement 92% English 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP 4% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 2% 1% East Asian by child welfare 8% Child experienced homelessness 2% European & Slavic 53% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% African HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 32% Parental unemployment 0% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 96% 95% 95% 94% 91% 91% 83% 69% 55% 52% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 55% 52% 66% 10% 6% 4% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 349

352 SOUTH DAKOTA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $23,396 5% 24% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation All teachers $28,252 Current/Former 23% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 26% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,491 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 68% Speaks a language filled 11% other than English $29,581 Teachers with an AA 15% Home visitor left Teachers with a $34,514 Home visitor left for BA or higher 2% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $6,272 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $40,786 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Native North American/Alaska Native Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ African ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 350

353 SOUTH DAKOTA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 48% 38% 37% 37% 35% 35% 40 31% 31% 23% 20 0 2012 2009 2007 2015 2010 2011 2008 2013 2014 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 6% 5% 5% 5% 4% 3% 2% 0% 0% 0 2013 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2015 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 39% 38% 25 25 25 14% 11% 10% 8% 0 0 0 South Dakota National average South Dakota National average National average South Dakota 351

354 SOUTH DAKOTA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF TURNOVER STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 22% Teacher left $15,404 2% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $28,421 All teachers Current/Former 36% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 17% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $18,258 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 51% Speaks a language filled 5% other than English Teachers with an AA $23,300 Home visitor left 17% Teachers with a $31,685 Home visitor left for BA or higher 6% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 17% $9,101 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $40,786 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 352

355 Head Start SOUTH DAKOTA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 29% 29% 28% 26% 26% 25% 20% 20% 19% 20 0 2012 2010 2009 2008 2014 2015 2007 2013 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 43% 50 50 50 50 42% 31% 25 25 25 25 7% 5% 6% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average South Dakota South Dakota South Dakota National average South Dakota Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 23% 18% 25 25 25 14% 11% 4% 2% 0 0 0 South Dakota National average South Dakota National average South Dakota National average 353

356 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview TENNESSEE FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $148,190,530 8% 17,750 4% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $30,903,000 N/A N/A 213 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $117,287,530 2,118 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 15% 6,368 8% 4-Year-Olds 19% 9,051 11% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.8 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.1 2.9 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 1 15% 20 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Tennessee Tennessee National average Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 75% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $47,979 40 $40,000 33% $33,387 $32,836 30% $29,769 $ 27, 877 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start National average Tennessee Tennessee National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,653 $14,000 $13,257 $12,575 80 $12,000 62% $10,000 60 50% $8,038 $ 7, 8 33 $7,607 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Tennessee Tennessee (adjusted COL) National average Tennessee National average 354

357 Head Start & Early Head Start TENNESSEE ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 2,331 15,419 Total Funded Enrollment 17,750 15,000 Federally Funded 17,750 2,331 15,419 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 2,165 20,256 Cumulative Enrollment 18,091 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 240 328 88 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $148,190,530 $30,903,000 $117,287,530 Total Federal Funding $148,190,530 $30,903,000 $117,287,530 $117,287,530 $30,903,000 $148,190,530 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $14,737 $14,478 $15,000 $13,653 $13,428 $13,257 $12,575 $10,000 $8,580 $8,381 $8,351 $8,264 $8,122 $8,056 $8,038 $ 7, 8 33 $ 7,74 3 $7,607 $7,650 $7,449 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 355

358 TENNESSEE Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 13% Hispanic/Latino 4% BA or higher 87% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 19% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 58% HSD/GED 0% American Indian/Alaska Native 19% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 40% Black or African American 20% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 8% SSI 46% White 39% WIC 6% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 58% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 7% Other/Unspecified 91% Meets income requirement 88% English 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP 10% Spanish 2% Child was referred to Head Start 0% East Asian by child welfare 2% Child experienced homelessness 1% Middle Eastern 64% Single parent family 1% HOME LANGUAGE African CHARACTERISTICS OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 39% Parental unemployment 0% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 99% 99% 98% 98% 98% 94% 87% 86% 59% 24% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 71% 46% 81% 21% 10% 8% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 356

359 TENNESSEE Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $11,524 4% 13% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% All teachers better compensation $24,288 Current/Former 18% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,984 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 59% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $24,683 Teachers with an AA 22% Home visitor left Teachers with a $ 27, 877 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $20,102 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $47,979 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 357

360 TENNESSEE Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 75% 80 71% 69% 68% 68% 65% 61% 60 50% 47% 40 20 0 2014 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2015 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 19% 15% 20 12% 8% 6% 6% 7% 4% 4% 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2007 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 39% 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 4% 2% 0 0 0 National average Tennessee Tennessee National average National average Tennessee 358

361 TENNESSEE Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 11% Teacher left $17,339 2% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation All teachers $28,404 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 2% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $10,256 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 66% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English $20,664 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,836 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $15,143 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $47,979 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 359

362 TENNESSEE Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 69% 69% 69% 66% 64% 62% 60 50% 49% 48% 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 81% 68% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 32% 25 25 25 25 11% 7% 0 0 0 0 National average Tennessee National average Tennessee Tennessee National average National average Tennessee Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 4% 1% 0% 0 0 0 Tennessee National average Tennessee National average National average Tennessee 360

363 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview TEXAS FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $603,619,263 73,236 7% 4% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $136,445,000 894 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $467,174,263 2% 1% 9,513 3-Year-Olds 7% 13% 28,279 4-Year-Olds 16% 34,550 9% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ ✔ 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 ✘ 60 2.9 2.7 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 16% 20 13% 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Instructional Support Emotional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Texa s National average Research-based threshold Texa s National average ✔ Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 74 % 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $50,175 $37,619 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 $28,810 17% $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Texa s National average National average Texa s PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $13,111 $12,575 80 $11,896 73% $12,000 69% $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,436 $8,000 44% 42% $6,747 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Texa s Texas (adjusted COL) National average Texa s National average 361

364 TEXAS Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 100,000 START HEAD START 73,260 Total Funded Enrollment 62,829 10,431 75,000 Federally Funded 73,202 10,407 62,795 0 State Supplemental 0 0 50,000 0 24 24 MIECHV Funded American Indian/ 25,000 0 34 34 Alaska Native 11,248 83,157 Cumulative Enrollment 71,909 0 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2014 2008 2007 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2011 2009 2010 In Center-Based 753 388 1,141 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2007 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START $603,619,263 $136,445,000 Total Funding $467,174,263 $467,174,263 Total Federal Funding $603,619,263 $136,445,000 Head Start Federal Funding $136,445,000 $603,179,267 $466,734,267 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $439,996 $0 $439,996 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,123 $13,111 $12,698 $12,730 $12,575 $11,896 $10,000 $8,151 $8,119 $8,098 $8,038 $7,866 $7,762 $7,534 $7,521 $7,436 $8,373 $7,338 $6,747 $5,000 $0 2015 2012 2013 2014 2010 2008 2015 2009 2015 2011 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 362

365 TEXAS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 71% 4% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 18% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 29% ETHNICITY 43% HSD/GED 33% 1% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 4% 18% TANF Black or African American 2% 7% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 63% 57% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 60% 4% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 11% Other/Unspecified 91% Meets income requirement 10% 64% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 2% 34% Spanish by child welfare 0% 3% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 1% 58% Single parent family Middle Eastern CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 29% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 95% 95% 95% 96% 93% 93% 91% 90% 85% 62% 17% Health insurance Up-to-date Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 62% 33% 29% 19% 10% 10% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 363

366 Early Head Start TEXAS EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2013 2012 2011 2010 2007 2008 2015 2014 2009 AA Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA Advanced BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or $15,973 54% 18% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation All teachers $24,117 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,989 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 78% Speaks a language filled 46% other than English $24,906 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,810 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 7% $21,635 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,175 61% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA ■ ■ BA BA AA AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ White Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 364

367 TEXAS Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 84% 84% 76% 80 73% 73% 72% 72% 71% 70% 60 40 20 0 2015 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 9% 8% 8% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 5% 0 2015 2014 2008 2011 2007 2012 2013 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 35% 25 25 25 10% 9% 8% 1% 0 0 0 Texa s National average National average Texa s National average Texa s 365

368 TEXAS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 16% Teacher left $18,522 58% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $34,570 All teachers Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,17 1 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 66% Speaks a language filled 46% other than English Teachers with an AA $25,639 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $37,619 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $12,556 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,175 92% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ■ Advanced ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 366

369 TEXAS Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start ■ ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week Center-based ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ 3+ years ■ ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination Family care ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 74% 73% 72% 71% 71% 70% 69% 69% 68% 60 40 20 0 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 98% 100 100 100 100 79% 69% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 3% 0 0 0 0 National average Texa s Texa s Texa s National average National average Texa s National average Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of children in double sessions a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 10% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Texa s Texa s National average National average National average Texa s 367

370 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview UTAH FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $52,916,996 3% 6,558 6% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $13,472,000 N/A N/A 102 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $39,444,996 1,010 1% 2% 3-Year-Olds 9% 2,059 4% 4-Year-Olds 7% 15% 3,387 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ ✔ 100 7 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.3 2.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 15% 20 9% 0 2%2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Utah Utah National average Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 64% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 46% $45,848 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 $28,382 $25,102 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school National average Utah National average Utah PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 $12,375 $12,115 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,398 $7,243 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 17% 20 $2,000 2% $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average Utah (adjusted COL) Utah Utah National average 368

371 UTAH Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 1,112 6,558 5,446 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 6,343 1,112 5,231 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 215 215 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 1,342 6,161 7,503 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 60 16 76 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $52,916,996 $13,472,000 $39,444,996 $13,472,000 Total Federal Funding $52,916,996 $39,444,996 Head Start Federal Funding $51,029,242 $13,472,000 $37,557,242 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,887,754 $1,887,754 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,375 $12,115 $11,472 $10,301 $9,657 $10,000 $8,199 $8,054 $7,996 $8,038 $7,699 $7,611 $ 7, 5 8 1 $ 7, 3 69 $7,398 $7,296 $7,243 $6,643 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 369

372 UTAH Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 48% 12% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 17% 52% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 23% 6% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 4% 3% TANF Black or African American 2% 4% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 67% 50% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 42% 5% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 15% Other/Unspecified 81% Meets income requirement 16% 68% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 2% 29% Spanish by child welfare 1% 9% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 1% 40% Middle Eastern Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 25% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 97% 97% 93% 91% 91% 89% 86% 85% 72% 40% 14% Up-to-date Medical home Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 64% 55% 76% 22% 17% 12% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 370

373 Early Head Start UTAH EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2007 2009 Not reported Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or $13,697 27% 21% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $26,146 Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 8% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $25,286 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 32% other than English $26,823 Teachers with an AA 20% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,392 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $17,466 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,848 69% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Middle Eastern White ■ ■ East Asian Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Native North American/Alaska Native Other/Unspecified ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 371

374 UTAH Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 27% 26% 23% 21% 20% 19% 18% 17% 14% 20 0 2007 2013 2015 2008 2014 2009 2010 2011 2012 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 12% 6% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% 0 2013 2008 2012 2007 2014 2015 2009 2010 2011 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 55% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 8% 1% 0 0 0 Utah Utah National average National average National average Utah 372

375 UTAH Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 25% Teacher left $15,949 17% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $24,168 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,400 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 69% Speaks a language filled 22% other than English $21,106 Teachers with an AA 23% Home visitor left Teachers with a $25,102 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $ 2 0 ,74 6 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,848 0% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA ■ BA AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ East Asian ■ White Native North American/Alaska Native ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ European & Slavic ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 373

376 Head Start UTAH TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 8% 7% 7% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 46% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 4% 2% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Utah Utah Utah National average Utah Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 51% 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 13% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Utah National average Utah National average Utah National average 374

377 VERMONT Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $16,536,184 1,503 5% 11% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $6,164,000 N/A 38 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $10,372,184 395 2% 5% 3-Year-Olds 479 18% 8% 4-Year-Olds 10% 19% 591 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ ✔ 100 6.5 7 6.2 6.0 5.7 6 80 5 ✔ 3.7 4 60 2.9 3 40 2 20% 19% 18%18% 1 20 5% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Vermont National average Vermont Significantly above threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 85% 80 $80,000 73% $57,642 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 50% 40 $40,000 $33,387 $31,134 30% $29,769 $28,839 $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school National average Vermont Vermont National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $15,536 $16,000 100 $14,236 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 $10,579 $9,694 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 28% 22% $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Vermont (adjusted COL) Vermont Vermont National average 375

378 Head Start & Early Head Start VERMONT ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 433 1,070 Total Funded Enrollment 1,503 15,000 Federally Funded 1,503 433 1,070 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 511 1,765 Cumulative Enrollment 1,254 0 2012 2011 2015 2014 2013 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2014 2013 2012 2011 In Center-Based 189 199 10 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2015 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2013 2007 2007 2009 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $16,536,184 $6,164,000 $10,372,184 Total Federal Funding $16,536,184 $6,164,000 $10,372,184 $10,372,184 $6,164,000 $16,536,184 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,536 $14,236 $15,000 $13,498 $13,481 $13,079 $12,575 $10,579 $10,429 $10,294 $10,061 $10,121 $10,003 $9,998 $9,903 $9,694 $9,716 $10,000 $9,187 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 376

379 VERMONT Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 5% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 95% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 25% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 51% HSD/GED 1% American Indian/Alaska Native 18% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 2% 4% Black or African American 44% TANF Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% 15% SSI RACE 83% White 68% WIC Biracial/Multi-racial 7% FAMILY USE OF 68% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Other/Unspecified 3% 87% Meets income requirement 94% English 22% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 3% 2% East Asian by child welfare 17% Child experienced homelessness 1% Middle Eastern 49% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 2% African HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 38% Parental unemployment 0% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 100% 99% 99% 98% 91% 90% 84% 81% 76% 75% 3% Up-to-date Medical home Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 57% 53% 73% 20% 15% 9% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 377

380 VERMONT Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $20,546 0% 16% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation $24,052 All teachers Current/Former 20% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 60% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,106 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 80% Speaks a language filled 1% other than English $ 27,732 Teachers with an AA 23% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,839 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 29% $28,803 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $57,642 57% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 378

381 VERMONT Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ School-day, 4 days/week Home-based 2 years ■ ■ Combination 3+ years ■ ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Family care ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 22% 22% 22% 22% 19% 19% 18% 17% 16% 20 0 2007 2014 2015 2013 2010 2009 2008 2011 2012 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 8% 5% 5% 4% 3% 3% 3% 1% 1% 0 2012 2011 2008 2013 2014 2015 2007 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 30% 20% 18% 25 25 25 10% 8% 0 0 0 Vermont Vermont National average National average National average Vermont 379

382 VERMONT Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 11% Teacher left $21,427 0% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $29,478 Current/Former 16% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,831 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 0% other than English $21,638 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,134 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $26,508 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $57,642 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 380

383 Head Start VERMONT TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 29% 28% 28% 28% 27% 25% 24% 24% 21% 20 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 36% 33% 20% 25 25 25 25 7% 4% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Vermont Vermont Vermont National average Vermont Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 20% 18% 25 25 25 16% 14% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Vermont National average Vermont National average Vermont National average 381

384 VIRGINIA Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $123,061,318 8% 14,427 3% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $29,196,000 N/A 228 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $93,865,318 2% 1% 2,237 3-Year-Olds 13% 4,957 5% 4-Year-Olds 19% 7,005 7% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ ✔ 6.0 5.9 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 1 20 13% 0 2%2% Emotional Support Instructional Support Classroom Organization 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds Research-based threshold Virginia National average Virginia National average Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 78% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $50,620 $38,124 $38,013 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 22% $20,000 20 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start National average Virginia Virginia National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,844 $12,000 $10,262 64% $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,847 $8,000 44% $6,799 43% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Virginia Virginia (adjusted COL) National average Virginia National average 382

385 VIRGINIA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 2,465 14,427 11,962 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 14,427 2,465 11,962 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 2,755 14,421 17,176 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 287 0 287 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $123,061,318 $29,196,000 $93,865,318 $29,196,000 Total Federal Funding $123,061,318 $93,865,318 Head Start Federal Funding $123,061,318 $29,196,000 $93,865,318 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $12,253 $11,951 $11,844 $11,776 $10,262 $10,000 $8,600 $8,442 $8,382 $8,322 $8,116 $8,066 $8,038 $7,847 $ 7,7 94 $7,610 $7,557 $6,799 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 383

386 VIRGINIA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 19% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 81% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 23% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 47% HSD/GED 1% American Indian/Alaska Native 24% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 47% Black or African American 3% 13% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander TANF RACE 32% White 8% SSI 8% Biracial/Multi-racial 48% WIC 7% Other/Unspecified FAMILY USE OF 57% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 81% English 89% Meets income requirement 12% Spanish Mexican and South & Central American 1% 11% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% East Asian Child was referred to Head Start 3% by child welfare Middle Eastern 2% 5% Child experienced homelessness 1% African HOME LANGUAGE 65% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% African OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 32% Parental unemployment 2% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 97% 97% 96% 96% 96% 94% 87% 86% 81% 76% 57% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 47% 46% 71% 23% 11% 10% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 384

387 Early Head Start VIRGINIA EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2007 2009 Not reported Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or $22,739 16% 19% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $29,764 Current/Former 20% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 2% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,936 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 70% Speaks a language filled 30% other than English $ 27, 375 Teachers with an AA 25% Home visitor left Teachers with a $38,013 Home visitor left for BA or higher 3% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 6% $12,607 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,620 75% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Middle Eastern White ■ ■ East Asian Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ European & Slavic Other/Unspecified ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 385

388 VIRGINIA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ Home-based 2 years ■ ■ School-day, 4 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination Family care ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 43% 39% 39% 38% 37% 36% 36% 36% 35% 40 20 0 2007 2013 2014 2015 2012 2009 2008 2010 2011 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 13% 13% 20 12% 10% 8% 7% 7% 7% 7% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 42% 50 50 50 38% 17% 25 25 25 10% 9% 8% 0 0 0 National average Virginia National average Virginia National average Virginia 386

389 VIRGINIA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 14% Teacher left $19,210 5% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $34,916 Current/Former 24% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 4% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $23,982 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 72% Speaks a language filled 9% other than English $26,797 Teachers with an AA 19% Home visitor left Teachers with a $38,124 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $12,496 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $50,620 83% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Mexican and South & Central American Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Middle Eastern ■ ■ White ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 387

390 VIRGINIA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 66% 64% 64% 64% 64% 63% 60% 58% 57% 60 40 20 0 2015 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 86% 68% 75 75 75 75 65% 51% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 6% 0 0 0 0 National average National average Virginia Virginia National average Virginia National average Virginia Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 4% 3% 3% 0 0 0 Virginia National average Virginia National average National average Virginia 388

391 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview WASHINGTON FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $138,345,728 3% 13,453 7% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $39,713,000 N/A N/A 273 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $98,632,728 2,969 1% 3% 3-Year-Olds 10% 4,101 5% 4-Year-Olds 7% 16% 6,110 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.2 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.0 2.9 3 40 2 20% 18% 16% 1 20 10% 3% 0 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold Washington Washington National average Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 53% $51,857 $39,073 40 $40,000 $33,387 $30,984 30% 30% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start National average Washington National average Washington PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,723 $14,000 $12,575 $12,572 80 $12,000 $9,651 $10,000 $8,842 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 13% 8% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Washington Washington (adjusted COL) National average Washington National average 389

392 Head Start & Early Head Start WASHINGTON ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 13,783 3,253 10,530 15,000 Federally Funded 12,040 2,894 9,146 20 310 330 State Supplemental 10,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 1,413 339 1,074 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 16,989 4,400 12,589 0 2011 2014 2013 2012 2015 2010 2009 2010 2008 2009 2008 2007 2007 2014 2012 2011 2015 2013 In Center-Based 372 32 340 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL Total Funding $98,632,728 $39,713,000 $138,345,728 $39,713,000 $138,345,728 Total Federal Funding $98,632,728 $88,752,154 Head Start Federal Funding $39,713,000 $128,465,154 Not available $9,880,574 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $9,880,574 Head Start State Supplemental Funding Not available Not available $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,723 $12,744 $12,572 $12,575 $12,422 $12,072 $10,603 $10,440 $10,248 $10,210 $9,867 $9,897 $9,862 $9,651 $9,584 $9,335 $10,000 $8,842 $8,038 $5,000 $0 2014 2012 2015 2015 2007 2013 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 390

393 WASHINGTON Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 47% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 53% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 22% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 37% HSD/GED 9% American Indian/Alaska Native 33% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 3% Asian 9% Black or African American 1% 18% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander TANF RACE 55% White 6% SSI 9% Biracial/Multi-racial 66% WIC 14% Other/Unspecified FAMILY USE OF 52% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 55% English 87% Meets income requirement 34% Spanish 1% Mexican and South & Central American 12% Child has an IEP/IFSP 2% East Asian 2% Child was referred to Head Start by child welfare 1% Middle Eastern 9% Child experienced homelessness 1% European & Slavic HOME LANGUAGE 43% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 4% African OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 31% Parental unemployment 2% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 99% 97% 97% 98% 96% 94% 92% 88% 85% 71% 30% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 54% 50% 70% 27% 13% 8% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 391

394 Early Head Start WASHINGTON EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2015 2007 2008 2014 2009 2013 2010 2012 BA Advanced No ECE-related credentials CDA Not reported AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or $23,016 24% 15% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $33,763 All teachers Current/Former 31% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 19% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $29,232 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 53% Speaks a language filled 37% other than English Teachers with an AA $33,917 14% Home visitor left Teachers with a $39,073 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 3% $12,784 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $51,857 69% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ BA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ AA AA CDA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 392

395 WASHINGTON Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 21% 20% 20% 19% 18% 16% 16% 14% 13% 20 0 2015 2008 2007 2009 2010 2014 2011 2012 2013 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 9% 9% 5% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 0 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2007 2012 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 48% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 14% 13% 10% 8% 0 0 0 Washington National average National average Washington National average Washington 393

396 WASHINGTON Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 17% Teacher left $20,833 18% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 6% better compensation All teachers $30,182 Current/Former 27% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 16% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $20,063 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 62% Speaks a language filled 22% other than English Teachers with an AA $29,707 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $30,984 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $20,873 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $51,857 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA ■ BA AA ■ ■ AA ■ AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ East Asian ■ White European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 394

397 Head Start WASHINGTON TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 16% 20 12% 11% 11% 9% 9% 10% 8% 8% 0 2015 2014 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 16% 10% 8% 7% 5% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Washington Washington Washington National average Washington Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 17% 14% 9% 10% 4% 0 0 0 Washington National average Washington National average Washington National average 395

398 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview WEST VIRGINIA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $62,578,266 8% 8,138 15% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $12,331,000 N/A N/A 165 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $50,247,266 855 1% 3% 3-Year-Olds 19% 1,935 9% 4-Year-Olds 26% 47% 5,183 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 ✔ 6.0 5.9 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 47% 2.8 3 40 2 20% 19% 18% 1 20 0 3% 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds West Virginia Research-based threshold National average West Virginia National average Significantly above threshold ✘ Significantly below threshold ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 92% 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $45,499 $37,620 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,248 $29,769 22% $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school National average West Virginia National average West Virginia PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,242 $14,000 $12,575 $12,089 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $ 7,733 $8,000 44% $ 7,0 59 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 19% 20 $2,000 3% $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average West Virginia (adjusted COL) West Virginia West Virginia National average 396

399 Head Start & Early Head Start WEST VIRGINIA ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 1,020 8,138 Total Funded Enrollment 7,118 15,000 Federally Funded 8,138 1,020 7,118 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 1,277 7,985 9,262 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 235 0 235 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2010 2007 2009 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2008 2011 2009 2008 2007 2012 2010 2014 2015 2013 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $62,578,266 $12,331,000 $50,247,266 $62,578,266 Total Federal Funding $12,331,000 $50,247,266 Head Start Federal Funding $62,578,266 $12,331,000 $50,247,266 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,242 $12,575 $12,089 $11,224 $11,224 $10,565 $10,000 $8,038 $ 7, 8 35 $ 7,733 $ 7, 592 $7,609 $ 7, 5 25 $7,400 $ 7,1 93 $ 7,1 29 $ 7,1 20 $ 7,03 0 $ 7,0 59 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 397

400 WEST VIRGINIA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 3% 7% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 97% 21% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 51% HSD/GED 15% 0% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 7% 8% TANF Black or African American 10% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 42% 85% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 7% 54% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Other/Unspecified 1% 86% Meets income requirement 98% 17% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 4% 1% Spanish by child welfare 0% 5% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 47% Single parent family Middle Eastern 0% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 41% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 97% 96% 96% 94% 93% 90% 85% 81% 68% 64% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 58% 55% 77% 15% 10% 6% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 398

401 WEST VIRGINIA Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $15,441 2% 2% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation All teachers $24,515 Current/Former 22% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,987 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 4% other than English Teachers with an AA $23,311 10% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,248 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 17% $16,251 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,499 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Middle Eastern Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 399

402 WEST VIRGINIA Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ School-day, 4 days/week Home-based 2 years ■ ■ Combination 3+ years ■ ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Family care ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20% 19% 19% 18% 18% 18% 16% 14% 14% 20 0 2007 2014 2015 2013 2010 2009 2011 2008 2012 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 5% 5% 3% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2010 2009 2015 2008 2013 2011 2007 2014 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 40% 38% 16% 25 25 25 10% 8% 1% 0 0 0 National average West Virginia National average West Virginia National average West Virginia 400

403 WEST VIRGINIA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 6% Teacher left $20,558 1% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 1% better compensation All teachers $32,981 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $15,536 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 70% Speaks a language filled 1% other than English $21,497 Teachers with an AA 50% Home visitor left Teachers with a $37,620 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $ 7, 879 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $45,499 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced Advanced BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 401

404 Head Start WEST VIRGINIA TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 18% 16% 14% 20 12% 13% 5% 5% 3% 3% 0 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 87% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 5% 4% 1% 0 0 0 0 National average West Virginia National average West Virginia West Virginia National average National average West Virginia Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 12% 4% 1% 1% 0 0 0 West Virginia National average West Virginia National average West Virginia National average 402

405 WISCONSIN Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $120,969,813 10% 4% 15,100 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $27,696,000 N/A 253 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $93,273,813 3% 2,317 1% 3-Year-Olds 11% 27% 7,330 4-Year-Olds 5,200 7% 16% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 ✔ 6.06.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.8 3 40 2 27% 20% 18% 1 16% 20 0 3% 2% Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Research-based threshold National average Wisconsin Wisconsin National average Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 74 % 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 $54,535 $35,354 40 $40,000 $33,845 $33,387 30% 29% $29,769 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Wisconsin National average Wisconsin National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,773 $12,575 $12,409 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $7,663 $7,444 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 21% $4,000 20 14% $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Wisconsin (adjusted COL) Wisconsin Wisconsin National average 403

406 Head Start & Early Head Start WISCONSIN ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 20,000 HEAD START START Total Funded Enrollment 15,619 12,956 2,663 15,000 14,068 2,232 11,836 Federally Funded 426 State Supplemental 489 63 10,000 30 MIECHV Funded 30 0 American Indian/ 5,000 694 1,032 338 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 3,529 14,927 18,456 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 438 140 578 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2010 2008 2008 2015 2014 2013 2015 2012 2009 2007 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $127,233,913 $27,696,000 $99,537,913 $120,969,813 Total Federal Funding $27,696,000 $93,273,813 Head Start Federal Funding $114,647,602 $27,696,000 $86,951,602 $6,322,211 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $6,322,211 Not available Not available Head Start State Supplemental Funding $6,264,100 $6,264,100 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,773 $12,575 $12,409 $11,719 $11,078 $10,347 $10,000 $8,156 $7,966 $8,038 $ 7,9 03 $7,898 $ 7,73 0 $7,663 $7,663 $7,494 $7,499 $7,444 $ 7, 39 0 $5,000 $0 2013 2008 2015 2009 2015 2014 2015 2012 2011 2010 2007 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 404

407 WISCONSIN Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 25% 5% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 26% 75% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 44% HSD/GED 7% 25% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 4% Asian 16% 26% TANF Black or African American 11% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 49% 56% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 9% 68% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 5% Other/Unspecified 86% Meets income requirement 15% 81% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 4% 15% Spanish by child welfare 2% 8% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 55% Single parent family Middle Eastern 1% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 36% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified 1% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 95% 95% 94% 92% 91% 85% 67% 50% 49% 44% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 59% 56% 74 % 24% 11% 11% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 405

408 Early Head Start WISCONSIN EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2012 2011 2010 2015 2008 2007 2009 2013 Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $17,160 11% 14% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $28,265 All teachers Current/Former 17% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 5% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,851 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 67% Speaks a language filled 13% other than English $28,512 Teachers with an AA 18% Home visitor left Teachers with a $33,845 Home visitor left for BA or higher 7% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $20,690 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $54,535 94% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 406

409 Early Head Start WISCONSIN TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Center-based ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week 1 year ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Combination Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 21% 19% 18% 17% 16% 16% 15% 13% 20 10% 0 2012 2013 2011 2014 2015 2007 2008 2009 2010 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 9% 9% 9% 8% 6% 5% 5% 5% 3% 0 2009 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 2010 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 46% 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 13% 10% 8% 7% 0 0 0 National average Wisconsin Wisconsin National average National average Wisconsin 407

410 WISCONSIN Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 21% Teacher left $19,377 12% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 7% better compensation All teachers $34,100 Current/Former 27% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 6% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $21,511 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 15% other than English $25,647 Teachers with an AA 12% Home visitor left Teachers with a $35,354 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $19,181 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $54,535 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced Advanced BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA AA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ East Asian ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 408

411 Head Start WISCONSIN TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 17% 20 14% 15% 13% 12% 12% 11% 10% 10% 0 2012 2010 2007 2011 2013 2015 2014 2008 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 32% 18% 25 25 25 25 15% 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin National average Wisconsin Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 40% 18% 25 25 25 14% 11% 5% 4% 0 0 0 Wisconsin National average Wisconsin National average Wisconsin National average 409

412 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview WYOMING FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $16,103,768 2,019 5% 13% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $4,027,000 N/A 44 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $12,076,768 429 2% 5% 3-Year-Olds 22% 8% 638 4-Year-Olds 12% 908 28% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 100 7 6.2 6.0 5.75.7 6 80 5 4 60 3.0 2.9 3 40 2 28% 22% 20% 18% 1 20 5% 0 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds Wyoming National average Research-based threshold National average Wyoming Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 64% $56,744 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 43% 40 $40,000 $33,387 $32,051 30% $29,769 $28,760 $20,000 20 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Wyoming National average Wyoming National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,156 $12,000 $10,682 $10,000 60 $8,159 $8,038 $7,812 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 1% 0% $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Wyoming (adjusted COL) Wyoming Wyoming National average 410

413 WYOMING Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 20,000 START HEAD START 473 2,019 1,546 Total Funded Enrollment 15,000 Federally Funded 1,724 377 1,347 0 State Supplemental 0 0 10,000 0 MIECHV Funded 0 0 American Indian/ 5,000 96 295 199 Alaska Native Cumulative Enrollment 589 1,812 2,401 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 12 0 12 Child Care Partner < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2009 2008 2007 2011 2011 2015 2014 2015 2013 2009 2010 2007 2012 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $16,103,768 $4,027,000 $12,076,768 $4,027,000 Total Federal Funding $16,103,768 $12,076,768 Head Start Federal Funding $14,478,824 $4,027,000 $10,451,824 Not available American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $1,624,944 $1,624,944 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $11,156 $10,682 $10,480 $9,786 $9,695 $10,000 $8,159 $8,017 $ 7,9 92 $8,038 $ 7,9 1 1 $7,812 $ 7,70 5 $ 7,74 3 $ 7, 69 1 $ 7, 67 7 $ 7, 327 $ 7, 257 $5,000 $0 2013 2011 2015 2008 2015 2014 2009 2012 2015 2010 2007 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 411

414 WYOMING Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 29% 6% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 26% 71% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 50% HSD/GED 18% 18% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 1% Asian 2% 4% TANF Black or African American 5% 1% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 66% 44% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 4% 36% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 8% Other/Unspecified 81% Meets income requirement 86% 25% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 3% 12% Spanish by child welfare 12% 0% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 50% Middle Eastern Single parent family 0% CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 2% 31% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 96% 95% 94% 93% 93% 93% 91% 85% 81% 53% 34% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 85% 81% 91% 26% 25% 12% Health education Parenting education Adult education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 412

415 Early Head Start WYOMING EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2012 2011 2010 2015 2008 2007 2009 2013 Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $12,400 13% 21% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation All teachers $23,906 Current/Former 39% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $19,258 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 83% Speaks a language filled 14% other than English $18,943 Teachers with an AA 29% Home visitor left Teachers with a $28,760 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $27,984 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,744 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA ■ ■ CDA ■ CDA CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other/Unspecified ■ White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 413

416 WYOMING Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week 3+ years Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ Family care Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 36% 25 25 25 10% 8% 5% 4% 0 0 0 Wyoming Wyoming National average National average National average Wyoming 414

417 WYOMING Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2011 2007 2010 2008 2012 2013 2009 2014 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 17% Teacher left $15,990 16% All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation All teachers $30,424 Current/Former 36% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 6% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $26,791 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 44% Speaks a language filled 16% other than English $26,048 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,051 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies No turnover $24,693 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $56,744 No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 415

418 Head Start WYOMING TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 11% 9% 7% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0 2015 2011 2013 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 2012 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 27% 25 25 25 25 7% 7% 1% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average Wyoming Wyoming Wyoming National average Wyoming Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 17% 14% 4% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Wyoming National average Wyoming National average Wyoming National average 416

419 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview AMERICAN SAMOA FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $2,317,881 1,322 26% 26% Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women N/A 0 N/A $0 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $2,317,881 0 0% 0% 3-Year-Olds 60% 572 60% 4-Year-Olds 90% 90% 760 ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 7 90% 6 80 5 60% 4 60 DATA NOT AVAILABLE 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 20 0 2% 0% Instructional Support Emotional Support Classroom Organization 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds American Samoa National average Research-based threshold American Samoa National average Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 95% 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 NO EARLY NO EARLY HEAD START 40 $40,000 HEAD START $33,387 $23,596 $20,000 20 Data not available 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school American Samoa National average American Samoa National average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 NO EARLY HEAD START $8,000 NO EARLY HEAD START 44% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $1,740 $2,000 0% 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average American Samoa National average American Samoa 417

420 AMERICAN SAMOA Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 2,000 START HEAD START 1,332 0 1,332 Total Funded Enrollment 1,500 1,332 0 1,332 Federally Funded State Supplemental 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 MIECHV Funded 0 American Indian/ 500 0 0 0 Alaska Native 1,339 0 Cumulative Enrollment 1,339 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 0 0 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Child Care Partner PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2007 2008 2015 2009 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $2,317,881 $0 $2,317,881 $0 Total Federal Funding $2,317,881 $2,317,881 Head Start Federal Funding $2,317,881 $0 $2,317,881 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $10,000 $8,038 $5,000 $1,740 $1,784 $1,784 $1,609 $1,782 $1,616 $1,570 $1,561 $1,605 $1,658 Not available $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 2007 2009 2008 2015 2015 2014 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 adjusted COL National average Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start National average 418

421 AMERICAN SAMOA Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 2% BA or higher 0% Hispanic/Latino 7% AA, vocational school, some college 100% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 65% HSD/GED 25% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 0% American Indian/Alaska Native 0% Asian 0% TANF 0% Black or African American 0% SSI 99% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 88% WIC 0% White FAMILY USE OF 0% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 1% Biracial/Multi-racial 0% Other/Unspecified 100% Meets income requirement 6% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% English Child was referred to Head Start 0% by child welfare 0% Spanish 0% Child experienced homelessness 98% Pacific Island 28% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY HOME LANGUAGE Other/Unspecified 1% 22% Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 100% 100% 99% 99% 99% 99% 99% 99% 85% 85% 0% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 48% 80% 21% 7% 7% 4% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 419

422 AMERICAN SAMOA Early Head Start NO EARLY HEAD START ENROLLMENT 420

423 AMERICAN SAMOA Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2014 2009 2010 2013 2011 2012 2007 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 9% 0% $16,696 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation $23,032 All teachers Current/Former 15% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 75% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA None or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 0% Speaks a language filled 100% other than English Teachers with an AA $16,696 No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $23,596 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not No home visitors over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications No home visitors Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Pacific Island ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 421

424 AMERICAN SAMOA Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 4 days/week Home-based ■ ■ 2 years Part-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ Combination 3+ years ■ ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2015 2007 2014 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25%* 25 25 25 25 7% 0% 0% 0% 0 0 0 0 American Samoa National average National average National average National average American Samoa American Samoa American Samoa Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of children in double sessions a child care subsidy 100 100 100 92% 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 1% 0% 0 0 0 National average American Samoa National average American Samoa National average American Samoa *Reflects data for American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, and Virgin Islands 422

425 GUAM Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $2,537,054 4% 10% 534 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women 0 N/A N/A $0 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $2,537,054 0 0% 0% 3-Year-Olds 9% 3% 91 4-Year-Olds 43% 16% 443 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 7 100 6.1 6.0 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 ✘ 60 2.9 2.3 3 43% 40 2 20% 1 18% 20 9% 0 2% 0% Instructional support Emotional support Classroom organization 0 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Guam* Research-based threshold Guam National average Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 NO EARLY 44% $42,430 NO EARLY HEAD START 40 $40,000 HEAD START $33,387 $20,000 20 Data not available 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start National average Guam National average Guam PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 NO EARLY HEAD START $8,000 NO EARLY HEAD START 44% 40 $6,000 $4,751 $4,000 20 $2,000 0% 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Guam National average Guam National average *Average for Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands 423

426 GUAM Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 2,000 START HEAD START 534 0 534 Total Funded Enrollment 1,500 534 0 534 Federally Funded State Supplemental 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 MIECHV Funded 0 American Indian/ 500 0 0 0 Alaska Native 572 0 Cumulative Enrollment 572 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2007 2008 2015 2009 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $2,537,054 $0 $2,537,054 $0 Total Federal Funding $2,537,054 $2,537,054 Head Start Federal Funding $2,537,054 $0 $2,537,054 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $10,000 $8,038 $5,622 $5,663 $5,053 $4,812 $4,859 $4,872 $4,872 $4,751 $4,732 $4,528 $5,000 Not available $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 2013 2007 2015 2012 2015 2015 2011 2014 2010 2009 2008 adjusted COL National average Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 424

427 GUAM Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 81% 2% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 19% 4% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 51% HSD/GED 42% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED 0% PARENT EDUCATION 13% Asian 17% 0% TANF Black or African American 74 % 0% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 40% WIC White 0% FAMILY USE OF 71% 13% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 0% Other/Unspecified 95% Meets income requirement 80% 8% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 1% Spanish 0% by child welfare 3% 2% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 16% 42% Single parent family Pacific Island CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 38% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 98% 98% 94% 92% 90% 89% 88% 87% 85% 62% 53% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 64% 74 % 20% 10% 3% 1% Health education Parenting education Adult education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 425

428 GUAM Early Head Start NO EARLY HEAD START ENROLLMENT 426

429 GUAM Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2007 2010 2015 2011 2012 2013 2008 2014 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 93% 7% $20,387 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation $42,239 All teachers Current/Former 49% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA None or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 0% Speaks a language filled 46% other than English $40,343 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $42,430 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not No home visitors over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications No home visitors ■ Advanced ■ Advanced BA ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ Not reported ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race ■ American Indian/Alaska Native English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Pacific Island ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ 427

430 Head Start GUAM TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100% 100% 100% 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25%* 25 25 25 25 7% 0% 0% 0 0 0 0 Guam National average National average Guam National average Guam National average Guam Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of children in double sessions a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 7% 4% 0% 0% 0 0 0 Guam National average National average Guam National average Guam *Reflects data for American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, and Virgin Islands 428

431 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT NUMBER PERCENT OF FUNDING OF STATE ENROLLED LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $2,714,080 12% 11% 542 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women Not available N/A N/A $920,000 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $1,794,080 3% 3% 80 3-Year-Olds 13% 15% 130 4-Year-Olds 37% 332 33% ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 7 100 6.1 6.0 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 ✘ 60 2.3 2.9 3 37% 40 2 20% 1 18% 15% 20 0 3% 2% Emotional support Classroom organization Instructional support 0 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds Northern Mariana Islands* Research-based threshold National average National average Northern Mariana Islands ✔ Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100% $100,000 100 $80,000 80 73% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 DATA NOT AVAILABLE $35,429 $40,000 40 DATA NOT $33,387 AVAILABLE $20,000 20 Data not available $0 0 Public elementary school Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Northern Mariana Islands National average Northern Mariana Islands PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $14,000 $12,575 80 $11,500 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% DATA NOT AVAILABLE 40 $6,000 $3,883 $4,000 20 $2,000 0% $0 0 Early Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Head Start National average Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands National average *Average for Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands 429

432 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 2,000 START HEAD START 542 80 462 Total Funded Enrollment 1,500 462 80 542 Federally Funded State Supplemental 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 MIECHV Funded Not available American Indian/ 500 0 0 0 Alaska Native 486 Not available Cumulative Enrollment Not available 0 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2015 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2007 2007 2008 2015 2009 2008 2015 2014 2013 2012 2010 2011 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START TOTAL EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $2,714,080 $920,000 $1,794,080 $920,000 Total Federal Funding $2,714,080 $1,794,080 Head Start Federal Funding $2,714,080 $920,000 $1,794,080 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $11,500 $10,000 $8,038 $4,563 $4,530 $5,000 $4,130 $4,030 $4,082 $4,006 $3,982 $3,982 $3,883 $3,699 Not available $0 $0 $0 $0 2013 2014 2010 2007 2015 2009 2015 2011 2015 2008 2012 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 430

433 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 0% 10% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 100% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 34% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 40% HSD/GED American Indian/Alaska Native 0% 16% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 41% Asian 0% Black or African American 0% TANF 55% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 3% SSI 0% White 90% WIC 4% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 51% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 0% Other/Unspecified 95% Meets income requirement 65% English 10% Child has an IEP/IFSP Spanish 0% Child was referred to Head Start 0% 17% by child welfare East Asian 0% Child experienced homelessness 3% Middle Eastern 33% Single parent family 14% Pacific Island CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 27% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 95% 95% 95% 95% 92% 92% 85% 85% 84% 84% 1% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 9% 3% 1% 1% 0% 14% Health education Parenting education Adult education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 431

434 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS Early Head Start NO INFORMATION AVAILABLE * ON EARLY HEAD START * Northern Mariana Islands received a grant to provide Early Head Start services in February 2015 and was not required to complete the PIR for this first year of operation. 432

435 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2007 2013 2015 2012 2010 2008 2014 2011 No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced CDA AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 0% 7% $19,000 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% $36,000 better compensation All teachers Current/Former 36% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 100% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA None or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 0% Speaks a language filled 64% other than English None Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $35,429 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not No home visitors over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications No home visitors No ECD managers Advanced ■ BA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ ■ East Asian ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Pacific Island ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 433

436 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 4 days/week Home-based ■ ■ 2 years Part-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ Combination 3+ years ■ ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2015 2007 2014 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in school-day programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-year programs full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25%* 25 25 25 25 7% 0% 0% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average Northern National average Northern National average Northern National average Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islands Mariana Islands Mariana Islands Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving Child turnover rate a child care subsidy 100% 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 5% 4% 0% 0 0 0 Northern National average Northern National average National average Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islands Mariana Islands *Reflects data for American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, and Virgin Islands 434

437 PALAU Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF NUMBER PERCENT FUNDING LOW-INCOME OF STATE ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $1,437,508 36% 400 Not available Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women 0 N/A N/A $0 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $1,437,508 0 0% Not available 3-Year-Olds 124 Not available 56% 4-Year-Olds Not available 100% 276 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 7 100 6 80 5 4 60 DATA NOT AVAILABLE 3 40 2 20% 1 18% 20 0 Data not Data not Data not 2% Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support available available available 0 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds Research-based threshold National average Palau National average Palau Significantly below threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 NO EARLY NO EARLY HEAD START 40 $40,000 HEAD START $33,387 $20,000 20 $9,908 Data not available 0% 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start Head Start Palau National average National average Palau* PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 80 $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 NO EARLY HEAD START $8,000 NO EARLY HEAD START 44% 40 $6,000 $3,594 $4,000 20 $2,000 0% $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Palau Palau National average *No teachers had a BA or higher. Salary data is for teachers with an AA. 435

438 Head Start & Early Head Start PALAU ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 2,000 HEAD START START 0 400 Total Funded Enrollment 400 1,500 400 0 400 Federally Funded 0 State Supplemental 0 0 1,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 500 0 0 0 Alaska Native 489 489 Cumulative Enrollment 0 0 2011 2014 2010 2009 2008 2007 2013 2007 2015 2015 2014 2012 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2013 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 DATA NOT AVAILABLE 40 40 20 20 0 0 2012 2009 2010 2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2008 2007 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START Total Funding $1,437,508 $0 $1,437,508 Total Federal Funding $1,437,508 $0 $1,437,508 $1,437,508 Head Start Federal Funding $1,437,508 $0 $0 $0 $0 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,575 $10,000 $8,038 $5,000 $3,703 $3,594 $3,017 $3,004 $2,913 $2,995 $2,931 $2,896 $2,896 $2,835 $0 Not available $0 $0 $0 $0 2015 2010 2015 2015 2008 2014 2009 2013 2012 2011 2007 adjusted COL National average Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start National average 436

439 Head Start & Early Head Start PALAU CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 10% 0% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 100% 29% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 28% HSD/GED 33% 0% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 6% Asian 0% 0% TANF Black or African American 0% 92% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander RACE 0% 0% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 0% 2% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Other/Unspecified 0% 96% Meets income requirement 5% 2% Child has an IEP/IFSP English Child was referred to Head Start 0% Spanish 0% by child welfare 6% Child experienced homelessness East Asian 0% 21% 89% Single parent family Pacific Island CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 7% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment 0% SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 100% 100% 100% 100% 86% 86% 82% 82% 82% 82% 65% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 50% 81% 24% 15% 2% 2% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 437

440 PALAU Early Head Start NO EARLY HEAD START ENROLLMENT 438

441 PALAU Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2014 2009 2010 2013 2011 2012 2007 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 0% 9% $4,567 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% $ 7, 3 6 4 better compensation All teachers Current/Former 81% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $ 7, 278 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 100% other than English $9,908 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a None Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not No home visitors over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications No home visitors Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Pacific Island ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 439

442 PALAU Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start School-day, 5 days/week ■ 1 year ■ ■ Center-based ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Combination ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Family care ■ ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 79% 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25%* 25 25 25 25 7% 0% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average Palau National average Palau National average National average Palau Palau Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 22% 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 0% 0% 0 0 0 Palau National average National average Palau Palau National average *Reflects data for American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, and Virgin Islands 440

443 PUERTO RICO Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding TOTAL $286,890,332 19% 23% 36,776 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women 519 N/A N/A $46,818,000 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $240,072,332 3% 3% 3,205 3-Year-Olds 36% 42% 13,445 4-Year-Olds 58% 19,607 49% ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START ✔ 7 100 6.06.0 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 ✘ 58% 60 2.7 2.9 3 42% 40 2 20% 1 18% 20 0 3% 2% Instructional support Classroom organization Emotional support 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds National average Puerto Rico Research-based threshold National average Puerto Rico Significantly above threshold ✔ ✘ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 98% $100,000 100 85% $80,000 80 73% $ 57,0 92 $60,000 60 $40,000 40 $33,387 30% $29,769 $20,640 $18,605 $20,000 20 Data not available $0 0 Public elementary school Early Head Start Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Puerto Rico National average National average Puerto Rico PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS $16,000 100 $14,000 $12,572 $12,575 80 72% $12,000 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 $ 7, 263 44% 43% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 $0 0 Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start National average Puerto Rico Puerto Rico National average 441

444 PUERTO RICO Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 60,000 START HEAD START 36,776 33,052 Total Funded Enrollment 3,724 45,000 Federally Funded 36,776 3,724 33,052 0 State Supplemental 0 0 30,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 15,000 0 0 0 Alaska Native 34,277 3,579 37,856 Cumulative Enrollment 0 2011 2015 2014 2013 2014 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2007 2008 2015 2009 2013 2012 2011 2010 In Center-Based 88 88 0 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2007 2015 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $286,890,332 $46,818,000 $240,072,332 Total Federal Funding $286,890,332 $240,072,332 $46,818,000 $240,072,332 $46,818,000 $286,890,332 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,730 $12,591 $12,536 $12,572 $12,575 $10,000 $ 7,97 1 $ 7, 89 5 $8,038 $ 7,7 93 $ 7,75 0 $ 7, 5 25 $7,455 $7,408 $ 7, 263 $ 7, 274 $ 7, 23 8 $5,000 Not available $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 442

445 PUERTO RICO Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 99% 16% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 1% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 26% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 47% HSD/GED 2% American Indian/Alaska Native 11% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION Asian 0% 0% Black or African American 5% TANF 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE SSI 0% White 77% WIC 78% Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 67% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 20% Other/Unspecified 92% Meets income requirement 1% English 20% Child has an IEP/IFSP 99% Spanish Child was referred to Head Start 0% 0% by child welfare East Asian 1% Child experienced homelessness Middle Eastern 0% 59% Single parent family 0% CHARACTERISTICS Pacific Island HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 47% Parental unemployment 0% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 100% 100% 99% 99% 98% 98% 97% 97% 94% 87% 3% Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home immunizations preventive and primary health At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 44% 81% 37% 12% 12% 5% Mental health services Adult education Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 443

446 PUERTO RICO Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or $14,124 100% 8% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% All teachers better compensation $19,339 Current/Former 14% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 7% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $16,294 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 50% Speaks a language filled 100% other than English $ 2 0 ,1 74 Teachers with an AA 4% Home visitor left Teachers with a $18,605 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not 0% over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available 67% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English Asian ■ Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American East Asian ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ European & Slavic ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 444

447 PUERTO RICO Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ Combination ■ ■ ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 82% 78% 75% 80 73% 73% 72% 71% 69% 67% 60 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 5% 4% 3% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0 2015 2014 2008 2011 2007 2012 2013 2009 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who Child turnover rate left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 7% 7% 2% 0 0 0 Puerto Rico National average National average Puerto Rico National average Puerto Rico 445

448 PUERTO RICO Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2014 2015 2011 2012 2013 2007 2009 2010 2008 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 100% $15,731 9% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 2% better compensation $23,277 All teachers Current/Former 19% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 16% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $15,664 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 71% Speaks a language filled 100% other than English $18,761 Teachers with an AA 0% Home visitor left Teachers with a $20,640 Home visitor left for BA or higher 0% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies Not No turnover over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available No turnover school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA ■ ■ ■ AA AA AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American Other/Unspecified ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White ■ ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified 446

449 PUERTO RICO Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 2 years ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Home-based ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 83% 83% 81% 81% 74% 80 73% 72% 57% 60 43% 40 20 0 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 99% 93% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 43% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 2% 0 0 0 0 National average Puerto Rico National average Puerto Rico Puerto Rico National average National average Puerto Rico Child turnover rate Percent of children in double sessions Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 7% 4% 2% 0% 0 0 0 Puerto Rico National average Puerto Rico National average National average Puerto Rico 447

450 Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview VIRGIN ISLANDS FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF PERCENT NUMBER FUNDING OF STATE LOW-INCOME ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $9,641,546 17% 47% 1,014 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women 25 N/A N/A $1,676,000 Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $7,965,546 95 3% 8% 3-Year-Olds 372 32% 87% 4-Year-Olds 100% 43% 522 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100% ✔ 100 7 87% 6.1 6.0 5.7 6 5.6 80 5 4 60 ✘ 2.9 2.3 3 40 2 20% 18% 1 20 8% 0 2% Instructional support Emotional support Classroom organization 0 < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds Virgin Islands* Research-based threshold National average Virgin Islands National average Significantly above threshold Significantly below threshold ✘ ✔ TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% 69% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 40 $40,000 $33,387 $31,576 30% $29,769 $29,060 17% $20,000 20 Data not available 0 $0 Early Head Start Head Start Public elementary school Early Head Start Head Start Virgin Islands National average National average Virgin Islands PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100% 100 $16,000 $13,967 $14,000 $12,575 80 $12,000 60% $10,000 60 $8,910 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Early Head Start National average Virgin Islands National average Virgin Islands *Average for Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands 448

451 VIRGIN ISLANDS Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY HEAD TOTAL 2,000 START HEAD START 1,014 894 Total Funded Enrollment 120 1,500 Federally Funded 1,014 120 894 0 State Supplemental 0 0 1,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 American Indian/ 500 0 0 0 Alaska Native 959 138 1,097 Cumulative Enrollment 0 2011 2015 2014 2013 2014 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 2007 2008 2015 2009 2013 2012 2011 2010 In Center-Based 0 0 0 Child Care Partner 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2008 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2014 2007 2015 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds FUNDING TOTAL EARLY HEAD START HEAD START Total Funding $9,641,546 $1,676,000 $7,965,546 Total Federal Funding $9,641,546 $7,965,546 $1,676,000 $7,965,546 $1,676,000 $9,641,546 Head Start Federal Funding American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 $0 $0 $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $14,147 $13,967 $13,929 $13,023 $12,575 $10,111 $9,776 $9,706 $9,703 $9,441 $9,346 $10,000 $9,136 $8,910 $9,024 $8,529 $8,038 $5,000 Not available $0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 National average adjusted COL Head Start and Early Head Start combined Head Start Early Head Start National average 449

452 VIRGIN ISLANDS Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 23% 2% Hispanic/Latino BA or higher 77% 20% AA, vocational school, some college Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 41% HSD/GED 37% 0% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 0% Asian 79% 11% TANF Black or African American 0% 0% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander SSI RACE 76% 0% WIC White FAMILY USE OF 5% 87% SNAP Biracial/Multi-racial PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 16% Other/Unspecified 98% Meets income requirement 13% 86% English Child has an IEP/IFSP Child was referred to Head Start 11% 0% Spanish by child welfare Mexican and South 1% 1% Child experienced homelessness & Central American 85% 2% Single parent family Caribbean CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 51% 0% Parental unemployment Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 93% 91% 91% 88% 83% 82% 81% 77% 50% 30% 21% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 7% 2% 2% 21% 1% 0% Mental health services Adult education Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 450

453 VIRGIN ISLANDS Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2009 2007 2010 2011 2012 2015 2014 2013 Advanced Not reported No ECE-related credentials AA BA CDA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 18% $18,345 17% Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 0% better compensation $21,444 All teachers Current/Former 11% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 0% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $18,345 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 100% Speaks a language filled 32% other than English $29,060 Teachers with an AA 50% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,060 Home visitor left for BA or higher 50% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not 0% over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available 50% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ ■ AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ European & Slavic ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Other/Unspecified 451

454 VIRGIN ISLANDS Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Enrollment by program type Center-based 1 year ■ ■ ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ School-day, 4 days/week Home-based 2 years ■ ■ Combination 3+ years ■ ■ ■ Part-day, 5 days/week Family care ■ ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60 50% 50% 50% 40 20% 20 0 2007 2013 2014 2015 2012 2010 2009 2008 2011 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2009 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of pregnant women who a child care subsidy left program before giving birth 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 14% 10% 8% 3% 0% 0 0 0 Virgin Islands National average Virgin Islands National average National average Virgin Islands 452

455 VIRGIN ISLANDS Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2014 2009 2010 2013 2011 2012 2007 2015 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 10% 28% $24,950 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 11% better compensation $30,045 All teachers Current/Former 14% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 100% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA None or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 0% Speaks a language filled 17% other than English $29,393 Teachers with an AA No home visitors Home visitor left Teachers with a $31,576 Home visitor left for BA or higher No home visitors better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies not No home visitors over 3 months available Public elementary Home visitor Not available No home visitors school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications No home visitors Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 453

456 VIRGIN ISLANDS Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start School-day, 5 days/week ■ 1 year ■ ■ Center-based ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ 2 years 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Family care ■ ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100% 100% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25%* 25 25 25 25 7% 0% 0 0 0 0 National average Virgin Islands National average Virgin Islands National average National average Virgin Islands Virgin Islands Percent of children in double sessions Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 7% 4% 0% 0% 0 0 0 Virgin Islands National average Virgin Islands National average Virgin Islands National average *Average for American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, and Virgin Islands 454

457 State(s) of Head Start NATIONAL PROFILE 455

458 NATIONAL Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT PERCENT OF FUNDING ENROLLED OF STATE LOW-INCOME Total Federal Funding $8,244,919,188 TOTAL 10% 5% 929,941 Early Head Start Funding $1,829,389,000 Pregnant Women N/A 13,329 N/A Head Start Funding $5,844,297,882 < 3-Year-Olds 3% 153,073 1% AIAN Early Head Start Funding $60,935,000 3-Year-Olds 18% 9% 351,215 AIAN Head Start Funding $176,373,066 4-Year-Olds 412,324 10% 21% Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Funding $333,924,240 QUALITY ENROLLMENT PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 ✔ 6.0 5.7 6 80 5 60 4 ✘ 2.9 3 40 2 21% 18% 20 1 3% 0 0 Classroom Organization Emotional Support Instructional Support < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 73% $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 50% 40 $40,000 $33,387 30% $29,769 $24,083 20 $20,000 0 $0 Head Start Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Early Head Start Public elementary Early Head Start Head Start Migrant & Seasonal school national average Head Start FUNDING PROGRAM DURATION FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 93% $14,000 $12,612 80 $12,000 $10,753 $10,000 60 $8,038 $8,000 44% 42% 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Head Start Early Head Start Head Start Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Early Head Start National average National average 456

459 NATIONAL Head Start & Early Head Start ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE EARLY MIGRANT & HEAD 1,000,000 SEASONAL TOTAL HEAD START START HEAD START Total Funded Enrollment 944,479 151,322 762,103 31,054 750,000 730,653 145,474 907,181 Federally Funded 31,054 13,104 0 489 13,593 State Supplemental 500,000 0 0 MIECHV Funded 945 945 American Indian/ 250,000 4,414 18,346 N/A 22,760 Alaska Native 1,098,788 172,819 897,090 28,879 Cumulative Enrollment 0 2011 2014 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 In Center-Based 5,983 34,979 760 28,236 Child Care Partner 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 2010 2007 2014 2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2008 2009 2008 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING MIGRANT & SEASONAL HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL HEAD START $333,924,240 Total Funding $8,421,604,566 $6,184,561,270 $1,903,119,056 $1,890,324,000 $6,020,670,948 $333,924,240 Total Federal Funding $8,244,919,188 Head Start Federal Funding $8,007,611,122 $1,829,389,000 $5,844,297,882 $333,924,240 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $60,935,000 $237,308,066 $176,373,066 Not applicable $12,795,056 $176,685,378 $163,890,322 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $12,612 $12,219 $11,897 $11,387 $11,134 $11,027 $10,753 $9,839 $9,716 $9,424 $9,407 $10,000 $9,186 $8,733 $8,780 $8,801 $8,482 $8,558 $8,457 $8,369 $8,151 $8,260 $8,098 $8,062 $8,038 $ 7,94 2 $7,840 $5,000 $0 2009 2015 2014 2013 2008 2007 2010 2011 2012 Head Start and Early Head Start combined Early Head Start Head Start Migrant & Seasonal Head Start 457

460 NATIONAL Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 38% Hispanic/Latino 6% BA or higher 62% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino 23% AA, vocational school, some college ETHNICITY 43% HSD/GED 4% American Indian/Alaska Native 27% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION 2% Asian 29% Black or African American 13% TANF 1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 7% SSI 43% White RACE 56% 10% WIC Biracial/Multi-racial FAMILY USE OF 11% Other/Unspecified 55% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 71% English 89% Meets income requirement 24% Spanish 12% Child has an IEP/IFSP 1% East Asian Child was referred to Head Start 2% by child welfare Middle Eastern 1% 5% Child experienced homelessness 1% European & Slavic 58% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS 1% African HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 35% Parental unemployment 1% Other/Unspecified SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES TRANSPORTATION 97% 97% 97% 94% 93% 93% 91% 86% 80% 62% 24% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 51% 44% 72% 17% 12% 10% Adult education Parenting education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 458

461 NATIONAL Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2014 2013 2007 2012 2011 2008 2009 2010 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 27% All assistant teachers 16% $20,870 Teacher left Latino Teacher left for 4% better compensation $26,484 All teachers Current/Former 21% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 12% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,805 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 69% Speaks a language filled 29% other than English $26,479 Teachers with an AA 19% Home visitor left Teachers with a $29,769 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 9% $27,323 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,0 92 74 % school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ ■ BA BA BA ■ ■ ■ ■ AA ■ AA AA CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ ■ ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Middle Eastern ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ East Asian White ■ ■ Native North American/Alaska Native Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ European & Slavic Other/Unspecified ■ African ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 459

462 NATIONAL Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 1 year ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week Part-day, 4 days/week ■ ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ Pregnant women ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 47% 46% 44% 42% 40% 40% 40% 41% 41% 40 20 0 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 11% 10% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 5% 0 2011 2012 2013 2007 2014 2008 2010 2015 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of pregnant women who Percent of children receiving left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 38% 25 25 25 10% 8% 0 0 0 National average National average National average 460

463 NATIONAL Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2012 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 2013 2011 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 26% 16% $19,452 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $31,220 Current/Former 26% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 11% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $22,376 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 67% Speaks a language filled 28% other than English Teachers with an AA $24,979 17% Home visitor left Teachers with a $33,387 Home visitor left for BA or higher 4% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 18% $23,705 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,0 92 70% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ Advanced ■ BA BA ■ BA ■ ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ CDA CDA ■ ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ ■ Asian Spanish ■ ■ Black or African American Caribbean ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ ■ Middle Eastern White ■ East Asian ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ European & Slavic ■ Other/Unspecified 461

464 NATIONAL Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start ■ Center-based 1 year ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ School-day, 4 days/week 2 years ■ ■ Home-based ■ 3+ years ■ Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Combination ■ Family care ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Locally-designed ■ PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 47% 46% 46% 46% 45% 45% 44% 44% 43% 40 20 0 2015 2012 2011 2010 2014 2009 2008 2007 2013 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in school-day programs Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 65% 49% 50 50 50 50 42% 25 25 25 25 7% 0 0 0 0 National average National average National average National average Child turnover rate Percent of children receiving Percent of children in double sessions a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 18% 25 25 25 14% 4% 0 0 0 National average National average National average 462

465 State(s) of Head Start AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE HEAD START PROFILE 463

466 AIAN Head Start & Early Head Start 2014-2015 Overview FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING NUMBER PERCENT OF PERCENT FUNDING LOW-INCOME ENROLLED OF STATE Total Federal Funding TOTAL $237,308,066 Not available Not available 22,760 Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women $60,935,000 N/A 366 N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds $176,373,066 Not available Not available 4,048 3-Year-Olds Not available Not available 8,612 4-Year-Olds Not available Not available 9,734 ENROLLMENT QUALITY PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 ✔ 6.0 5.6 6 80 5 60 4 ✘ DATA NOT AVAILABLE 2.6 3 40 2 20 1 0 0 Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 38% 40 $40,000 $ 3 5 ,9 74 $32,543 15% $20,000 20 0 $0 AIAN Early Head Start AIAN Head Start Public elementary AIAN Head Start AIAN Early Head Start school national average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 $13,805 $14,000 80 $12,000 $9,614 $10,000 60 $8,000 39% 40 $6,000 28% $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 AIAN Head Start AIAN Early Head Start AIAN Head Start AIAN Early Head Start 464

467 Head Start & Early Head Start AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE HEAD EARLY TOTAL 40,000 HEAD START START 18,346 22,760 Total Funded Enrollment 4,414 30,000 22,760 Federally Funded 18,346 4,414 State Supplemental 0 0 0 20,000 MIECHV Funded 0 0 0 19,674 23,344 4,670 Cumulative Enrollment 10,000 In Center-Based 191 55 136 Child Care Partner 0 2012 2007 2008 2009 2010 2015 2014 2013 2011 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds PERCENT OF CHILDREN PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 DATA NOT AVAILABLE DATA NOT AVAILABLE 40 40 20 20 0 0 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2007 2015 2014 2007 2008 2009 < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING HEAD START EARLY HEAD START TOTAL $237,308,066 $60,935,000 Total Funding $176,373,066 $176,373,066 $60,935,000 $237,308,066 American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Funding $0 Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $13,805 $13,292 $13,234 $13,045 $10,427 $10,272 $10,030 $9,998 $9,823 $9,722 $9,708 $9,614 $9,438 $9,384 $10,000 $9,346 $9,097 $9,083 $5,000 $0 2012 2011 2010 2009 2015 2008 2014 2013 2007 Head Start Early Head Start Head Start and Early Head Start combined 465

468 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE Head Start & Early Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 7% 8% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 26% AA, vocational school, some college 93% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 48% HSD/GED 16% Less than HSD/GED 86% PARENT EDUCATION American Indian/Alaska Native Asian 0% 16% TANF 1% Black or African American 5% SSI Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 45% WIC 8% White FAMILY USE OF SNAP 37% PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Biracial/Multi-racial 3% 2% Other/Unspecified 78% Meets income requirement 13% Child has an IEP/IFSP 95% English Child was referred to Head Start 2% by child welfare Spanish 2% 8% Child experienced homelessness 2% Native North American/Alaska Native 44% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS HOME LANGUAGE OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY 1% 34% Other/Unspecified Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 91% 91% 90% 89% 86% 85% 84% 80% 77% 61% 48% Up-to-date on age-appropriate Medical home Up-to-date Health insurance Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 28% 28% 46% 11% 9% 5% Adult education Mental health services Health education Parenting education Emergency/Crisis intervention 466

469 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE Early Head Start EARLY HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 BA AA CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY STAFF TURNOVER Hispanic or 5% 22% $22,681 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 3% better compensation $27,607 All teachers Current/Former 52% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 24% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24, 370 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 69% Speaks a language filled 11% other than English $28,524 Teachers with an AA 28% Home visitor left Teachers with a $ 3 5 ,9 74 Home visitor left for BA or higher 1% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 36% $21,118 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,0 92 43% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Assistant teacher degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Home visitor degree qualifications Advanced Advanced Advanced ■ ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ BA AA AA ■ ■ ■ AA ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff race Staff language proficiency ■ American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ ■ Native North American/Alaska Native Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Pacific Island ■ White ■ ■ Other/Unspecified ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial Other/Unspecified ■ 467

470 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE Early Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Early Head Start Center-based ■ School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ 1 year ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ ■ Combination ■ 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care Locally-designed ■ ■ Pregnant women PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 54% 52% 51% 50% 47% 47% 44% 42% 39% 40 20 0 2008 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 0 2011 2012 2008 2007 2010 2013 2014 2015 2009 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Child turnover rate Percent of pregnant women who Percent of children receiving left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 25% 25 25 25 6% 2% 0 0 0 AIAN National average AIAN National average AIAN National average 468

471 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2012 2011 2010 2009 2015 2007 2014 2013 2008 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced AA BA STAFF CHARACTERISTICS STAFF TURNOVER AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 20% 5% $20,729 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation All teachers $29,493 Current/Former 54% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 32% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $24,653 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 53% Speaks a language filled 23% other than English $26,339 Teachers with an AA 35% Home visitor left Teachers with a $32,543 Home visitor left for BA or higher 5% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 38% $24,549 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,0 92 54% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ ■ Advanced BA ■ ■ BA ■ BA ■ AA ■ AA AA ■ ■ ■ CDA CDA ■ CDA No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ Not reported ■ ■ Not reported ■ Not reported STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ English ■ Asian ■ ■ Spanish Black or African American ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Native North American/Alaska Native ■ White ■ Other/Unspecified Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 469

472 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE Head Start TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment by program type Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start School-day, 5 days/week ■ 1 year ■ ■ Center-based ■ ■ Home-based School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years 3+ years Part-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 4 days/week ■ Family care ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 100 80 60 40 29% 28% 28% 25% 25% 24% 21% 21% 20% 20 0 2013 2007 2009 2014 2015 2012 2008 2011 2010 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs full-calendar-year programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 DATA NOT AVAILABLE 44% 43% 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 25 5% 0 0 0 0 AIAN National average AIAN National average AIAN National average AIAN National average Percent of children receiving Percent of classes that are double sessions Child turnover rate a child care subsidy 100 100 100 75 75 75 50 50 50 25 25 25 5% 5% 2% 0 0 0 AIAN National average AIAN National average AIAN National average 470

473 State(s) of Head Start MIGRANT AND SEASONAL HEAD START PROFILE 471

474 Head Start 2014-2015 Overview MIGRANT & SEASONAL FEDERALLY FUNDED ENROLLMENT FEDERAL FUNDING PERCENT OF PERCENT NUMBER FUNDING LOW-INCOME OF STATE ENROLLED Total Federal Funding TOTAL $333,924,240 Not available 31,054 Not available Early Head Start Funding Pregnant Women Breakdown not available 197 N/A N/A Head Start Funding < 3-Year-Olds Breakdown not available 16,306 Not available Not available 3-Year-Olds Not available Not available 6,663 4-Year-Olds Not available 7,888 Not available ENROLLMENT QUALITY CLASSROOM QUALITY SCORES PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN SERVED BY HEAD START 100 ✔ 7 6.0 6 5.6 80 5 60 4 ✘ DATA NOT AVAILABLE 2.6 3 40 2 20 1 0 0 Instructional Support Classroom Organization Emotional Support 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds National average Research-based threshold ✔ Significantly below threshold ✘ Significantly above threshold TEACHER DEGREE TEACHER SALARY PERCENT OF TEACHERS WITH BA OR HIGHER AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS WITH A BA DEGREE 100 $100,000 80 $80,000 $ 57,0 92 60 $60,000 50% 40 $40,000 $24,083 $20,000 20 0 $0 Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Public elementary school national average PROGRAM DURATION FUNDING PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD 5-DAY/WEEK PROGRAMS 100 $16,000 93% $14,000 80 $12,000 $10,753 $10,000 60 $8,000 40 $6,000 $4,000 20 $2,000 0 $0 Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Migrant & Seasonal Head Start 472

475 Head Start MIGRANT & SEASONAL ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF CHILDREN ENROLLED OVER TIME, BY AGE MIGRANT & SEASONAL 40,000 HEAD START 31,054 Total Funded Enrollment 30,000 Federally Funded 31,054 State Supplemental 0 20,000 MIECHV Funded 0 Cumulative Enrollment 28,879 10,000 In Center-Based 760 Child Care Partner 0 2007 2013 2014 2010 2015 2011 2008 2009 2012 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds PERCENT OF LOW-INCOME CHILDREN PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN THE STATE SERVED IN THE STATE SERVED 100 100 80 80 60 60 DATA NOT AVAILABLE DATA NOT AVAILABLE 40 40 20 20 0 0 2011 2012 2012 2015 2013 2014 2013 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2014 2015 2009 2010 2010 2011 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds < 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds < 3-year-olds 3-year-olds 4-year-olds FUNDING MIGRANT & SEASONAL HEAD START Total Funding $333,924,240 $333,924,240 Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Funding Head Start State Supplemental Funding $0 FEDERAL FUNDING PER CHILD (2015 DOLLARS) $20,000 $15,000 $11,387 $11,134 $10,753 $9,839 $9,716 $9,424 $9,407 $10,000 $9,186 $8,780 $5,000 $0 2010 2015 2013 2012 2011 2014 2009 2008 2007 Migrant & Seasonal Head Start 473

476 MIGRANT & SEASONAL Head Start CHILD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 1% BA or higher Hispanic/Latino 99% 7% AA, vocational school, some college 1% Non-Hispanic/Non-Latino ETHNICITY 23% HSD/GED 69% Less than HSD/GED PARENT EDUCATION American Indian/Alaska Native 2% 0% Asian 5% TANF Black or African American 1% SSI 1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0% RACE 76% WIC White 67% FAMILY USE OF 45% SNAP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 4% Biracial/Multi-racial 26% Other/Unspecified 88% Meets income requirement Child has an IEP/IFSP 8% 11% English .3% Child was referred to Head Start by child welfare 83% Spanish 3% Child experienced homelessness 5% Mexican and South & Central American 28% Single parent family CHARACTERISTICS OTHER CHILD AND FAMILY HOME LANGUAGE 1% Other/Unspecified 14% Parental unemployment SUPPORT SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING HEALTH SERVICES CHILDREN RECEIVING TRANSPORTATION 98% 98% 95% 95% 94% 91% 91% 86% 85% 63% 63% Up-to-date Health insurance Medical home Up-to-date on age-appropriate Dental home preventive and primary health immunizations At enrollment At end of enrollment FAMILIES’ USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES FAMILIES RECEIVING AT LEAST ONE SUPPORT SERVICE 50% 45% 67% 12% 11% 10% Parenting education Adult education Health education Mental health services Emergency/Crisis intervention 474

477 MIGRANT & SEASONAL Head Start HEAD START STAFF PERCENT OF TEACHERS BY HIGHEST DEGREE IN ECE OR RELATED FIELD 100 80 60 40 20 0 2012 2015 2010 2009 2008 2007 2014 2013 2011 CDA No ECE-related credentials Not reported Advanced BA AA STAFF TURNOVER STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY Hispanic or 99% 13% $16,633 Teacher left All assistant teachers Latino Teacher left for 5% better compensation $22,050 All teachers Current/Former 19% Teacher vacancies Head Start parent 9% over 3 months Teachers with a CDA $18,058 or no ECE credentials Teacher vacancies 50% Speaks a language filled 75% other than English Teachers with an AA $21,021 18% Home visitor left Teachers with a $24,083 Home visitor left for BA or higher 9% better compensation Difference Home visitor vacanies 0% $33,009 over 3 months Public elementary Home visitor $ 57,0 92 100% school teacher vacancies filled ADDITIONAL STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Home visitor degree qualifications ECD management degree qualifications Assistant teacher degree qualifications ■ Advanced Advanced ■ Advanced ■ BA ■ ■ ■ BA BA ■ ■ AA AA ■ AA ■ CDA ■ CDA ■ CDA No ECE-related credentials ■ ■ No ECE-related credentials ■ No ECE-related credentials STAFF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Staff language proficiency Staff race American Indian/Alaska Native ■ ■ English ■ Asian ■ Spanish ■ Black or African American ■ Mexican and South & Central American ■ Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ■ Other/Unspecified White ■ Bi-racial/Multi-racial ■ ■ Other/Unspecified 475

478 Head Start MIGRANT & SEASONAL TYPE AND DURATION OF HEAD START SERVICES PROGRAM TYPE AND DURATION Enrollment in center-based programs by operating schedule Number of years enrolled in Head Start Enrollment by program type (including Early Head Start) Center-based 1 year School-day, 5 days/week ■ ■ ■ ■ Home-based ■ School-day, 4 days/week ■ 2 years ■ Combination ■ Part-day, 5 days/week 3+ years ■ Part-day, 4 days/week Family care ■ ■ ■ Locally-designed PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL-DAY, 5-DAY PER WEEK PROGRAMS 95% 95% 96% 96% 95% 100 94% 93% 93% 93% 80 60 40 20 0 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 PERCENT OF CHILDREN IN CHILD CARE PARTNERSHIPS 100 80 60 40 20 10% 10% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 5% 4% 0 2007 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 ADDITIONAL TYPE AND DURATION INFORMATION Percent of children in full-working-day, Percent of children in 5-day/week programs Percent of children receiving at Percent of children in school-day programs least 1,020 hours of Head Start per year full-calendar-year programs 93% 93% 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 DATA NOT AVAILABLE 50 50 50 50 25% 25 25 25 25 0 0 0 0 MSHS National average MSHS National average MSHS National average MSHS National average Percent of classes that are double sessions Percent of pregnant women who Percent of children receiving Child turnover rate left program before giving birth a child care subsidy 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 DATA NOT AVAILABLE 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 25 15% 4% 0% 0 0 0 0 MSHS National average MSHS National average MSHS National average MSHS National average 476

479 STATE(S) OF HEAD START METHODOLOGY multiple states making it difficult to ascertain the RESPONDENT UNIVERSE precise number of children enrolled in MSHS in each The respondent universe for this report is all Head state. Therefore, this report only presents data on Start and Early Head Start program administrators MSHS at the national level. AIAN programs may also in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and six U.S. operate across multiple states. In the current report, territories (American Samoa, Guam, the Northern AIAN data is reported based on the state in which Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin the grantee is based. AIAN Head Start programs Islands). This universe also includes administrators of are based in 26 states (AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, KS, ME, American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Head Start MI, MN, MS, MT, NE, NV, NM, NY, NC, ND, OK, OR, SC, and Early Head Start and Migrants and Seasonal SD, TX, UT, WA, WI, and WY). AIAN Early Head Start Head Start (MSHS) programs. Head Start programs programs are based in 19 states (AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, are in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and KS, MI, MN, MS, MT, NM, NC, ND, OK, OR, SD, WA, WI, all territories. However, American Samoa, Guam, and WY). and Palau do not have Early Head Start programs and the Northern Mariana Islands began an Early HEAD START PROGRAMS Head Start program mid-way through the 2014- 2015 program year (and therefore not all data are This report includes information on five types of Head Start programs: available). Many MSHS programs operate across 477

480 (HS): Serves children 3- to 5-year s-old Head 1. from the Head Start Enterprise System (HSES) in Start the for program 2006-2007 November, 2015. Data before during the two years kindergarten downloaded in December year 2007. were previously Early 2. birth children Serves (EHS): Start Head not from this year were (Data available in the newer age 3 through women pregnant and program the PIR format). 2007-2008 data for Some Indian and Alaska Native Head Start 3. American previously were downloaded year in December, 2008. (HS AIAN) the from downloaded Some national level data were fall as reports in HSES 2016. Data were aggregated Indian American and 4. Head Early Native Alaska state level for from the individual program to AIAN) (EHS Start analysis. and Migrant Serves (MSHS): 5. Start Head Seasonal Administration for Children and Families: The children 5 through age birth Administration for Head of Office Start in the Throughout different these on data report this (ACF) with and Families Children provided NIEER and together reported both separately are programs for Head Start data additional this report. For each as in the “Guide noted to the State Profiles” section the program year, they provided number of funded of the of the report. In report, HS and HS AIAN most Head Start and Early Start slots in each state Head and are combined data as are EHS AIAN. for EHS further into this separated They territory. and four these across data combine sections Some state slots and supplemental slots. federally-funded programs. data are reported separately on the MSHS In they provided NIEER with the total addition, pages. AIAN data MSHS separately reported also is In for HS AIAN, enrollment EHS AIAN, and MSHS. AIAN pages. The the national overview presents on they 2014-2015, and 2013-2014 HS the provided also data program five all from types: the first two pages state. each in enrollment funded AIAN of include five all from data overview national the HS, for funding federal total the provided also ACF only program types. The next two pages include data year. each MSHS and AIAN, EHS AIAN, HS EHS, two on EHS and EHS AIAN and include pages last the 2006-2007 could ACF 2010-2011, though From HS and HS on data programs MSHS AIAN. only into funding disaggregate not to due EHS and HS not because pages four last these in included are and changes resources data systems. Beginning in data are not broken down into programs for infants year, 2011-2012 the with funding was program Rather, children. preschool-age and toddlers and HS programs. HS EHS and for separately reported staff information on MSHS and program duration and and funding EHS provided were for each and state separately in the MSHS section. reported is type territory. and EHS AIAN MSHS funding provided were AIAN HS only. at level national funding was the STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY 2014-2015; 2013-2014 in state by provided data and at years were for provided the national level other is This data employing collection, data universe a only. of from surveys collected Head Start previously All Head Start programs are included in programs. in provided average scores ACF each state on the 2 data. Because the the data collection is based on a Assessment Classroom (CLASS). System Scoring of sample universe members, weighting adjustments of review scores CLASS are from Head Start’s on-site grantees as part of the Within process. renewal grant statistical purposes and adjustments to variances for CLASS across averaged each state, scores were necessary. are not received grantees who and a CLASS observation and all years (between 2012 over 2015). Not grantees DATA SOURCES are represented. Means and standard deviations the CLASS domains (Emotional Support, for three Program Information Report: The primary source Organization, Classroom Support) Instructional and the State(s) of Head Start the is report of data for that grantees of number the and CLASS a received Office of Head Start Program Information Report 1 provided to NIEER. observation were (PIR). Each year all federally-funded Head Start HS, grantees and delegates (including EHS, HS AIAN, NIEER with information on the ACF provided Finally, EHS AIAN, and MSHS) are required to complete the who least 1,020 at received children HS of percent annual PIR survey collects data The questionnaire. of hours year. each services HS Start, on the children and families served by Head provided. staff, and services program PIR data for 2014-2015 through 2007-2008 were downloaded 478

481 OTHER DATA SOURCES: CALCULATIONS OF STATE AND NATIONAL DATA to were used Census determine U.S. data Census: and funded enrollment Both cumulative enrollment age in each the number of children by single of year 3 in presented are children women pregnant of and for by covered year each Data report. state this Funded enrollment report. refers this to the number Survey, American Census U.S. Community the from program is funded of slots that each Head Start to to used were estimates, three-year determine the to the total refers Cumulative enrollment provide. were number of children by single year of age who children and pregnant women who attend number of of and percent 100 below living percent the 200 4 the Cumulative year. program during Start Head 200 below Children percent FPL. FPL were the of enrollment funded than larger typically is enrollment to be “low-income” for the purposes considered of slot same the in enrolled be may children multiple as this 100 percent of the report. children below And during cumulative is, That different year. parts of the FPL The poverty.” “in be to considered were percent out enrollment reflects all and in move who children percent of the FPL was below of children 200 of program the year. program the during percent the double approximately below children of 100 percent of the FPL. children, of number the includes data PIR The and program who have each in teachers families, The age of year single by children of number for each various characteristics and qualifications and/or from was territory Rico) retrieved Puerto than (other Start who received specific Head services. For the International the Mid-year Census, population by 5 purposes this report, the number of children, of 2010 Age Groups. Single The Census was used Year summed across all were families, and teachers children in low-income of percent the estimate to a total for each the programs calculate to state in the about information using territories, the percent 6 families, state. Next, the percentage of children, of living below the families federal poverty level. meeting criterion each state each in teachers or not available for Palau. The number of This data was by was calculated by dividing the total number the children and the number of children living below teachers. of families, or children, All percentages poverty line in Puerto Rico was obtained from the 7 whole and number nearest the to rounded are Census. Puerto Rico percentages less than 0.5 are rounded to 0. Public School Teacher Salary: The National single not provided by year Funded enrollment was Education Association Rankings & Estimates 2016 age. of by enrollment federally-funded Therefore, report was used to determine the average salary of 8 proportion on based estimated was age the the of in elementary school teachers public schools. This 1-, that enrollment was cumulative either under 1-, available was not data for the territories. 13 5-years-old. report, In this we consider 2-, 3-, 4- or State Supplemental Head Start Funding: The someone eligible to attend 3-year-old to be a Education on the Commission States report, State two years from now. (For example, a kindergarten 9 and information Pre-K Funding: 2014-15 Fiscal Year, would program year 2014-2015 the in 3-year-old the 2015 states from directly collected part of as A 2016-2017.) eligible to attend kindergarten be in 10 determine were to used State of Preschool Yearbook during to attend eligible is 4-year-old kindergarten amount of supplemental funding for Head Start the serve to intended the following year. is Because HS by provided state. each HS in 2-year-olds counted we 4-year-olds, as 3- and Index used was to Cost State A Cost Adjustments: as 5-year-olds counted we and 3-year-olds; 4-year- to of cost for account state each adjust funding in is intended to serve infants Similarly, olds. since EHS education index cost This states. across differences considered in toddlers, we and 3-year-olds enrolled based original the of one by updates 2014 on was under 3 years old. For MSHS, 0-, 1-, and EHS to be state authors of the 2006 cost index from the years 3 under be to considered were 2-year-olds old report, of A Comparable Education Institute Sciences and 4-year-olds. be to considered were 5-year-olds 11 Geographic Approach to Cost Adjustment. Wage 3 under children of percentages The years 3 years, from data Spending Inflation Adjustment: enrolled were who 4 state each in old years and old, adjusted to 2015 dollars through 2007 2014 was in the by dividing by calculated were Start Head inflation adjusters from using the U.S. Office of years under 3 3, 4 and old, total number of children for The Management and Budget. deflators chained census on (respectively) based state the in years old non-defense, the Gross Domestic from Product, total data. Similar calculations were done to determine 12 through 2015 were used. 2007 the percent of children from low-income families in 479

482 Average outcomes. developmental positive and each state enrolled in Head number Start. Here, the living funded was FPL the of percent 200 below children of CLASS scores from evaluations of publicly used, from the census. Head Start also were data FACES Start Head and programs preschool on based poverty in children of percent a as in enrollment considered in determining the thresholds. For this each state was calculated by dividing the number report, the research-based thresholds are as follows: children enrolled in Head Start by the number of of Instructional Support: 3; Emotional Support: 5.5; and percent 100 5.5. of the FPL. children living below Classroom Organization: state was calculated by Funding per child in each One sample t-tests were conducted in Stata version in funding that state by the dividing the federal 14 to determine, in each state, if average scores federally-funded slots. Spending per child number of on each CLASS score domain (1) were statistically 2014-2015 the program year was adjusted for for significantly lower than the resear ch-based threshold, each state differences using a state in cost of living in (2) statistically indistinguishable from the research- cost index so that state-to-state comparisons could based threshold, or (3) statistically significantly from be made on the same scale. Funding per child higher than the research-based threshold. States for inflation so that 2007 through 2014 was adjusted were determined to have CLASS scores significantly 2015 all if threshold research-based the than lower funding per child amounts are presented in higher or <0.05. p to show how spending has changed in dollars “real” dollars. Data from the PIR provided average salaries for all each for three thresholds Research-based the of teachers and assistant teachers as well as average domains were determined by NIEER in CLASS salaries for teachers by degree qualifications of the instrument and ECE-related no and CDA, AA, BA, degree, (Advanced consultation with the authors based the regarding findings research recent on level credentials). To estimate the average salary for domain needed to support learning of quality in each teachers with an advanced degree or BA (BA or 480

483 higher), a weighted average based on the average DETERMINATION OF HEAD START FUNDING NEEDED salary for teachers with a BA and advanced degree and the number of teachers with an advanced degree To calculate the funding needed to serve 50 and BA was computed. A similar procedure was percent of all low-income 3- and 4-year-olds (or the followed to calculate the average salary for teachers equivalent of all 3- and 4-year-olds in poverty) in with a CDA or no ECE-related credentials. These each state in Head Start, a per child funding amount averages were calculated separately for HS and EHS of $10,000 was assumed to be needed to provide teachers. high-quality services for 1,020 hours per year. The 14 $10,000 per child amount was adjusted to account Using data from the State of Preschool Yearbook, for cost differences in each state (since $10,000 goes the percent of children in each state enrolled in further in some states than others). The adjusted Head Start or state-funded preschool was calculated. spending per child in each state was multiplied by data collection, some Yearbook As part of the the number of low-income 3- and 4-year-olds in that states reported the number of children enrolled state to calculate the total funding needed to serve Head Start. When and in state-funded preschool all low-income 3- and 4-year-olds per state. This this information was available, an unduplicated number was divided by 2 to get the funding needed percentage was calculated. National averages on the to serve 50 percent of all low-income 3- and 4-year- state profiles and in the text of the report include the olds. To determine the additional funding needed to 50 states, District of Columbia, U.S. Territories, and serve 50 percent of low-income 3- and 4-year-olds in AIAN programs (unless otherwise noted). National each state, the current HS funding in each state was averages in the Figures (pages 25 to 44) do not include the U.S. Territories. subtracted from this number. FOOTNOTES 8 1 National Education Ass ociation (2016). Rankings & Estimates: Head Start Program Information Reports (PIR) for 2006-2007 Rankings of the States 2015 and Estimates of School Statistics through 2014-2015. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/2016_NEA_ 2016. 2 Pianta, R. C., LaParo, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Rankings_And_Estimates.pdf Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. 9 State Pre-K Funding: 2014-15 Atchison, B., & Workman, E. (2015). 3 U.S. Census Population Estimates, Single Year of Age and Sex Fiscal Year. Denver, CO: Education Commission on the States. Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - Civilian. 6 race Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/01/16/97/11697. groups. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/ pdf asrh/2014/SC-EST2014-ALLDATA6.html 10 Barnett, W. S., Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Gomez, R. E., Horowitz, 4 American Community Survey, PUMS Data 2000-current. Retrieved State of M., Weisenfeld, G. G., Brown, K., & Squires, J. H. (2016). from https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums. Preschool Yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for html Early Education Research. 5 United States Census Bureau, International Programs. Retrieved 11 Taylor, L. (2014). Extending the NCES CWI. The Bush School of from https://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/ Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University. region.php 12 U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Table 10.1 - Gross Domestic 6 2010 Census Island Areas. Retrieved from http://www.census. Product and Deflators Used in the Historical Tables: 1940-2021. gov/2010census/news/press-kits/island-areas/island-areas.html Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ 7 U.S. Census Bureau, American Fact Finder. Retrieved from http:// Historicals factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview. 13 As a result of rounding, enrollment numbers by age may not xhtml?src=bkmk and http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/ always add up to the total enrollment. tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_14_5YR_ 14 B17001&prodType=table Barnett, W. S. et al. (2016). 481

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485 NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR EARLY EDUCATION RESEARCH Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 73 Easton Avenue New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1879 848.932.4350 • nieer.org

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