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2 i s i m s e r i e s o n c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s l i m s o c i e t i e s The ISIM Series on Contemporary Muslim Societies is a joint initiative of Amsterdam University Press (AUP) and the International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM). The Series seeks to present innovative scholarship on Islam and Muslim societies in different parts of the globe. ISIM was established in 1998 by the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University, Radboud University Nijmegen, and Utrecht University. The institute conducts and promotes interdisciplinary research on social, political, cultural, and intellectual trends and movements in contemporary Muslim societies and communities. Editors Annelies Moors, ISIM / University of Amsterdam Mathijs Pelkmans, ISIM / University College Utrecht Abdulkader Tayob, University of Cape Town Editorial Board Nadje al-Ali, University of Exeter Kamran Asdar Ali, University of Texas at Austin John Bowen, Washington University in St. Louis Léon Buskens, Leiden University Shamil Jeppie, University of Cape Town Deniz Kandiyoti, SOAS, University of London Muhammad Khalid Masud, Council of Islamic Ideology, Pakistan Werner Schiffauer, Europa-Universität Viadriana Frankfurt (Oder) Seteney Shami, Social Science Research Council Previously published Lynn Welchman, Women and Muslim Family Laws in Arab States. A Comparative Overview of Textual Development and Advocacy, ) isbn 978 9 0 5 356 9 74 0 2007 ( Farish A. Noor, Yoginder Sikand & Martin van Bruinessen (eds.), The Madrasa in Asia. Political Activism and Transnational Linkages , ) isbn 978 9 0 5 356 7 10 4 2008 ( Bayat.indd 2 24-12-2009 13:59:53

3 Life as Politics How Ordinary People Change the Middle East Asef Bayat i s i m s e r i e s o n c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s l i m s o c i e t i e s r e s s m s t e r d a m U n i v e r s i t y P A Bayat.indd 3 24-12-2009 13:59:53

4 Cover photograph: © Hollandse Hoogte Cover design: De Kreeft, Amsterdam SBN 9 78 90 5356 911 5 I e- SBN 9 78 90 4850 156 4 I N UR 7 41 / 717 © / Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2010 ISIM All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copy- right reserved above, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photo - c opying, recording or otherwise) without the written permis- sion of both the copyright owner and the author of the book. Bayat.indd 4 24-12-2009 13:59:53

5 To: Eric Hobsbawm, historian par excellence. —-1 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 0 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:58 PM d v 544-41003_ch00_4P.indd v 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 8 P M d

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7 CONTENTS Preface ix xi Ac know ledg ments 1 Introduction: The Art of Presence 1 2 Transforming the Arab Middle East: Dissecting 27 a Manifesto PART 1 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS 3 The Quiet Encroachment of the Ordinary 43 4 The Poor and the Perpetual Pursuit of Life Chances 66 5 Feminism of Everyday Life 96 6 Reclaiming Youthfulness 115 137 7 The Politics of Fun PART 2 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET 8 A Street Named “Revolution” 161 9 Does Radical Islam Have an Urban Ecol ogy? 171 10 Everyday Cosmopolitanism 185 209 11 The “Arab Street” —-1 12 Is There a Future for Islamic Revolutions? 221 —0 —+1 9/1/09 1:58 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 0 _ 4 P . i n d d v i i 544-41003_ch00_4P.indd vii 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 8 P M 5

8 viii CONTENTS PART 3 PROSPECTS 13 No Silence, No Violence: Post- Islamist Trajectory 241 Notes 253 Index 297 -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 0 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:58 PM n d d v i i i 544-41003_ch00_4P.indd viii 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 8 P M i

9 PREFACE compiled in this volume are about agency and change in the the essays Muslim Middle East, the societies in which religion seems to occupy a prominent position. More specifi cally, they focus on the confi guration of sociopo liti cal transformation brought about by internal social forces, by collectives and individuals. Here I focus on the diverse ways in which the ordinary people, the subaltern— the urban dispossessed, Muslim women, the globalizing youth, and other urban grass roots— strive to aff ect the con- tours of change in their societies, by refusing to exit from the social and po liti cal stage controlled by authoritarian states, moral authority, and neo- liberal economies, discovering and generating new spaces within which they can voice their dissent and assert their presence in pursuit of bettering their lives. The vehicles through which ordinary people change their societ- ies are not simply audible mass protests or revolutions, even though they represent an aspect of pop u lar mobilization; rather, people resort more widely to what I will elaborate as “nonmovements”— the collective endeav- ors of millions of noncollective actors, carried out in the main squares, back streets, court houses, or communities. This book, then, is about the “art of presence,” the story of agency in times of constraints. The essays constitute the core of my refl ections for the past de cade or so on the social movements and nonmovements that are seen through the prism of historical specifi city of the Muslim Middle East, yet ones that insist on both critical and con- structive engagement with the prevailing social theory. By so doing my hope has been not only to produce rigorous empirical knowledge about so- —-1 cial change in this complex region, but in the meantime to engage with and —0 —+1 ix 5 4 4 - 4 9/1/09 1:58 PM 0 0 3 _ c h 0 0 _ 4 P . i n d d i x 544-41003_ch00_4P.indd ix 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 8 P M 1

10 x PREFACE contribute to social theory in general. My wish is that this book might off er a Middle Eastern contribution, however modest, to scholarly debates on so- cial movements and social change. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 0 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:58 PM n d d x 544-41003_ch00_4P.indd x 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 8 P M i

11 AC LEDG MENTS KNOW a volume that has taken about a de cade of research and refl ections must have been written with the assistance and support, whether intellectual or practi- cal, of many people— scholars, students, and colleagues, in the Middle East, the United States, and Eu rope. Understandably, it is diffi cult to pinpoint them in order to record my sincere appreciation. But I do wish to register my deep- est gratitude to them all. Most of the pieces in this volume were produced or fi nalized during my work as the Academic Director of the Dutch- based Inter- national Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM), a unique scholarly enterprise that combined rigorous scholarship with constructive social engagement. I am grateful to the colleagues at ISIM, especially staff members and the internationally diverse fellows who enriched the institute by their enthusiasm and their valuable and varied experiences. Some of the ideas in this book developed out of my short contributions to the ISIM Review , and erent some others from preparing numerous lectures, which I delivered in diff parts of the world in the course of these years. I am grateful for the individu- als and organizations who welcomed cooperation. As always, my greatest debt is to my family, Linda, Shiva, and Tara, without whose unfailing love and sup- port none of these endeavors would have materialized in the way they have. —-1 —0 —+1 xi 5 4 4 - 4 9/1/09 1:58 PM 0 0 3 _ c h 0 0 _ 4 P . i n d d x i 544-41003_ch00_4P.indd xi 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 8 P M 1

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15 INTRODUCTION 1 The Art of Presence there is no shortage of views, whether regional or international, suggesting that the Middle East has fallen into disarray. We continue to read how the personal income of Arabs is among the lowest in the world, despite their mas- sive oil revenues. With declining productivity, poor scientifi c research, de- creasing school enrollment, and high illiteracy, and with health conditions lagging behind comparable nations, Arab countries seem to be “richer than 1 they are developed.” The unfortunate state of social development in the re- gion is coupled with poor po liti cal governance. Authoritarian regimes rang- ing from Iran, Syria, Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco to the sheikhdoms of the y Saudi Arabia (incidentally, most with close ties to Persian Gulf, and chiefl the West), continue to frustrate demands for democracy and the rule of law, prompting (religious) opposition movements that espouse equally undemo- cratic, exclusive, and oft en violent mea sures. Not surprisingly, the current conditions have caused much fear in the West about the international destabi- lizing ramifi cations of this seeming social and po liti cal stagnation. Thus, never before has the region witnessed such a cry for change. The idea that “everywhere the world has changed except for the Middle East” has assumed a renewed prominence, with diff erent domestic and international erent expectations as to how to instigate change constituencies expressing diff in this region. Some circles hope for a revolutionary transformation through a sudden upsurge of pop u lar energy to overturn the unjust structures of power and usher in development and democracy. If the Ira ni an Revolution, not so long ago, could sweep aside a long- standing monarchy in less than two years, —-1 why couldn’t such movement be forged in the region today? This is a diffi cult —0 —+1 1 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 1 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

16 2 INTRODUCTION 2 Even position to sustain. It is doubtful that revolutions can ever be planned. though revolutionaries do engage in plotting and preparing, revolutions do not necessarily result from prior schemes. Rather, they oft en follow their own intriguing logic, subject to a highly complex mix of structural, international, en analyze revolutions in retro- coincidental, and psychological factors. We oft spect, rarely engaging in ones that are expected or desired, for revolutions are 3 never predictable. On the other hand, most people do not particularly wish to be involved in violent revolutionary movements. People oft en express doubt about engaging in revolution, whose outcome they cannot fore see. They oft en prefer to remain “free riders,” wanting others to carry out revolutions on their behalf. Furthermore, are revolutions necessarily desirable? Those who have experienced them usually identify violent revolutions with massive disrup- tion, destruction, and uncertainty. Aft er all, nothing guarantees that a just social order will result from a revolutionary change. Finally, even assuming that revolutions are desirable and can be planned, what are people under au- thoritarian rule to do in the meantime? Given these constraints, an alternative view postulates that instead of waiting for an uncertain revolution, change should be instigated by commit- ting states to undertaking sustained social and po liti cal reforms. Such a non- violent strategy of reform requires powerful social forces— social movements (of workers, the poor, women, youth, students, and broader democracy move- ments) or genuine po liti cal parties— to challenge po liti cal authorities and he- gemonize their claims. Indeed, many activists and NGOs in the Middle East are already engaged in forging movements to alter the current state of aff airs. However, while this may serve as a genuinely endogenous strategy for change, eff ective movements need po liti cal opportunities to grow and operate. How are social and po liti cal movements to keep up when authoritarian regimes exhibit a great intolerance toward or ga nized activism, when the repression of civil- society organizations has been a hallmark of most Middle Eastern states? It should not, therefore, come as a surprise that growing segments of peo- ple, frustrated by the po liti cal stalemate, lament that although most people in er under the status quo, they remain repressed, atomized, the Middle East suff and passive. Pop u lar activism, if any, goes little beyond occasional, albeit angry, protests, with most of them directed by Islamists against the West and Israel, and less against their own repressive states to commit to a demo cratic ed status quo, order. Since there is slight or no agency to challenge the ossifi -1— the argument goes, change should come from outside, by way of economic, 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 2 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

17 THE ART OF PRESENCE 3 po liti cal, and even military pressure. Even the Arab Human Development Re- , arguably the most signifi cant manifesto for change in the Arab Middle port East, is inclined to seek a “realistic solution” of a “western- supported project 4 of gradual and moderate reform aiming at liberalization.” Still, the percep- tion that the Middle East remains “unchangeable” has far greater resonance outside the region, notably in the West and among policy circles, the main- stream media, and many think tanks. Indeed, a strong “exceptionalist” out- look informs the whole edifi ce of the “democracy promotion industry” in the West, which pushes for instigating change through outside powers, one which 5 does not exclude the use of force. The idea of Middle Eastern exceptionalism is not new. Indeed, for a long time now, change in Middle Eastern societies has been approached with a largely western Orientalist outlook whose history goes back to the eigh teenth 6 century, if not earlier. Mainstream Orientalism tends to depict the Muslim Middle East as a monolithic, fundamentally static, and thus “peculiar” entity. By focusing on a narrow notion of (a rather static) culture— one that is virtu- ally equated with the religion of Islam— Middle Eastern societies are charac- terized more in terms of historical continuity than in terms of change. In this perspective, change, albeit uncommon, may indeed occur, but primarily via individual elites, military men, or wars and external powers. The George W. Bush administration’s doctrine of “regime change,” exemplifi ed in, for instance, the occupation of Iraq and the inclination to wage a war against Iran, repre- sents how, in such a perspective, “reform” is to be realized in the region. Con- sequently, internal sources of po liti cal transformation, such as group inter- ests, social movements, and po liti cal economies, are largely overlooked. But in fact the Middle East has been home to many insurrectionary epi- sodes, nationwide revolutions, and social movements (such as Islamism), and great strides for change. Beyond these, certain distinct and unconventional forms of agency and activism have emerged in the region that do not get adequate at- tention, because they do not fi t into our prevailing categories and conceptual imaginations. By elaborating on and highlighting these latter forms, or what I call “social nonmovements,” I wish also to raise a number of theoretical and methodological questions as to how to look at the notions of agency and change in the Muslim Middle East today. Indeed, conditioned by the exceptionalist outlook, many observers tend to exclude the study of the Middle East from the prevailing social science perspectives. For instance, many narratives of Is- —-1 lamism treat it simply in terms of religious revivalism, or as an expression of —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 3 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

18 4 INTRODUCTION primordial loyalties, or irrational group actions, or something peculiar and unique, a phenomenon that cannot be analyzed by the conventional social sci- ence categories. In fact, Islamism had been largely excluded from the mode of inquiry developed by social movement theorists in the West until recently, when a handful of scholars have attempted to bring Islamic activism into the 7 realm of “social movement theory.” This is certainly a welcome development. However, these scholars tend largely to “borrow” from, rather than critically and productively engage with and thus contribute to, social movement theories. Indeed, it remains a question how far the prevailing social movement theory is able to account for the complexities of socioreligious movements in contempo- rary Muslim societies, in par tic u lar when these perspectives are rooted in par- tic u lar genealogies, in the highly diff erentiated and po liti cally open Western societies, where social movements oft en develop into highly structured and largely homogeneous entities— possibilities that are limited in the non- Western world. Charles Tilly is correct in alerting us to be mindful of the historical specifi city of “social movements”— political per for mances that emerged in West- ern Eu rope and North America aft er 1750. In this historical experience, what came to be known as “social movements” combined three elements: an or ga- nized and sustained claim making on target authorities; a repertoire of per for- mances, including associations, public meetings, media statements, and street nally, “public repre sen ta tions of the cause’s worthiness, unity, marches; and fi 8 numbers, and commitment.” Deployed separately, these elements would not make “social movements,” but some diff erent po liti cal actions. Given that the dominant social movement theories draw on western experience, to what extent can they help us understand the pro cess of solidarity building or the collectivi- ties of disjointed yet parallel practices of noncollective actors in the non- western 9 po liti cally closed and technologically limited settings? In contrast to the “exceptionalist” tendency, there are those oft en “local” scholars in the Middle East who tend uncritically to deploy conventional models and concepts to the social realities of their societies, without acknowl- edging suffi ciently that these models hold diff erent historical genealogies, and er little help to explain the intricate texture and dynamics of may thus off change and re sis tance in this part of the world. For instance, considering “slums” in light of the conventional perspectives of urban sociology, the informal ) are erroneously taken to be communities in the Middle East (i.e., ashwaiyyat the breeding ground for violence, crime, anomie, extremism, and, consequently, -1— radical Islam. There is little in such narratives that sees these communities as 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 4 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

19 THE ART OF PRESENCE 5 a signifi cant locus of struggle for (urban) citizenship and transformation in guration. Scant attention is given to how the urban disenfran- urban confi gure new life chised, through their quiet and unassuming daily struggles, refi and communities for themselves and diff erent urban realities on the ground in Middle Eastern cities. The prevailing scholarship ignores the fact that these ne the meaning of urban management and de facto urban subaltern redefi participate in determining its destiny; and they do so not through formal in- stitutional channels, from which they are largely excluded, but through direct actions in the very zones of exclusion. To give a diff erent example, in early 2000 Ira ni an analysts looking uncritically at Muslim women’s activism through the prism of social movement theory— developed primarily in the United States— concluded that there was no such a thing as a women’s movement in Iran, because certain features of Ira ni an women’s activities did not resemble the principal “model.” It is perhaps in this spirit that Olivier Roy warns against the kind of comparison that takes “one of the elements of comparison as 10 norm” while never questioning the “original confi guration.” A fruitful ap- proach would demand an analytical innovation that not only rejects both Middle Eastern “exceptionalism” and uncritical application of conventional social science concepts but also thinks and introduces fresh perspectives to observe, a novel vocabulary to speak, and new analytical tools to make sense of specifi c regional realities. It is in this frame of mind that I examine both contentious politics and social “nonmovements” as key vehicles to produce meaningful change in the Middle East. CONTENTIOUS POLITICS AND SOCIAL CHANGE A number of remarkable social and po liti cal transformations in the region have resulted from or ga nized contentious endeavors of various forms, rang- ing from endemic protest actions, to durable social movements, to major rev- olutionary mobilizations. The constitutional revolution of 1905– 6 heralded the end of Qajar despotism and the beginning of the era of constitutionalism in Iran. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952, led by free offi cers, and the Iraqi Revolution of 1958 terminated long- standing monarchies and British colonial rule, augmenting republicanism and socialistic economies. In a major social and po liti cal upheaval, the Algerians overthrew French colonial rule in 1962 and established a republic. The Islamic Revolution of 1979 galvanized millions of Ira ni ans in a move- —-1 ment that toppled the monarchy and ushered in a new era, not only in Iran, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 5 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

20 6 INTRODUCTION ve years earlier, a but in many nations of the Muslim world. Some twenty- fi nationalist and secular demo cratic movement led by Prime Minister Muham- mad Mossadegh had established constitutionalism, until it was crushed by a coup engineered by the CIA and the British secret ser vice in 1953, which re- instated the dictatorship of the Shah. In 1985 in Sudan, a nonviolent uprising by a co ali tion of students, workers, and professional unions (National Alliance for National Salvation) forced President Jaafar Numeiri’s authoritarian pop- ulist regime (born of a military coup) to step down in favor of a national transitional government, paving the way for free elections and demo cratic governance. The fi rst Palestinian intifada (1987– 93) was one of the most grassroots- based mobilizations in the Middle East of the past century. Trig- gered by a fatal accident caused by an Israeli truck driver, and against the backdrop of years of occupation, the uprising included almost the entire Pal- estinian population, in par tic u lar women and children, who resorted to non- violent methods of re sis tance to the occupation, such as civil disobedience, strikes, demonstrations, withholding taxes, and product boycotts. Led mainly by the local (versus exiled) leaders, the movement built on pop u lar commit- tees (e.g., women’s, voluntary work, and medical relief ) to sustain itself, while 11 serving as an embryonic institution of a future in de pen dent Palestinian state. More recently, the “Cedar Revolution,” a grassroots movement of some 1.5 mil- lion Lebanese from all walks of life demanding meaningful sovereignty, de- mocracy, and an end to foreign meddling, resulted in the withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon in 2005. This movement came to symbolize a model of peaceful mobilization from below that could cause momentous change in the region. At almost the same time, a nascent democracy movement in Egypt, with Kifaya at its core, mobilized thousands of middle- class professionals, stu- dents, teachers, judges, and journalists who called for a release of po liti cal prisoners and an end to emergency law, torture, and Husni Mubarak’s presi- dency. In a fresh perspective, this movement chose to work with “pop u lar forces,” rather than with traditional opposition parties, bringing the campaign into the streets instead of broadcasting it from headquarters, and focused on domestic issues rather than international demands. As a postnational and pos- tideological movement, Kifaya embraced activists from diverse ideological ori- entations and gender, religious, and social groups. This novel mobilization managed, aft er years of Islamist hegemony, nationalism, and authoritarian rule, to break the taboo of unlawful street marches, and to augment a new postna- -1— tionalist, secular, and nonsectarian (demo cratic) politics in Egypt. It galvanized 0— international support and compelled the Egyptian government to amend the +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 6 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

21 THE ART OF PRESENCE 7 constitution to allow for competitive presidential elections. More spectacularly, the nonviolent Green Wave mobilized millions of Iranians against the Ahma- dinejad’s hardline government (accused of fraud in the presidential elections of June 12, 2009) pushing for democratic reform. Movements like Green Wave, Kifaya, and the Cedar Revolution emerged against the background of, and indeed as alternatives to, the more formidable Islamist trends in the Muslim Middle East, which have grown on the ruins of secular Arab socialism— a mix of Pan- Arabism and (non- Marxist) socialism, which wielded notable impact on po liti cal ideas and social developmental arenas in the 1950s and 1960s but declined aft er the Arab defeat in the Six Day War with Israel. Islamist movements have posed perhaps the most serious challenge to secular authoritarian regimes in the region, even though their vision of po li ti cal order remained largely exclusivist and authoritarian. They expressed the voice of the mainly middle- class high achievers— products of Arab socialist programs— who in the 1980s felt marginalized by the dominant economic and po liti cal pro cesses in their societies, and who saw no recourse in the fading socialist project and growing neoliberal modernity, thus chart- ing their dream of justice and power in religious politics. The infl uence of Middle Eastern Islamism has gone beyond the home countries; by forging transnational networks, it has impacted global politics on an unpre ce dented scale. Yet the failure of Islamism to herald a demo cratic and inclusive order has given rise to far- reaching nascent movements, what I have called “post- Islamism,” that can reshape the po liti cal map of the region if they succeed. Neither anti- Islamic nor secular, but spearheaded by pious Muslims, post- Islamism attempts to undo Islamism as a po liti cal project by fusing faith and freedom, a secular demo cratic state and a religious society. It wants to marry Islam with individual choice and liberties, with democracy and modernity, to generate what some have called an “alternative modernity.” Emerging fi rst in the Islamist Iran of the late 1990s (and expressed in Mohammad Khatami’s reform government of 1997– 2004), post- Islamism has gained expression in a number of po liti cal movements and parties in the Muslim world, including Egypt’s Al- Wasat, the current Lebanese Hizbullah, the Moroccan Justice and Development Party, and the ruling Turkish Justice and Development Party (AK Party). This trend is likely to continue to grow as an alternative to undemo- cratic Islamist movements. Parallel to the current post- Islamist turn, Islam continues to serve as a —-1 crucial mobilizing ideology and social movement frame. But as this book dem- —0 onstrates, Islam is not only a subject of po liti cal contention, but also its object. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 7 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

22 8 INTRODUCTION In other words, while religious militants continue to deploy Islam as an ideo- logical frame to push for exclusive moral and sociopo liti cal order, secular Muslims, human rights activists, and, especially, middle- class women have campaigned against a reading of Islam that underwrites patriarchy and justi- fi es their subjugation. Indeed, the history of women’s struggle in the Middle East has been intimately tied to a battle against conservative readings of Islam. Throughout the twentieth century, segments of Middle Eastern women were mobilized against conservative moral and po liti cal authorities, to push for gender equality in marriage, family, and the economy, and to assert their 12 social role and ability to act as public players. While the earlier forms of wom- en’s activism, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, focused primarily on charity work, the 1940s saw women collectively engaged in anti- colonial struggles, while protesting against polygamy and advocating female education. Women’s campaigns were galvanized in associational activism, which in this period fl ourished in Egypt, Tunis, Morocco, Lebanon, Sudan, 13 and Iraq. In the meantime, the nationalist and left ist po liti cal parties and movements wished to strengthen women’s rights; yet issues relating to gender equality took a backseat to po liti cal priorities, in par tic u lar the broader ob- jective of national liberation. It was largely in the postcolonial era, when women’s presence in education, public life, politics, and the economy had been considerably enhanced, that women’s organizations dedicated their at- tention primarily to gender rights. Yet the tide of conservative Islamism and Salafi trends since the 1980s has posed a new challenge to eff orts to decrease 14 the gender gap in Middle Eastern societies. Many women are now in the throes of a battle that aims to retain what the earlier generations had gained over years of struggle. The desire to play an active part in society and the economy and to assert a degree of individuality remains a signifi cant women’s claim. If historically women used charity associations to assert their public role and other gender claims, currently the professional middle classes (teachers, lawyers, pharmacists, engineers, and doctors) deploy their fairly in de pen dent syndicates both to defend their professional claims and to carry out po liti cal ec- work, since traditional party politics remain in general corrupt and in eff tive. Thus, it is not uncommon to fi nd professional syndicates to serve nation- alist or Islamist politics— a phenomenon quite distinct from labor unions. Unlike the professional syndicates, the conventional trade unions remain en- -1— gaged chiefl y with economic and social concerns. Despite corporatism and 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 8 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

23 THE ART OF PRESENCE 9 governmental pressures, trade unions in the Middle East have spearheaded defending workers’ rights and their traditional social contract. While Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Turkey have enjoyed more or less pluralist and rela- tively in de pen dent unions, in the ex- populist countries of the region, such as Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, and Syria, unions remain in the grip of corporat- ism. But even such corporatist unions have been used by the public- sector workers to fi ght against redundancies, price increases, and traditional bene- fi ts. Clearly, unionism covers only a small percentage of working people, or ga- nized in the formal and public sectors. Where trade unions have failed to serve the interests of the majority of working poor, workers have oft en re- 15 sorted to illegal strikes or mass street protests. Thus, the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP) has, since the 1980s, coincided with a number of cost- of- living protests in many cities of the region, protests with little or no religious coloring. Indeed, the 2006, 2007, and March– April 2008 spate of mass workers’ strikes in Egypt’s public and private sectors, in par tic u lar among the textile workers of Mahalla al- Kubra, was described as the most eff ective or ga nized activism in the nation’s history since World War II, 16 with almost no Islamist infl uence. It is clear that contentious collective action has played a key role in the po- liti cal trajectories of the Middle Eastern nations. These collectives represent fairly or ga nized, self- conscious, and relatively sustained mobilizations with identifi able leadership and oft en a par tic u lar (nationalist or socialist) ideology or discourse. However, this type of or ga nized activism does not develop just anywhere and anytime. It requires a po liti cal opportunity— when the po liti cal authorities and the mechanisms of control are undermined by, for instance, a po liti cal or an economic crisis, international pressure, or infi ghting within the ruling elites. For example, the Cedar Revolution in Lebanon resulted from the slaying of Prime Minister Hariri, which off ered a po liti cal and psychologi- cal opportunity to forge a broad anti- Syrian movement. Alternatively, an op- portunity may arise when a sympathetic government or a faction within the government comes to power (e.g., as a result of an election), which then di- minishes risk of repression and facilitates collective and or ga nized mobiliza- tion; this was the case during the reform government under President Khat- ami in Iran (1997– 2004). Otherwise, in ordinary conditions, the authoritarian regimes in the region have expressed little tolerance toward sustained collec- ve states tive dissent. The Freedom House reported in 2003 that while only fi —-1 in the Middle East and North Africa region allowed some limited po liti cal —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 9 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

24 10 INTRODUCTION 17 In Iran rights and civil liberties, the remaining twelve states allowed none. in 2007 alone, thousands of activists— journalists, teachers, students, women, and members of labor, civil, and cultural organizations— were arrested and 18 faced court charges or were dismissed from their positions. Dozens of dai- lies and weeklies, and hundreds of NGOs, were shut down. An Amnesty In- ternational report on Egypt cites police violence against peaceful protestors calling for po liti cal reform, the arrest of hundreds of Muslim Brothers mem- bers, and the detention, without trial, of thousands of others suspected of supporting banned Islamic groups. Torture and ill- treatment in detention 19 continued to be systematic. Restriction of po liti cal expression has been, by far, worse in Saudi Arabia and Tunis. The following report about a group of young Egyptians launching a peaceful campaign gives a taste of the severe restrictions against collective actions: July 23, 2008. Under the scorching sun on a beach in Alexandria, Egypt, a few dozen po liti cal activists snap digital pictures and chatter ner vous ly. Many of them wear matching white T-shirts emblazoned with the image of a fi st raised in solidarity and the words “April 6 Youth” splashed across the back. A few of them get to work constructing a giant kite out of bamboo poles and a sheet of plastic painted to look like the Egyptian fl ag. Most are in their twenties, some younger; one teenage girl wears a teddy bear backpack. Before the group can get the kite aloft , and well before they have a chance to distribute their pro- democracy leafl ets, state security agents swarm across the sand. The cops shout threats to break up what is, by Western standards, a tiny demonstration. The activists disperse from the beach, feeling hot and frustrated; they didn’t even get a chance to fl y their kite. Joining up with other friends, they walk together toward the neighborhood of Loran, singing patriotic songs. Then, as they turn down another street, a group of security agents jump out of nowhere. It’s a coordinated assault that explodes into a frenzy of punches and shoves. There are screams and grunts as about a dozen kids fall or are knocked to the ground. The other 30 or so scatter, sprinting for blocks in all directions before slowing enough to send each other hurried text messages: Where are you? Those who didn’t get away are hustled into a van and two What happened? cars. The security men are shouting at them: “Where is [the leader] Ahmed 20 Maher ?” In the absence of free activities, the po liti cal class is forced either to exit -1— the po liti cal scene at least temporarily, or to go underground. All of the re- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 10 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

25 THE ART OF PRESENCE 11 gion’s guerilla movements, whether the Marxist Fedaian of prerevolutionary Iran, the nationalist Algerian re sis tance against the French colonialism, or the more recent Islamist al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya of Egypt and the Islamic Salva- tion Front (FIS) of Algeria, resorted to subversive revolutionism largely be- cause open and legal po liti cal work was limited. The sad truth is that the dis- sident movements of this sort are likely to spearhead undemo cratic practices. Surveillance and secrecy disrupt free communication and open debate within a movement, leading either to fragmentation of aims and expectations— a recipe for discord and sedition— or to outright authoritarian tendencies and a cult of leadership. Still, while only a handful of revolutionary activists would nd recourse venture into such perilous subversive operations, others would fi in street politics, expressing grievance in public space and engaging in civic campaigns, or resort to the type of “social nonmovements” that interlock ac- tivism with the practice of everyday life. STREET POLITICS AND PO LITI CAL STREET The contentious politics I have outlined so far are produced and expressed primarily in urban settings. Indeed, urban public space continues to serve as the key theater of contentions. When people are deprived of the electoral power to change things, they are likely to resort to their own institutional clout (as students or workers going on strike) to bring collective pressure to bear on authorities to undertake change. But for those urban subjects (such as the unemployed, house wives, and the “informal people”) who structurally lack intuitional power of disruption (such as going on strike), the “street” becomes street politics de- the ultimate arena to communicate discontent. This kind of scribes a set of confl icts, and the attendant implications, between an individ- ual or a collective populace and the authorities, which are shaped and ex- pressed in the physical and social space of the streets, from the back alleyways 21 to the more visible streets and squares. Here confl ict originates from the ac- tive use of public space by subjects who, in the modern states, are allowed to use it only passively — through walking, driving, watching— or in other ways use infuriates offi cials, who that the state dictates. Any active or participative see themselves as the sole authority to establish and control public order. Thus, the street vendors who proactively spread their businesses in the main alleyways; squatters who take over public parks, lands, or sidewalks; youth who control the street- corner spaces, street children who establish street com- —-1 munities; poor house wives who extend their daily house hold activities into —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 11 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

26 12 INTRODUCTION the alleyways; or protestors who march in the streets, all challenge the state prerogatives and thus may encounter reprisal. Street politics assumes more relevance, particularly in the neoliberal cit- ies, those shaped by the logic of the market. Strolling through the streets of Cairo, Tehran, Dakar, or Jakarta in the midst of a working day, one is aston- ished by the presence of so many people operating in the streets— working, running around, standing, sitting, negotiating, driving, or riding on buses and trams. These represent the relatively new subaltern of the neoliberal city. For the neoliberal city is the “city inside- out,” where a massive number of in- habitants become compelled by the poverty and dispossession to operate, sub- sist, socialize, and simply live a life in the public spaces. Here the outdoor spaces (back alleys, public parks, squares, and the main streets) serve as indispensi- ble assets in the economic livelihood and social/cultural reproduction of a vast segment of the urban population, and, consequently, as fertile ground for 22 the expression of street politics. But “street politics” has another dimension, in that it is more than just about confl ict between authorities and deinstitutionalized or informal groups over the control of public space and order. Streets, as spaces of fl ow and move- ment, are not only where people express grievances, but also where they forge extend their protest beyond their immedi- identities, enlarge solidarities, and ate circles to include the unknown, the strangers. Here streets serve as a me- dium through which strangers or casual passersby are able to establish latent communication with one another by recognizing their mutual interests and shared sentiments. This is how a small demonstration may grow into a mas- sive exhibition of solidarity; and that is why almost every contentious politics, major revolution, and protest movement fi nds expression in the urban streets. It is this epidemic potential of street politics that provokes authorities’ severe surveillance and widespread repression. While a state may be able to shut down colleges or to abolish po liti cal parties, it cannot easily stop the normal fl ow of life in streets, unless it resorts to normalizing violence, erecting walls and checkpoints, as a strategic element of everyday life. Thus, not only does city space serve as the center stage of sociopo liti cal contentions, it at the same time conditions the dynamics and shapes the pat- icts and their resolution. Cities inescapably leave their spatial terns of confl imprints on the nature of social struggles and agency; they provoke par tic u lar kinds of politics, of both micro and macro nature. For instance, revolutions in -1— the sense of “insurrections” not only result from certain historical trajecto- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 12 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

27 THE ART OF PRESENCE 13 ries, but are also shaped by certain geographies and are facilitated by certain uences. Thus, beyond asking why and when a given revolution oc- spatial infl curred, we should also be asking where it was unleashed and why it happened where it did. As sites of the concentration of wealth, power, and privilege, cit- ies are as much the source of epidemic confl icts, social struggles, and mass insurgencies as the source of cooperation, sharing, and what I like to call “every- day cosmopolitanism”— a place where various members of ethnic, racial, and religious groupings are conditioned to mix, mingle, undertake everyday en- counters, and experience trust with one another. Cosmopolitan experiences in cities, in turn, may act as a spatial catalyst to ward off and contain sectarian strife and violence. In this book, I examine how, for instance, Muslims and Coptic Christians in Cairo experience an intertwined culture, shared lives, and inseparable histories— a social intercourse that subverts the language of clash, one that has dominated the current “interreligious” relations around the globe. And yet, along with providing the possibility for mixing and min- gling of diverse ethnic and religious members, modern cities— due to density, advanced media, high literacy, and communication technologies— can also facilitate swift and extensive forging of sectarian, albeit “distanciated,” com- munities along ethnic or religious lines. Such collective feelings, grievances, and belonging have no better place for expression than urban streets. In other words, urban streets not only serve as a physical space where confl icts are shaped and expressed, where collectives are formed, solidarities are extended, and “street politics” are displayed. They also signify a crucial symbolic utter- ance, one that goes beyond the physicality of streets to convey collective senti- ments of a nation or a community. This I call po liti cal street , as exemplifi ed in such terms as “Arab street” or “Muslim street.” Po liti cal street , then, denotes the collective sentiments, shared feelings, and public opinions of ordinary people in their day- to- day utterances and practices that are expressed broadly in public spaces— in taxis, buses, and shops, on street sidewalks, or in mass street demonstrations. The types of struggles that characterize the societies of the Middle East are neither unique to this region nor novel in their emergence. Similar pro- cesses are well under way in other parts of the world. The integration of the Middle East into the global economic system has created socio- political struc- tures and pro cesses in this region that fi nd resemblance in other societies of the global South. Yet the continuing authoritarian rule, the region’s strategic —-1 location (in relation to oil and Israel), and the predominance of Islam give the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 13 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

28 14 INTRODUCTION politics of dissent in the Muslim Middle East par tic u lar characteristics. Not- withstanding its characterization as “passive and dead” or “rowdy and danger- ous,” the “Arab street” exhibited a fundamental vitality and vigor in the aft er- math of 9/11 events and the occupation of Iraq, despite the Middle East’s regimes’ continuous surveillance of po liti cal dissent. However, much mobili- zational energy is spent on nationalistic and anti- imperialist concerns at the expense of the struggle for democracy at home. Even though street politics in the Arab world has assumed some innovations in strategy, methods, and con- stituencies, it remains overwhelmed by the surge of religio- nationalist poli- tics. Yet it is naive to conclude a priori that the future belongs to Islamist poli- tics. The fact is that Islamism itself is undergoing a dramatic shift in its underlying ideals and strategies. Thus, while Islam continues to play a major mobilizational role, the conditions for the emergence of Iranian- type Islamic revolutions seem to have been exhausted. I suggest that the evolving domestic and global conditions, namely, the tendency toward legalism and reformist politics, individualization of piety, and transnationalization (both the objec- tives and the actors) among radical trends, tend to favor not Islamic revolu- tions, but some of kind of “post- Islamist refolutions”— a type of indigenous po liti cal reform marked by a blend of demo cratic ideals and, possibly, reli- gious sensibilities. Given the continuous authoritarian rule that curbs or ga- nonmovements of frag- nized and legal opposition movements, the social mented and inaudible collectives may play a crucial role in instigating such a transformation. SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS What are the “social nonmovements”? In general, nonmovements refers to the collective actions of noncollective actors; they embody shared practices of large numbers of ordinary people whose fragmented but similar activities trig- ger much social change, even though these practices are rarely guided by an ideology or recognizable leaderships and organizations. The term movement implies that social nonmovements enjoy signifi cant, consequential elements of social movements; yet they constitute distinct entities. In the Middle East, the nonmovements have come to represent the mobili- y the urban poor, Muslim women, zation of millions of the subaltern, chiefl and youth. The nonmovement of the urban dispossessed, which I have termed the “quiet encroachment of the ordinary,” encapsulates the discreet and pro- -1— longed ways in which the poor struggle to survive and to better their lives by 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 14 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

29 THE ART OF PRESENCE 15 quietly impinging on the propertied and powerful, and on society at large. It embodies the protracted mobilization of millions of detached and dispersed individuals and families who strive to enhance their lives in a lifelong collec- tive eff ort that bears few elements of pivotal leadership, ideology, or struc- t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . M o r e s p e c i fi cally, I am referring to the mass movement of rural migrants who, in a quest for a better life- chance, embark on a steady and strenuous campaign that involves unlawful acquisition of lands and shel- ters, followed by such urban amenities as electricity, running water, phone lines, paved roads, and the like. To secure paid work, these migrants take over street sidewalks and other desirable public spaces to spread their vending businesses, infringing on and appropriating pop u lar labels to promote their merchandise. Scores of people subsist on turning the public streets into park- ing spaces for private gains, or use sidewalks as sites for outdoor workshops and other businesses. These masses of largely atomized individuals, by such parallel practices of everyday encroachments, have virtually transformed the large cities of the Middle East and by extension many developing countries, generating a substantial outdoor economy, new communities, and arenas of self- development in the urban landscapes; they inscribe their active presence in the confi guration and governance of urban life, asserting their “right to city.” ects in some way the non- This kind of spread- out and encroachment refl movements of the international illegal migrants. There exist now a massive border check, barriers, fences, walls, and police patrol. And yet they keep fl ooding— through the air, sea, road, hidden in back of trucks, trains, or sim- ply on foot. They spread, expand, and grow in the cities of the global North; they settle, fi nd jobs, acquire homes, form families, and struggle to get legal protection. They build communities, church or mosque groups, cultural col- lectives, and visibly fl ood the public spaces. As they feel safe and secure, they assert their physical, social and cultural presence in the host societies. Indeed, the anxiety that these both national and international migrants have caused among the elites are remarkably similar. Cairo elite lament about the ‘inva- sion of fallahin’ (peasants) from the dispersed Upper Egyptian countryside, and Istanbul elite warn of the encroachment of the ‘black Turks,’ meaning poor rural migrants from Anatolia, who, they say, have altogether ruralized and guration of “our modern cities.” In a strikingly transformed the social confi similar tone, white Eu ro pe an elites express profound anxiety about the ‘inva- sion of foreigners’— Africans, Asians, and in par tic u lar Muslims— who they —-1 see as having overwhelmed Eu rope’s social habitat, distorting the Eu ro pe an —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 15 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

30 16 INTRODUCTION way of life by their physical presence and cultural modes— their hijab, mosques and minarets. Truth is, rhetoric notwithstanding, the encroachment is real and is likely to continue. The struggles of such migrant poor in the Middle East or those of the international migrants constitute neither an or ga nized and self- conscious social movement nor a coping mechanism, since people’s survival is not at the cost of themselves but of other groups or classes. These practices also move beyond simple acts of everyday re sis tance, for they engage in surreptitious and incremental encroachments to further their claims. Rather, they exemplify a poor people’s nonmovement. It is oft en claimed that radical Islamism in the Middle East voices the in- terests of the poor as the victim of the urban ecol ogy of overcrowded slums, where poverty, anomie, and lawlessness nurture extremism and violence, of which militant Islamism is a variant. But this view fi nds less plausibility when it is tested against the general reluctance of the urban poor to lend ideological support to this or that po liti cal movement. A pragmatic politics of the poor, one that ensures tackling concrete and immediate concerns, means that po- liti cal Islam plays little part in the habitus of the urban disenfranchised. The underlying politics of the poor is expressed not in po liti cal Islam, but in a uid, fl exible, and self- producing poor people’s “nonmovement”— the type of fl strategy that is adopted not only by the urban poor, but also by other subal- tern groups, including middle- class women. Under the authoritarian patriarchal states, whether secular or religious, women’s activism for gender equality is likely to take on the form of non- movement. Authoritarian regimes and conservative men impose severe restric- tions on women making gender claims in a sustained fashion— establishing in de pen dent organizations and publications, lobbying, managing public pro- tests, mobilizing ordinary women, acquiring funding and resources, or estab- lishing links with international solidarity groups. In the Iran of early 2007, for instance, women activists who initiated a “million- signature campaign”— to involve ordinary women nationally against misogynous laws— encountered constant harassment, repression, and detention. Many young activists were beaten up, not only by morals police, but in some cases by their own male guardians. Recognizing such constraints on or ga nized campaigns, women have tended to pursue a diff erent strategy, one that involves intimately the mundane practices of everyday life, such as pursuing education, sports, arts, music, or working outside the home. These women did not refrain from per- -1— forming the usually male work of civil servants, professionals, and public ac- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 16 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

31 THE ART OF PRESENCE 17 tors, from carry ing out chores such as banking, taking cars to mechanics, or negotiating with builders. They did not stop jugging in public parks, climbing Mount Everest, or contesting (and winning) in male- dominated car racing, despite unsuitable dress codes. So, women established themselves as public actors, subverting the conventional public– private gender divide. Those who did not wish to wear veils defi ed the forced hijab (headscarf ) in public for more than two de cades in a “war of attrition” with the public morals police until they virtually normalized what the authorities had lamented as bad- hijabi ”—showing a few inches of hair beneath the headscarves. In their “ legal battles, women challenged court houses and judges’ decisions on child custody, ending marriages, and other personal status provisions. These mundane doings had perhaps little resemblance to extraordinary acts of defi ance, but rather were closely tied to the ordinary practices of every- day life. Yet they were bound to lead to signifi cant social, ideological, and legal imperatives. Not only did such practices challenge the prevailing assumptions about women’s roles, but they were followed by far- reaching structural legal imperatives. Every claim they made became a stepping- stone for a further claim, generating a cycle of opportunities for demands to enhance gender rights. Thus, women’s quest for literacy and a college education enabled them to live alone, away from the control of their guardians, or led to a career that might demand traveling alone, supervising men, or defying male dominance. The intended or unintended consequences of these disparate but widespread individual practices were bound to question the fundamentals of legal and moral codes, facilitating claims for gender equality. They at times subverted the eff ective governmentality of the state machinery and ideology, pushing it towards pragmatism, compro mise, and discor d. Women activists (as well as the authorities) were keenly aware of the incremental consequences of such structural encroachment and tried to take full advantage of the possibilities it off ered both to practical struggles and to conceptual/discursive articulations. What about the nonmovement of youth? Indeed, similar pro cesses charac- terize Muslim youth activism. Very oft en “youth movements” are erroneously confl ated with and mistaken for “student movements” or “youth chapters” of this or that po liti cal party or po liti cal movement, so that, for instance, the youth chapter of the Ba ̔th party is described as the “youth movement” in the Iraq of Saddam Hussein. I suggest that these categories should conceptually be erent realities. Broadly speaking, a youth kept separate, for they speak to diff —-1 movement is about reclaiming youthfulness. It embodies a collective challenge —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 17 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

32 18 INTRODUCTION whose central goal consists of defending and extending youth habitus— defending and extending the conditions that allow the young to assert their individuality, creativity, and lightness and free them from anxiety over the prospect of their future. Curbing and controlling youthfulness is likely to trigger youth dissent. But the diff erent ways in which youth dissent is ex- pressed and claims are made determine whether the young are engaged in a fully fl edged youth movement or a nonmovement. A cursory look at the Muslim Middle East would reveal that the claims of youthfulness remain at the core of youth discontent. But the intensity of youths’ activism depends, fi rst, on the degree of social control imposed on them by the moral and po liti cal authorities and, second, on the degree of social cohesion among the young. Thus, in postrevolutionary Iran the young people forged a remarkable nonmovement to reclaim their youth habitus— in being treated as full citizens, in what to wear, what to listen to, and how to appear in public, and in the general choice of their lifestyle and pursuit of youthful fun. Indeed, the globalizing youth more than others have been the target of, and thus have battled against, puritanical regimes and moral sensibilities that tend to stifl e the ethics of fun and joy that lie at the core of the expression of youthfulness. “Fun”— a meta phor for the expression of individuality, spontaneity, and lightness— therefore became a site of a protracted po liti cal contestation be- tween the doctrinal regimes and the Muslim youth, and a fundamental ele- ment in youth dissent, especially in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This remark- able dissent emanated partly from the contradictory positionality of youth. On one side, the young were highly valorized for their role in the revolution and the war (with Iraq), and, on the other, they remained under a strong so- cial control and moral discipline by the Islamic regime. This occurred in a time and place in which the young people enjoyed an enormous constituency, with two- thirds of the total population being under thirty years of age. But this dissent was not a structured movement with extensive networks of com- munication, or ga ni za tion, and collective protest actions. As in many parts of the Middle East, the young in general remained dispersed, atomized, and di- vided, with their or ga nized activism limited to a number of youth NGOs and publications. Youths instead forged collective identities in schools, colleges, urban public spaces, parks, cafés, and sports centers; or they connected with one another through the virtual world of various media. Thus, theirs was not a deliberate network of solidarity where they could meet, interact, articulate -1— their concerns, or express collective dissent. Rather, they linked to one an- 0— +1— 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 18 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

33 THE ART OF PRESENCE 19 other passively and spontaneously— through “passive networks”— by sensing their commonalities through such methods as recognizing similar hairstyles, blue jeans, hang- out places, food, fashions, and the pursuit of public fun. In sum, just as with women and the poor, theirs was not a politics of protest, but of practice, a politics of redress through direct action. While the battle over “fun” brings the globalizing urban youth to the center stage of po liti cal struggle against fundamentalist movements and re- gimes, youth nonmovements as such— those whose major preoccupation re- volves around reclaiming youth habitus— should not necessarily be seen as en hoped. Youth may the harbinger of demo cratic transformation, as it is oft become agents of demo cratic change only when they act and think po liti- cally; otherwise, their preoccupation with their own narrow youthful claims may bear little impetus for engaging in broader societal concerns. In other words, the transforming or, in par tic u lar, demo cratizing eff ects of youth nonmovements depend partly on the capacity of adversarial regimes or states to accommodate youthful claims. Youth nonmovements, just like women’s nonmovements, follow a strong demo cratizing eff ect primarily when they challenge the narrow doctrinal foundations of the exclusivist fundamentalist regimes. LOGIC OF PRACTICE IN NONMOVEMENTS How do we explain the logic of practice in nonmovements? Social movements, especially those operating in the po liti cally open and technologically ad- vanced western societies, are defi ned as the “or ga nized, sustained, self- 23 conscious challenge to existing authorities.” Ve r y o ft en, they are embedded in par tic u lar organizations and guided by certain ideologies; they pursue cer- tain frames, follow specifi c leaderships, and adopt par tic u lar repertoires or 24 means and methods of claim making. What, then, diff erentiates the type of nonmovements that I have discussed here so far? What are the distinct fea- tures of nonmovements in general? First, nonmovements, or the collective actions of noncollective actors, tend to be action- oriented, rather than ideologically driven; they are over- whelmingly quiet, rather than audible, since the claims are made largely indi- vidually rather than by united groups. Second, whereas in social movements leaders usually mobilize the constituencies to put pressure on authorities to meet their demands, in nonmovements actors directly practice what they —-1 claim, despite government sanctions. Thus, theirs is not a politics of protest, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 19 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

34 20 INTRODUCTION but of practice, of redress through direct and disparate actions. Third, un- extraordinary like social movements, where actors are involved usually in deeds of mobilization and protestation that go beyond the routine of daily life (e.g., attending meetings, petitioning, lobbying, demonstrating, and so on), the nonmovements are made up of practices that are merged into, in- deed are part and parcel of, the ordinary practices of everyday life. Thus, the poor people building homes, getting piped water or phone lines, or spread- ing their merchandise out in the urban sidewalks; the international mi- grants crossing borders to fi nd new livelihoods; the women striving to go to college, playing sports, working in public, conducting “men’s work,” or choosing their own marriage partners; and the young appearing how they like, listening to what they wish, and hanging out where they prefer— all represent some core practices of nonmovements in the Middle East and similar world areas. The critical and fourth point is that these practices are not carried out by small groups of people acting on the po liti cal margins; everyday life rather, they are common practices of of carried out by millions people who albeit remain fragmented . In other words, the power of nonmove- ments does not lie in the unity of actors, which may then threaten disruption, uncertainty, and pressure on the adversaries. The power of nonmovements rests on the , that is, the consequential eff ect on norms power of big numbers and rules in society of many people simultaneously doing similar, though contentious, things. What eff ect do “big numbers” have? To begin with, a large number of people acting in common has the eff ect of normalizing and legitimizing those acts that are otherwise deemed illegitimate. The practices of big numbers are likely to capture and appropriate spaces of power in society within which the subaltern can cultivate, consolidate, and reproduce their counterpower. Thus, the larger the number of women who assert their presence in the public space, the more patriarchal bastions they undermine. And the greater the number of the poor consolidating their self- made urban communities, the more limited the elite control of urban governance becomes. Second, even though ects of their actions do these subjects act individually and separately, the eff not of necessity fade away in seclusion. They can join up, generating a more powerful dynamic than their individual sum total. Whereas each act, like impact, such acts pro- single drops of rain, singularly makes only individual duce larger spaces of alternative practices and norms when they transpire in -1— big numbers— just as the individual wetting eff ects of billions of raindrops 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 20 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

35 THE ART OF PRESENCE 21 aaa aaa aaa Figure 1.1. Power of big numbers: Exponential outcome of merging individual acts. join up to generate creeks, rivers, and even fl oods and waves (Figure 1.1). Thus, nes the power of nonmovements relates to the (intended what ultimately defi and unintended) of the similar practices that a “big number” of consequences subjects simultaneously perform. By thinking about nonmovements in this fashion, are we not in a sense multitude, which they defi ne as “sin- conjuring up Hardt and Negri’s concept of rst glance, the enor- gularities of social subjects that act in common”? At fi mous magnitude as well as the fragmentation of social subjects associated reminds one of nonmovements and the “power of big num- multitude with bers.” But the resemblance stops there. Unlike the categories of working class , multi- people , or mass , which are marked by sameness and shared identities, is made up of “singularities,” or dissimilar or nonidentical social sub- tude erent social groups, gender clusters, or sexual orientations jects, a mix of diff that are ontologically diff erent (Figure 1.2). Their apparent similarity, in Hardt and Negri’s view, lies in their producing “immaterial labor” and standing 25 opposed to the “empire.” is assumed to bring to- multitude Thus, whereas erent social subjects (men, women, black, gether singular and ontologically diff white, various ethnicities, etc.), nonmovements galvanize members of the same, even though internally fragmented, groups (e.g., globalizing youth, Muslim en in- women, illegal migrants, or urban poor), who act in common, albeit oft dividually. While in nonmovements, collective action is a function of shared interests and identities within a single group, especially when confronted by a common threat, in a multitude, it is not clear precisely how the singular components are to come and act together, and how these diff erent groups —-1 (e.g., men and women, native working class and migrant workers, or dominant —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 21 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

36 22 INTRODUCTION icts of interests between them, let alone and subordinate ethnicities) avoid confl act in common. If, unlike in a multitude, common identities are essential for agents of non- movements to act collectively, how are these identities forged among frag- mented and atomized subjects in the fi rst place? And why do they act in com- mon if they are not deliberately mobilized by organizations or leaders? Collective identities are built not simply in open and legal institutions or soli- darity networks, of which they are in general deprived due to surveillance. Solidarities are forged primarily in public spaces— in neighborhoods, on street corners, in mosques, in workplaces, at bus stops, or in rationing lines, or in detention centers, migrant camps, public parks, colleges, and athletic stadiums— through what I have called “passive networks.” The passive net- works represent a key feature in the formation of nonmovements. They refer to instantaneous communications between atomized individuals, which are es- tablished by tacit recognition of their commonalities directly in public spaces 26 or indirectly through mass media. Thus, the poor street vendors would rec- ognize their common predicaments by noticing one another on street corners on a daily basis, even though they may never know or speak to one another. Female strangers neglecting dress codes in public spaces would internalize their shared identities in the streets by simply observing one another; those confronting men and judges in court houses would readily feel their com- monly held inferior status. On street corners, at shopping malls, or in colleges, the young identify their collective position by spontaneously recognizing similar fashions, hairstyles, and social tastes. For these groups, space clearly provides the possibility of mutual recognition (Figure 1.5)— a factor that dis- tinguishes them from such fragmented groups as illegal immigrants, who may lack the medium of space to facilitate solidarity formation unless they come together in the same workplaces, detention centers, or residential com- pounds. These latter groups rely oft en on mass media, rumors, or distanciated networks— that is, knowing someone who knows someone who knows some- one in a similar position— a pro cess that facilitates building “imagined soli- 27 darities” (Figure 1.3). The new information technology, in par tic u lar the current social net- working sites such as Facebook, can bypass the medium of physical space by connecting atomized individuals in the world of the Web, and in so doing cre- ate a tremendous opportunity for building both passive and active networks. -1— The Egyptian April 7 Youth Movement built on such media to connect some 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 22 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

37 THE ART OF PRESENCE 23 aaa ahm aaa odx npb aaa No network: Atomized individuals Figure 1.2. Figure 1.3. No network: Atomized individuals without a common position. Source: Asef Bayat, Street with a common position. Source: Asef Bayat, Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran. New York: New York: Columbia University Press, Iran. Columbia University Press, 1997, p. 18. 1997, p. 18. aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa Passive network: Atomized individuals Active network: Individuals with Figure 1.5. Figure 1.4. similar positions brought together deliberately— with similar positions brought together through association with an active network. Source: Asef space. Source: Asef Bayat, Street Politics: Poor Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements New York: Columbia Bayat, People’s Movements in Iran. in Iran. University Press, 1997, p. 18. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997, p. 18. 70,000 people, most of them young, who then called for the support of textile workers’ strikes in April 2008 and protested against the Israeli aggression in 28 Gaza in 2008– 9. But this venue is limited largely to young, literate, and well- to- do groups, whose mobilization of this kind can descend into a sort of “chic politics” of ad hoc and short- lived interventions. More importantly, this chan- nel is too exposed and contained, and thus vulnerable to police surveillance, —-1 when compared to the fl uidity and resiliency of “passive networks.” In the war —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 23 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

38 24 INTRODUCTION of un- equals, the weak will certainly loose if it follows the same rules of the game as those of the powerful. To win an unequal battle, the underdog has no erent, more fl exible and constantly changing choice but to creatively play diff games. At any rate, what mediates between passive networks and possible collec- tive action is a common threat. In other words, while making gains in non- movements takes place individually through direct practices, the defense of gains oft en takes place collectively, when a common threat turns the subjects’ passive network into active communication and or ga nized re sis tance. Thus, women who individually defy authorities by disregarding dress codes are likely to come together when they encounter morals police in the streets. The urban poor who usually carry on building illegal homes quietly and individu- ally oft en resist a government’s de mo li tion eff orts collectively. The massive public demonstration of illegal migrants in Los Angeles on March 26, 2006 to demand a legislation to protect them represents perhaps a more striking po- tential of episodic collection protest of the otherwise atomized agents of non- movements. Of course it is always possible that the subjects may, instead of engaging in immediate confrontation, rationally choose to resort to the “war of attrition”— a temporary compliance in times of constraint while carry ing on with encroachments when the right time arrives. Unlike women, the young, or the poor, illegal immigrants cannot resist state action unless they begin to delib- erately or ga nize themselves, since the markers through which they can readily recognize their shared predicaments in public are limited (see Figure 1.4). But people with limited visible markers may still connect through shared sound (e.g. chants of “Allah Akbar” on rooft ops or youngsters setting off fi recrackers at night time) and symbols (like identical colors, handbands, or t-shirts). These dynamics already point to the questions of how and when non- movements may turn into contentious politics and social movements. Indeed, actual (even though quiet and individualized) defi ance by a large number of people implies that a massive societal mobilization is alre ady under way. This may develop into contentious politics when opportunity for or ga nized, sus- tained, and institutional activism becomes available— for instance, when states/ ghting, crisis, international pressure, or wars become regimes gripped in infi weaker; or when a more tolerant government ascends to power. But the trans- ect of nonmovements should not be judged merely by their even- formative eff tual elevation into or ga nized social movements. Nonmovements, on their -1— own, can have signifi cant transformative impact if they continue to operate in 0— society. They can diminish or impair a state’s governmentality. For states rule +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 24 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

39 THE ART OF PRESENCE 25 not as external to society through mere surveillance but weave their logic into the fabric of society, into norms, rules, institutions, and relations of power. The operation of nonmovements challenges that logic of power. The states may conceivably attempt to off set nonmovements’ subversive practices by, for in- stance, submerging them into their logic of power. But this may not be so easy, for the incremental disposition of claim making in nonmovements is likely to diminish states’ ability to neutralize their eff ects. Should a state ultimately ac- commodate the claims of nonmovements, it would in eff ect be a notable re- 29 form of the state itself. Why are nonmovements the prevalent form of activism in par tic u lar so- cial and po liti cal settings, such as in the Muslim Middle East? The fi rst factor relates to the fact that authoritarian states do not tolerate any in de pen dent and or ga nized dissent. So, they tend either to fragment the subaltern, espe- cially the po liti cal class, or to subsume them under their own populist institu- tions. But the fact is that subaltern classes themselves are also experiencing new dispositions. The growing fragmentation of labor, informalization, the shrinking of public sectors, and “NGOization”— all associated with the neo- liberal restructuring— further curtail the pop u lar capacity for or ga nized ac- tivism in the form of, say, traditional trade union organizations. Yet such a subaltern is confronted by states that are remarkably incapable of or unwill- ing to fulfi ll their social and material needs and expectations— ones that are swelled up by the escalating urbanization, educational growth, media expan- sion, and citizen awareness— thus pushing the populace to take matters into their own hands. When the states cannot provide adequate housing or jobs for the poor (and when the possible conventional legal channels, like lobbying, to achieve these goals are not trusted or get frustrated by state bureaucracy), the poor resort to direct squatting on land or shelters, or illegally spreading their street businesses. When the authorities fail to recognize gender rights or youth demands, women and youths may defy the offi cial authority by directly executing their claims in the areas or institutions with least surveillance or otherwise appropriating and overturning those that enjoy offi cial sanction. Such encroachments become possible— and this is the third point— because the authoritarian regimes, despite their omnipresent image, preside over the states”— that lack the capacity, consistency, and machinery to states—“soft impose full control, even though they may wish to. Consequently, there exist many escapes, spaces, and uncontrolled holes— zones of relative freedom— —-1 that can be fi lled and appropriated by ordinary actors. The genius of subaltern —0 subjects— nonmovements—lies precisely in discovering or generating such —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 25 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

40 26 INTRODUCTION escapes. In other words, I am speaking of the agency and perseverance of mil- lions of women, young people, and the dispossessed who, notwithstanding their diff erences, understand the constraints yet recognize and discover op- portunities, and take advantage of the spaces that are available to enhance their life- chances. The case of a physically small Ira ni an woman driver— her determination to take part, and to win, in male- dominated car racing— is only one example of how women fi nd spaces where they can decisively subvert the dominant ideology that regards them as second- class citizens. This ex- ample illustrates what I have called the “art of presence”— the courage and creativity to assert collective will in spite of all odds, to circumvent con- straints, utilizing what is available and discovering new spaces within which to make oneself heard, seen, felt, and realized. The art of presence is the fun- damental moment in the life of nonmovements, in life as politics. The story of nonmovements is the story of agency in the times of con- straints. The concept is both descriptive and prescriptive. On the one hand, by bypassing the rigid dichotomies of ‘active’/‘passive,’ ‘individual’/‘collective,’ or ‘civil’/ ‘po liti cal’ re sis tance which have limited our conceptual horizons, it opens up wholly new possibilities to explore unnoticed social practices that may in fact be harbinger of signifi cant social changes. It helps uncover the logic of practice among dispersed and distant collectives under the conditions of authoritarian rule when free association and active communication are sup- pressed. It tells us how people manage, resist, and subvert domination through widespread collective (if fragmented) practices. On the other hand, the con- cept is prescriptive, in that it challenges the ideas and excuses that justify exit and inaction under conditions of surveillance. It help us to recognize, indeed gives us hope, that despite authoritarian rule, there are always ways in which people resist, express agency, and instigate change, rather than waiting for a savior or resorting to violence. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 26 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 1

41 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST 2 Dissecting a Manifesto in the first de cade of the new millennium, the Middle East seems to have plunged into a deadlock, the way out of which few would say they know for sure. Despite its massive oil revenue, personal income of Arabs was among the lowest in the world. Productivity declined, scientifi c research was in a poor state, school enrollment decreased, and illiteracy remained consider- able despite high spending. Arab countries had a lower information/media - to- population ratio than the world average— less than 53 newspapers per 1,000 citizens, compared to 285 per 1,000 people in the industrialized world. Trans- lation of books remained negligible— only 4.4 translated books per million were published every year (compared to 519 in Hungary and 920 in Spain). The Arab world’s developmental indexes in health and education lagged far be- hind comparable nations in the World Bank’s income tables. In short “Arab 1 countries [ were] richer than they [ were] developed.” At the same time, the region’s authoritarian regimes, ranging from Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco to the sheikhdoms of the Persian Gulf (chiefl y Saudi Arabia), and all with close ties to the West, have continued to defy per sis tent calls for demo cratization and accountability. Precisely such a historical trajectory has engendered op- position movements, which have been overwhelmingly articulated by religious (Islamist) po liti cal groups, and which have espoused equally undemo cratic, exclusive, and oft en violent mea sures. Adapted from Asef Bayat, “Transforming the Arab World: The Arab Human Develop- 36, no. 6, 2005, Development and Change ment Report and the Politics of Change,” —-1 1225– 37. —0 —+1 27 5 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 27 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

42 28 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST The combination of such social and po liti cal conditions has more than ever reinforced, in the mainstream media and academic circles in the West, the already prevalent idea of “Middle Eastern exceptionalism”— that reifying kernel of the Orientalist paradigm. Thus, in comparison with its counterparts in the developing world, the Middle East— in par tic u lar the Arab world— has oft en been viewed as something very diff erent, a “unique” cultural entity that does not fi t into conventional frames of analysis. Policy personnel in the West, notably the United States, called for an urgent change in the region and yet be- lieved that change would not come from within, but from without, and by force. This juncture encouraged the neoconservative ideologues in the George W. Bush administration to put into practice their Leo Straussian philosophy of force, illiberal elitism in politics, and the idea of uniting po liti cal order by means of creating external threat. Muslim countries in the region have been told to alter textbooks, abolish religious schools, and instruct religious preach- ers to refrain from anti- U.S. sermons. The United States toppled the Taliban regime in Af ghan i stan and dismantled Saddam Hussein’s regime by occupa- tion of Iraq, while threatening Iran in a quest to generate a “greater Middle East,” to cultivate “democracy and development.” Few Arabs and Muslims in the region consider “change by force” as a via- ble and dignifi ed strategy, not least because it is essentially immoral, infl icts widespread violence and destruction, and impinges on people’s dignity. Hav- ing lived and worked in the Middle East for close to two de cades, I feel that a call for po liti cal change from within has continued ceaselessly even though the “external” confl icts, notably Israel’s continuing occupation of Palestinian lands and the aggressive U.S. foreign policy in the region, have seriously dis- torted internal struggles for social and po liti cal transformation. The stubborn resiliency of the authoritarian states against change, coupled with the threat of imperialist domination from outside, have brought the region to a depress- ing impasse. Perhaps never before has the quest for an endogenous vision for change in the Arab world been so urgent as today. The signifi cance of the Arab Human Development Report lay precisely in its publication at this debilitating regional and global juncture, notably aft er the crucial post- 9/11 turning point. But even more than this, the Report , total- ing four volumes— Creating Opportunities for Future Generations (2002), Build- (2004), ing a Knowledge Society Towards Freedom in the Arab World (2003), Towards the Rise of Women in the Arab World (2005)— came to represent and -1— the most signifi cant “manifesto of change” “produced by the Arabs for the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 28 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

43 DISSECTING A MANIFESTO 29 Arab world.” It aimed to show a way out of this profound malaise by calling for a “radical transformation” of the region. To serve the strategic objective of “radical transformation,” the authors adopt a broad understanding of development, in terms of a “pro cess of ex- panding people’s choices.” Perceived as a mixture of Dudley Seers’s notion of development as a pro cess that allows the realization of human potential and Amartya Sen’s “freedom as development,” the Report views human develop- uence the pro- ment as a pro cess in which people enlarge their choices, infl 2 cesses that shape their lives, and enjoy full human rights. Such a conceptual- ization clearly transcends the traditional perceptions of “development” in terms of the mere growth of GNP, rise of personal income, industrialization, technological advance, and social modernization, even though the latter may contribute to “development as freedom.” Thus, in a comprehensive survey of development status ranging from education, health, and knowledge to culture and politics, the Report identifi es three major “defi cits”— in knowledge, in free- dom/democracy, and in women’s empowerment— which are at the core of Arab developmental decline. It describes how some sixty- fi ve million adult Arabs, two- thirds of them women, have remained illiterate. The quality of education is in decline, and mechanisms for intellectual- capital development are lacking. College graduates do not fi nd jobs in suitable occupations; the use of information communications technology (ICT) is remarkably limited, and, consequently, highly educated people are in short supply. Disparity in the distribution of knowledge manifests only one aspect of gender in e qual ity in the Arab countries. It is true that women’s education and literacy have certainly improved, but the prevailing social attitudes and norms continue to focus on women’s reproductive role and their unpaid tasks. Con- sequently, 50 percent of women remain illiterate, while their mortality rate is 3 double that of Latin America. In addition, women are treated unfairly before the law, and in pay, personal status, structures of opportunity, and occupa- tional hierarchy. With the continuing discrimination against women, society undermines a major segment of its productive capacity. As feminist theory has taught us, gender in e qual ity refl ects a defi cit in demo cratic theory and practice in general. And in the Arab region in par tic u- Report lar, this defi cit is far more profound. According to the , the region in these respects lags far behind Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Eu rope. While the Arab states in general “talk the talk” of democracy, they have in practice —-1 exhibited highly authoritarian tendencies. Dominated by powerful executives —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 29 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

44 30 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST and lifelong presidencies, the states curtail freedom of expression and associa- tion, while human rights have fallen victim to secretive and coercive institu- tions, unaccountable to anyone. Suppression of freedoms and human rights is the enemy of human development, the concludes. To remedy these Report debilitating conditions and to achieve meaningful development, the Arab Human Development Report calls for empowering women, building a knowl- edge society, and achieving freedom and good governance. How plausible are these advocacies, and to what extent can such a mani- festo of change bring the Middle East, its subaltern, out of its current dead- Report , of what it calls for, the very mode of its lock? A careful appraisal of the production, and the politics surrounding it, tells us a great deal about the con- tradictions and complexities of po liti cal pro cesses in the Middle East and its relationship to the Western world. It reveals how the fundamental ideals and expectations— freedom, development, democracy, women’s emancipation— on the one hand refl ect the genuine desire for autonomy and emancipation, and at the same time serve as discursive tools for imperialistic domination. The Report, which refl ects the contradictions of the very region it wants to liber- ate, falls in the end to an elitist neoliberal vision in which the “emancipatory outcries” get sidelined. POLITICS SURROUNDING THE DOCUMENT No comparable Arab document in recent memory has been as much debated, . Prepared commended, and contested as the Arab Human Development Report by a team of over a hundred Arab intellectuals and professionals at a cost of 4 some U.S. $700,000 as of 2005, the Report has provoked unpre ce dented dis- cussion in the West as well as in the Arab world about the predicament of the region— aired on tele vi sion talk shows, in parliaments, and in print media. The fi rst two volumes of the Report were received with great jubilation and enthusiasm in the West. The editorials of the major U.S. and Eu ro pe an dailies praised the authors for their professionalism and honesty in disclosing the sad truths of their nations. “With uncommon candor and a battery of statistics,” the Middle East Quarterly reacted, “the Report tells a sorry story of two de- 5 cades of failed planning and developmental decline.” More than one million rst year of rst issue of the copies of the fi were downloaded within the fi Report its publication, while the website of the Report received some two million 6 hits. Report as “a groundbreak- The U.S. State Department described the 2002 -1— 7 ing document,” and Time magazine deemed it the most important publica- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 3 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 30 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

45 DISSECTING A MANIFESTO 31 tion of 2002. The prestigious Dutch Prince Claus Award in 2003 went to this publication; and the G8 in 2004 endorsed the U.S. plan for a “greater Middle East” on the basis of the recommendations of this remarkable document. The deplorable state of development in the Arab world, it was thought, lay at the heart of the rising terrorism in the Middle East, which the G8 considered as jeopardizing these nations’ interests. The western overenthusiasm for the had largely to do with the per- Report ceived ac know ledg ment by the Arab elites of their own defi ciencies in practic- ing freedom, democracy, and development— and this through a document that had been sanctioned by the credible United Nations Development Pro- gram. It refl rmation of the western “expert” anxieties, claims, ected a confi and strategies, raised particularly in the crucial conjuncture of post- 9/11 about the Arab Middle East. The expert community would hear through the pages of the Report how the Arab world, now considered as the nest of global terror- ism, acknowledged its own indictment, while proclaiming its desire to launch a po liti cal and economic reform. Largely for the very same reasons (and the fact) that western offi cials and , many Arab intellectuals slammed the pub- commentators exalted the Report lication at home. They lashed out at the Report for vilifying and degrading, as they saw it, the Arab peoples before Israel and the United States at a time when the Arabs were being besieged globally. They feared that the Report could be used to justify the American expansionist policy and Israeli domina- tion in the region. They charged the Report ’s exclusive emphasis on internal sources of decline as one- sided, totally ignoring the role of colonialism and “imperialist intervention” in causing the developmental malaise of the Arab 8 peoples. For them, the Report signifi ed the defensiveness and dependence of its authors and their deference before western sensibilities. The fact that the document was originally written in En glish and only then translated into Ara- bic was seen as a further confi rmation of the intended (western) audience of for adopting the publication. In addition, the Arab critics slammed the Report a concept of “human development” that drew on the Alternative Human De- velopment Index (AHDI), which emphasizes individual freedom and gender— the major focus of western policymakers. What should be prioritized, they argued, should include tackling the problems of poverty, education, health, and equity, rather than simply demo cratization, not least because there is no necessary relationship between democracy and development (understood as —-1 income and Human Development Index indicators), in par tic u lar when the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 31 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

46 32 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST Report adopts an American formula of democracy, “underlying free market 9 with little attention paid to human entitlements and social ser vices.” Neither the overenthusiasm of the western commentators nor the dispar- aging tone of Arab counterparts does justice to the Report . Both tend to politi- cize the document, praising and blaming it for largely the wrong reasons. The Report is justi- Arab intelligentsia’s suspicion of western enthusiasm about the fi ects of the western, especially ed, given the destructive and debilitating eff the U.S. foreign policy over the region’s development and democracy. In the name of fi ghting against communism, to maintain their geopo liti cal domi- nance and secure the fl ow of cheap oil, many western governments have in- variably helped the region’s authoritarian states to crush nationalist, socialist, and pop u lar struggles (as in Iran, Oman, etc.). The U.S. support for Israel’s continuing occupation of Palestinian lands, undermining re sis tance move- ments against the occupation, and its own illegal occupation of Iraq represent enough reasons for the Arab population to suspect western intents to “demo- cratize” the region. Report are correct when they suggest that the cause The Arab critics of the of the deplorable condition of knowledge is not just internal despotism, but also foreign interventions. The Israeli army’s looting of the Palestinian univer- sities, research centers, and archives in early 2000 surely did not further the growth of a knowledge society in Palestine. Indeed, volumes 2 and 3 of the Re- port , notwithstanding its UN offi cial status, do take issue, even though briefl y, with the destructive consequences for Arab human development of Israeli oc- cupation and the Anglo- American invasion of Iraq. The killing by the Israeli army of 768 and the injuring of over 4,000 Palestinians between May 2003 and June 2004; the de mo li tion of some 12,000 homes within only three years, not to mention the even more destructive Israeli bombardments of Lebanon in 2006 and Gaza in early 2009; and parcelizing the West Bank, with attendant eco- nomic and psychological damages, have led to devastating developmental conse- quences. In a similar vein, the occupation of Iraq, with its massive loss of lives, destruction of infrastructure, dismantling of the state institutions, and human 10 rights violations, without doubt have impeded the development of the region. Yet speaking of foreign dominance as the cause of underdevelopment is nothing new among Arab intellectuals. The widespread view in the Middle en at the cost East has long been infused by a strong nationalist discourse, oft of externalizing internal problems and losing a balanced sense of self. By ex- -1— clusive attention to the evils of colonialism and external intrigues, the pre- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 32 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

47 DISSECTING A MANIFESTO 33 vailing de pen den cy paradigm in the Arab region has for de cades contributed to a debilitating nationalist and populist politics in which a critique of self, of patriarchy, and of authoritarian polity, as well as reaching out to the world, have been lost to defensiveness, po liti cal self- indulgence, and conspiracy the- ory. This outlook, still prevalent among the po liti cal classes in the Arab world, has distorted class politics, deviated from the struggle for democracy, cur- tailed transnational solidarity (with movements located in the West, for in- stance), and largely played into the hands of the authoritarian Arab regimes, which also play nationalist/nativist cards. Report The ’s major breakthrough lies precisely in its attempt and out- look to transcend such nationalist discourse, by highlighting the internal sources of developmental problems. Comprehensive, full of crucial data and insights, it covers major areas of developmental interests, including growth, distribution, poverty, education, health, demography, and infant mortality, as well as gender, knowledge, governance, culture, and politics. The Report self- consciously displays a major postnational and postde pen den cy narrative of the Arab world. Signifi cantly, it wants to show a way out of the malaise, hoping to establish a pro cess within which Arab people can enhance their choices. Yet this remarkable document displays a rather peculiar text, a schizo- phrenic transcript, wherein incongruity in language, format, audience, vi- sions, and strategies perplexes the critical reader. On the one hand, the Report is a statement of fundamental importance, a “vision of an Arab re nais sance,” a guide to social and po liti cal transformation of the Arab world; and yet it is couched and squeezed in the administrative and soulless language of the World Bank. At times, radical tones are merged into neoliberal imagery of economy, polity, elites, and change. The reader is bewildered as to what to interpret the text as: a treatise on po liti cal transformation or a conventional UN report with its “executive summary” and countless sections and subsections, oft en embracing diverse views and perspectives so that logical consistency gets lost amid some kind of “repre sen ta tion of all of views.” For instance, no possible explanation is left off the list of probable reasons for the undemo cratic dispo- sition of Arab states (authoritarian family, clannishness, a social structure antithetical to freedom, “oriental despotism,” colonial domination, repressive legal structure, and rentier character of the Arab states), even though they may contradict one another. Several pages are devoted to the social, po liti cal, and cultural environment as “un- hospitable to freedom,” and yet we read else- —-1 where how pop u lar culture is replete with “longing for freedom” or how the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 33 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

48 34 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST 11 It is as if there Arab bedouin culture is imbued with free- spirited legacies. has been an urge to practice a “democracy of explanations” among these many solicited authors of the , even though at the cost of incongruity Report and analytical inconsistency. But these analytical anomalies should not deter us from paying attention to the Report chiefl y as a document of strategy, and it is here that its strengths as well as its major drawbacks lie. STRATEGY OF CHANGE cits in knowledge, freedom/democracy, and woman em- Given the major defi powerment in the region, the Report regards as the ultimate strategic objec- tives to build a “knowledge society,” to establish freedom and democracy, and to empower women. These represent crucial strategic goals. But the challenge is to explore how the Arab nations are to fulfi ll such aspirations, and what social forces are to be deployed for their realization. Let us begin with the “knowledge society.” The idea of a knowledge society, one that has lingered The Coming of Post- Industrial Society since the 1970s, is rooted in Daniel Bell ’s as a distinct stage in the development of capitalism. Since then this notion has submerged and resurfaced once again in the works of such social theorists as Alvin Gouldner, Jean- François Lyotard, Francis Fukuyama, and more recently 12 Manuel Castells. The World Bank followed suit and began to advocate the idea. In so cio log i cal and political- economy literature, “knowledge society” signifi es a tendency in the “postindustrial” and post- Fordist phase of late capitalism, where science and technology are to play an increasingly impor- tant role in societies’ governance and economic production; it presupposes an economy in which knowledge and skill become more signifi cant for the ac- cumulation of capital, or investment and profi tability, than income or physi- cal capital. This is due to the highly mobile and fl exible disposition of knowl- edge, which is well in tune with the highly dynamic movement of capital in the age of globalization. Some observers view the “knowledge society” as rep- resenting a phase in late modernity in which knowledge seems to play the 13 same role as labor in the classical economy. What ever its dynamics— and some have expressed doubt about its 14 usefulness — knowledge society is an outcome not of planning but of highly developed market forces in postindustrial economies. The fi rst question, then, is how realistic it is to envision and extend such a scenario to the socioeco- nomic reality of the Middle East, which still holds an inadequate industrial -1— basis, and where property and income still play a far more important role in 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 34 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

49 DISSECTING A MANIFESTO 35 individuals’ life- chances than does knowledge. Although higher education has contributed considerably, especially during the 1960s and 1970s, to upward mobility of many lower- class individuals, the growing “intellectual unem- ployment” in the region points to the fact that knowledge by itself does not necessarily bring material well- being for many people. What it certainly does is generate expectations, change status, and, in the absence of real purchase, cause a deep- rooted po liti cal resentment. Indeed, the rise of po liti cal Islam in the Arab world has partly to do with the failure of knowledge (university edu- cation) to secure reasonable life- chances, which the impoverished educated middle classes expected it to do. As some Arab economists suggest, the Re- port , following the current World Bank trend, tends to exaggerate the “poten- tial role of information and communication in Arab development,” simply because the Arab region still lacks a strong economic and technical infra- 15 structure. Perhaps one should search for those types of knowledge that are of urgent relevance to these po liti cal economies. Alternatively, perhaps we should imagine a diff erent understanding of “knowledge society” than what is currently perceived. Regardless of the relevance of the idea of “knowledge society” with respect to the future of the Arab region, the question of how to realize this aim of a knowledge society remains paramount. The Report proposes fi ve precondi- tions necessary to build a knowledge society. They include developing a high- quality education for all, integrating science and information technology in all societal activities, shift ing toward knowledge- based economic production, and reestablishing an Arab knowledge model based on rationality, the strength of the Arabic language, and cultural diversity. However, the most important element is considered to be achieving freedoms of opinion, expression, and assembly. I will not delve into the relationship between individual freedom/ democracy and attaining knowledge; some have argued that there are few necessary relationships between the two. For instance, as Galal Amin sug- gests, Arabs could expand their knowledge during the despotic Abbasid Khila- fat of Harun al- Rashid, when art, music, and science prospered; and Oxford 16 and Cambridge certainly did not fl ourish in En gland’s demo cratic era; and the authoritarian regimes in such countries as Iran or Tunisia have not pre- vented a notable expansion of both general literacy and higher education. Nonetheless, a demo cratic society and polity clearly allow for wider oppor- tunity for knowledge acquisition, even though unequal distribution of —-1 knowledge and information feature the intrinsic characteristics of capitalist —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 35 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

50 36 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST democracies (for instance, given the unequal access to the mainstream media cult to develop an alternative narrative to the in the United States, it is diffi offi cial version of the events of 9/11). Thus, my concern relates not to the rela- tionship between knowledge acquisition and freedom, but rather to the modali- ties of bringing those freedoms (of expression and assembly) to fruition. And ’s second major requirement to realiz- this is a point closely tied to the Report ing Arab human development in general, that is, establishing freedom. But what is “freedom”? The concept embraces “democracy” but is not lim- ited to it. In fact, democracy, we are told, “can be used to legislate restrictions 17 on freedom.” ned as “liberation of the individual from all Freedom is defi factors that are inconsistent with human dignity, such as hunger, disease, 18 ignorance, poverty and fear.” Embedded in the concept are also civil and po liti cal rights. It is a credit to the authors of the Report to envisage such a comprehensive vision of freedom for the Arab peoples. However, a number of questions are raised. First, when “freedom” is perceived in such an all- inclusive fashion, then what is the need to bring in and discuss two more prerequisites for human development (i.e., knowledge and women’s empower- is ment)? Because in this broad sense “freedom synonymous with human de- 19 velopment.” In addition, while the link between knowledge and develop- ment or democracy and development is fairly well discussed, there is no serious justifi cation as to why women’s empowerment is particularly crucial for hu- man development. Certainly, empowering women accounts for an end in it- self, to which the Report , to its credit, off ers prominent attention. There is no doubt that women in the Arab world (as elsewhere, though in various degrees) suff er from gender discrimination, and this needs to be addressed. But dis- crimination targets also children, the el der ly, the handicapped, and immi- grants or refugees. What makes women in par tic u lar, as an analytical cate- gory, important for human development? Failing to delve into this question is likely to give credence to those critics who, even unjustifi ably, may suggest that the “trendy” notion of “women’s empowerment” serves primarily to sat- isfy the sensibilities of a “western audience.” Report ’s understanding of freedom is also “eco- Third, implicit in the nomic freedom,” the free market. Does this not clash with the objective of equity— a concern to which the Report makes only a passing reference? In the implicitly celebrates the advent of spirit of neoliberal orthodoxy, the Report the free market in the Middle East, because of its potential to free the econ- -1— omy from the domination of corrupt and ineffi cient states. It is true that state 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 3 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 36 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

51 DISSECTING A MANIFESTO 37 bureaucracy and corruption do hinder economic per for mance and discour- age investment; and a mea sured deregulation is undoubtedly necessary. How- ever, an unfettered economic freedom, as Sylvia Chan and others have shown, 20 not only can undercut equity and civil and po liti cal freedoms, but may also stand against the very spirit of “human development.” Evidence suggests that the implementation of Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment, spread throughout the Middle East, has caused a signifi cant shift in social policies, with adverse impacts on the very foundation of human development, in the 21 areas of health, education, housing, and the supply of adequate food. Market forces have drastically undermined the principle of equity, that is, equal access to life- chances. The result has been the development of a two- tier system of social provisions where high- quality private but expensive social ser vices (in schooling, hospitals, food supply, air quality, entertainment, living environ- ment) stand against the deteriorating state provisions. The expanded NGO sector in the region partially fi lls the vacuum of the shrunken involvement of the state in off ering social ser vices to the needy. Yet not only do NGOs frag- ment their benefi ciaries, they may also reinforce communal cleavages. For un- like the state, which dispenses welfare provisions to all citizens irrespective of their communal affi liations, NGOs can function on ethnic lines, extending ser vices to a par tic u lar community while excluding others (see Chapter 4). Finally and most importantly, attaining “fundamental freedoms,” in the sense of “civil and po liti cal rights,” “good governance,” and democracy, clearly represents an end in itself, no matter what other purposes it may serve. And these are objectives with which the po liti cal classes in the Middle East have continuously been preoccupied, but which have thus far failed to materialize. The key question, however, is how to bring about a “society of freedom and good governance.” What kinds of human agency, social forces, are apt to carry out such a historic transformation? Can it be achieved by off ering good advice to the incumbent governments, by rational dialogue between the states and opposition groups? Does the solution lie in “democracy by conquest,” as in Af ghan i stan and Iraq, or is there a need to launch social and po liti cal move- ments to push for demo cratization from within? It is possible to imagine, as the authors do, that the current status quo might lead to despair, violence, or even unpredictable revolutions. This, we are told, is not a solution. The ideal scenario would be to “pursue an historic, 22 peaceful and deep pro cess of negotiated po liti cal alteration” from above. But —-1 because the elites (intellectuals and national po liti cal actors), as the agents of —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 37 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

52 38 TRANSFORMING THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST this strategy, are not as yet ready to face the challenge, then the whole strategy of po liti cal transformation, in the end, collapses into the “realistic solution” of a “western- supported project of gradual and moderate reform aiming at liber- 23 alization in Arab countries.” How far this strategy diff ers from the U.S.- driven idea of a “greater Middle East” remains unclear. It would be naive to underestimate the enormous challenge facing those Report who wish to transform the region, and the authors of the seem to un- derstand this. Yet Arabs are likely to question the wisdom behind this “realis- tic solution.” Why should they expect the West to step in demo cratizing their region, other than for pursuing its own selfi sh interests? Why should the United States pursue changing the authoritarian Arab regimes (e.g., Saudi Arabia) if that would further escalate opposition to its vital economic and strategic in- terests in the region? Would such a “foreign- driven” initiative not be dis- missed by the Arab states on the grounds that it interferes in their internal aff airs? Of course, this is not to dismiss, a priori, any possible international solidarity and support (whether from foreign states or civil society organiza- tions) for a project of po liti cal change. The point, rather, is to explore how to manage foreign support. Foreign support may be legitimately utilized if it is initiated in association with endogenous democracy movements in the Arab countries. Even a negotiated po liti cal change “from above” is not far- fetched if there exist social movements that would compel the power elites to negotiate toward what is currently termed “demo cratization by pact,” as in Mexico, 24 Chile, and elsewhere. The fact that President Mubarak of Egypt accepted in February 2005 to allow rival candidates to run against him in the presidential elections had less to do with western pressure than with a nascent but vocal Kifaya (“enough is enough”) movement, which instigated international mo- mentum to bear on the Egyptian regime. Likewise, the Syrian withdrawal from Lebanon in 2005 resulted not directly from the western push, but pri- marily from a Lebanese pop u lar movement, which in turn galvanized foreign support and pressure. Yet despite their crucial role, the Report shows little interest in the ideas of social movements or grassroots mobilization for po liti cal transformation. For not only advocates a Report instance, to raise the status of Arab women, the series of legislative, institutional, religious/discursive, and economic (poverty reduction) reforms, but also envisages a “societal movement” at the national and regional levels, taking health care and education for girls as its prime fo- -1— cus, and establishing partnership with the governments, NGOs, the UN, and 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 38 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

53 DISSECTING A MANIFESTO 39 other international organizations. But this notion of “societal movement” con- orts and networks remains exceedingly sisting, presumably, of collective eff broad and unmistakably depoliticized, rendering it distinct from a “social movement” as we understand it in po liti cal sociology. It appears, then, that speaking of pop u lar movements or mobilization— and this displays one fur- Report — may imply radicalism and ther instance of the schizo phre nia of the cialdom or standing contrary to the “neu- disorder, thus dismaying Arab offi tral” discursive package of the UN or the World Bank. Politics from below, therefore, has to be avoided. This “elitist” approach in the Report not only derives from a distrust of “politics from below”; it has also related to the authors’ liberal imagination of the “state” as the neutral apparatus representing the public interests, a notion deeply embedded in the conceptual paradigms that inform the general visions of the UNDP and World Bank. Here, the authoritarianism of the Arab states becomes simply a pathological matter— the states are either “benign but irratio- nal” or “rational but ignorant” entities, which in either case can be put on the right path by proper counsel, sound legislation, or pressure from outside. This understanding, in par tic u lar the authors’ overemphasis on legalities, clearly overlooks the vested interests behind those who cling to the status quo. Even a few women driving in the streets of Riyadh cause havoc within the Saudi re- gime, let alone ac cep tance of democracy, which can lead to the end of the mon- archy. I do not wish to preclude the possibility of enhancing social development, demo cratic governance, rule of law, and fundamental freedoms in the region. On the contrary, I wish to stress that achieving these objectives is highly com- plex, closely tied to the structures of power, vested interests, and, above all, so- 25 cial struggles— themes that we will explore in the following chapters. —-1 —0 —+1 5 4 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 3 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 39 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M -

54 -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 40 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

55 Part 1 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS —-1 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 4 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 41 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

56 -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 42 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

57 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 3 notwithstanding some overestimated claims of the globalization thesis (such as the waning role of nation- states, the breakdown of borders, the homogeneity 1 it is generally agreed that of lifestyles, cultures, po liti cal systems, and so on), the economics of globalization, comprised of a global market “discipline,” fl ex- ible accumulation, and “fi nancial deepening,” has had a profound impact on 2 postcolonial societies. One major consequence of the new global restructur- ing in the developing countries has been a double pro cess of, on the one hand, integration and, on the other, social exclusion and informalization. The historic shift in the periphery from socialist and populist regimes into liberal economic policies, through the Economic Reform and Structural Ad- justment Program, has led to the erosion of much of the social contract, col- lective responsibility, and welfare state structures. Thus, millions of people in the global South who depended on state provisions must now rely on them- selves to survive. Deregulation of prices on housing, rent, and utilities jeopar- dizes many poor people’s security of tenure, subjecting them to the risk of homelessness. Reduction of spending on social programs means shrinking access to decent education, health care, urban development, and government housing. Gradual removals of subsidies on bread, bus fares, and petrol have ected radically the living standard of millions of vulnerable groups. In the aff meantime, in a drive for privatization, public sectors have either been sold out s without a clear or “reformed,” which in either case has caused massive layoff Adapted from “From ‘Dangerous Classes’ to ‘Quiet Rebels’: Politics of the Urban Sub- —-1 altern in the Global South,” International Sociology 15, no. 3 (2000), pp. 533– 57. —0 —+1 43 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 4 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 43 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

58 44 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS prospect of boosting the economy and creating viable jobs. According to the World Bank, in the early 1990s, during the transition to market economies in postsocialist, adjusting Latin American and Middle Eastern countries, formal 3 employment fell by 5 percent to 15 percent. In Africa the number of un- employed grew by 10 percent each year throughout the 1980s, while labor 4 absorption in the formal wage sector kept declining. By the late 1990s, a stag- gering one billion workers representing one- third of the world’s labor force, 5 most of them in the South, were either unemployed or underemployed. A large number of once educated, well- to- do middle classes (professionals, gov- ernment employees, and students) and public- sector workers, as well as seg- ments of the peasantry, have been pushed into the ranks of the urban poor in labor and housing markets. Thus, accompanied by the development of highly affl uent groups, the new structuring has given rise to the growth of a marginalized and deinstitution- alized subaltern in Third World cities. There is now an increasing number of unemployed, partially employed, and casual labor, street- subsistence workers, street children, and members of the underworld— groups that have been in- terchangeably referred to as “urban marginals,” “urban disenfranchised,” and “urban poor.” Such socially excluded and informal groups are by no means new historical phenomena. However, the recent global restructuring seems to have intensifi ed and extended their operation. In the 1998 fi nancial crisis at least two million people lost their jobs in South Korea, as did three million in 6 Thailand, and a staggering ten million in Indonesia. What is novel about this era is the marginalization of a large segment of middle classes. Slum dwell- ing, casual work, under- the- table payment, and street hawking are no longer just the characteristics of the traditional poor but also are spread among the educated young people with higher status, aspirations, and social skills— government employees, teachers, and professionals. How does this growing urban grass roots in the Third World respond to the larger social and economic pro cesses that aff ect their lives, if and when it does? Those who promote globalization suggest that the trickle- down of an eventual national economic growth will in the long run compensate for the in- evitable sacrifi ces that the poor make in the transitional phase. In the mean- time, social funds, NGOs and emergency aid are encouraged to create jobs and assist in social programs to alleviate the hardships and avert possible social un- rest. Indeed, some view the upsurge of the NGOs in the South since the 1980s as -1— a manifestation of or ga nized activism and grassroots institutions for social 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 44 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

59 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 45 development. However, granting that the development NGOs vary consider- ably, their potential for in de pen dent and demo cratic or ga ni za tion of develop- ment for the poor has generally been overestimated. As Neil Webster, reporting on India, has noted, advocates simply tend to expect too much from the devel- 7 opment NGOs, and by doing so underestimate their structural constraints (e.g., or gan i za tion al rationale, unaccountability, and professional middle- class leadership) for a meaningful development strategy. My own work on Middle Eastern development NGOs supports this conclusion. The professionalization of the NGOs tends to diminish the mobilizational feature of grassroots activ- ism while it establishes new form of clientelism (see Chapter 4). Many on the Left point to a number of “reactive movements” (identity politics) that, they say, challenge globalization by appropriating technologies that it off ers. While Alberto Melluci’s “new social movements” focuses exclu- sively on the “highly diff erentiated” western societies, others who, like Man- uel Castells and Ankie Hoogvelt, take a southern perspective suggest religious, ethnic, and feminist movements as well as the Latin American postdevelop- ment ideas as the backbone of antiglobalization forces. Identity movements do take up some of the challenges of globalization in postcolonial societies. However, they refl ect more the sentiments of the middle- class intellectuals than the actual everyday practices of the ordinary people. What do the grass roots think or do? What form of politics, if any, do the urban marginalized groups espouse? Critically navigating through the prevailing models, including culture of poverty, survival strategy, urban social movements, and everyday re sis tance, I would suggest that the new global restructuring is reproducing subjectivities (marginalized and deinstitutionalized groups such as the impoverished mid- dle classes, the unemployed, casual labor, street- subsistence workers and street children), social space, and thus terrain of po liti cal struggles that cur- rent theoretical perspectives cannot on their own account for. I propose an alternative outlook—“quiet encroachment”— that I think might be more per- tinent to examining the activism of the marginalized groups in the cities of refers to noncollective but pro- the postcolonial societies. Quiet encroachment longed direct actions of dispersed individuals and families to acquire the basic necessities of their lives (land for shelter, urban collective consumption or urban ser vices, informal work, business opportunities, and public space) in a quiet and unassuming illegal fashion. This perspective has emerged out of —-1 my observation of urban pro cesses in the Muslim Middle East with its specifi c —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 4 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 45 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

60 46 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS social and po liti cal structures; nevertheless, it might have relevance to other Third World cities. PREVAILING PERSPECTIVES The so cio log i cal examination of urban “marginality” dates back to nineteenth- century Eu rope. Problems associated with urbanization (crime, inner- city con- ditions, unemployment, migration, cultural duality, and so on) acquired scien- tifi c treatment from the social science community. Georg Simmel’s “the stranger” dealt with sociopsychological traits of new urban settlers, and Durkheim was particularly keen on their “anomie.” Such a conceptualization later informed the work of the Chicago School of Sociology and Urban Study in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s, when Chicago served as the laboratory for examining the social behavior of its many ethnic immigrants. For Everett Stonequist and Robert Park, many immigrants were “marginals”— a trait that was embedded in their social structure. Marginal personality was a manifesta- tion of cultural hybridity, living on the margins of two cultures without being a full member of either. Unlike the Chicago School functionalists, the mainstream Marxists, how- ever, did not take the issue seriously. Relative to the centrality of the working class as the agent of the social transformation, Marxist theory either ignored the urban poor or described them as “lumpenproletariat,” the “non- proletarian” urban groups, a term used by Marx himself; but, as Hal Draper notes, it gave 8 rise to “endless misunderstanding and mistranslation.” For Marx, the lumpenproletariat was a po liti cal economy category. It referred to propertyless people who did not produce—“non- working proletariat,” obsolete social ele- ments such as beggars, thieves, thugs, and criminals who were in general poor but lived on the labor of other working people. Due to their economic exis- tence, they were said to follow a politics of noncommitment, which in the end 9 may work against the interests of the producing classes. It is this uncertain politics that renders the lumpenproletariat, for both Marx and Engels, the “so- cial scum,” “refuse of all classes,” the “dangerous classes.” Although Marx theo- rized them later in terms of the “reserve army of labor,” and thus a segment of the working class, controversy nevertheless continued as to the relevance of this concept in the current capitalist structuring, as it does not leave much chance for these people to be reemployed. Some suggested that far from being on “reserve,” the urban disenfranchised were integrated into the capital- -1— 10 ist relations. Even with Frantz Fanon’s passionate defense of lumpenprole- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 46 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

61 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 47 11 the Communist parties in the tariat as the revolutionary force in the colonies, Third World did not go beyond looking at the urban marginals as the “toiling masses” who might have the potential for alliance with the working class. However, the continuous prominence of the “informals” (which in many de- veloping economies clearly outweighed the industrial working class) and their assumed threat to po liti cal stability in the developing countries returned them to academic analysis. Against the descriptive term of “informals” and the deroga- tory one of “lumpenproletariat,” T. G. McGee and Robin Cohen opted for the notion of “proto- proletariat,” and Peter Worsley “urban poor”— concepts that recognized some degree of agency. More serious studies of the social conditions and the politics of the urban subaltern in the Third World emerged among U.S. social scientists during the 1960s. Modernization and urban migration in the developing countries had caused a dramatic expansion of impoverished urban settlements, and the growing urban “underclass” was thought to provide a breeding ground for the spread of radical guerrilla movements, which, in the midst of the cold war, were perceived to jeopardize the po liti cal interests of the United States and those of local elites. Po liti cal observers took the Chinese Revolution of 1949, the Cuban Revolution of 1959, and the growing guerrilla movements in parts of the Third World as convincing evidence. Latin America, however, acted as a laboratory for much- debated theories about the social and po liti cal behav- iors of the urban underclass. Studies by Samuel Huntington and Joan Nelson, 12 among others, refl ected the concerns of the time. Here, prevailing scholar- ship focused on the poor’s “po liti cal threat” to the existing order. Scholars, mostly po liti cal scientists, were preoccupied with the question of whether the migrant poor constituted a destabilizing force. Joan Nelson argued that there 13 was “no evidence that the new migrants are either radical or violence- prone.” Such preoccupations overlooked the dynamics of the poor’s everyday life. Many viewed the politics of the poor in the binary terms of a revolutionary/ passive dichotomy, consequently limiting how to look at the matter. Essential- ism informed both sides of the controversy. The ensuing debates were galva- able perspectives: the “passive poor,” “survival strategy,” nized in four identifi “urban territorial movement,” and “everyday re sis tance” models. The Passive Poor While some observers working in the functionalist paradigm still viewed —-1 the urban poor as essentially disruptive and imbued with the sentiments of —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 47 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

62 48 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS anomie, many considered the poor as a po liti cally passive group struggling simply to make ends meet. Oscar Lewis’s theory of a “culture of poverty,” based upon ethnographies among the urban poor in Puerto Rico and Mex- 14 ico, off ered scientifi c legitimacy to such notion. Highlighting certain cul- tural/psychological essentials as components of a culture of poverty— fatalism, traditionalism, rootlessness, unadaptability, criminality, lack of ambition, hopelessness, and so on— Lewis unintentionally extended the notion of the “passive poor.” With an underlying emphasis on identifying the “marginal man” as cultural type, the “culture of poverty” remained a dominant per- spective for many years, informing much of antipoverty discourse and poli- cies in the United States as well as the Third World elites’ perception of the poor. The conceptual weaknesses of “culture of poverty,” despite Lewis’s empa- thy for the poor, became clear before long. Simply, Lewis essentialized the culture of the poor, since his “culture of poverty” was only one type of culture 15 among many. Lewis’s generalization disregarded the varying ways in which the poor in diff erent cultures handle poverty. Critiques such as Worsley’s charged that Lewis was a middle- class scholar who blamed the poor for their 16 poverty and passivity. Interestingly, Lewis’s conceptualization shared many traits with those of the Chicago School urban sociologists such as Stonequist and Robert Park and even the thinkers of an earlier generation like Simmel. Janice Perlman’s powerful critique of the “myth of marginality” in 1976, to- gether with Manuel Castells’s critical contributions, undermined this outlook in academia, if not in offi cialdom. They demonstrated that the myth of mar- ginality was an instrument of social control of the poor, and that the margin- 17 alized poor were a product of capitalist social structure. The Surviving Poor As such, the “survival strategy” does not directly deal with the politics of the poor, but a relevant, implicit conceptual assumption underlies this perspective. The survival strategy model goes one step toward implying that although the poor are powerless, they do not sit around waiting for fate to determine their lives. Rather, they are active in their own way to ensure their survival. Thus, to en resort to theft , begging, counter unemployment or price increases, they oft prostitution, or the re orientation of their consumption pattern; to respond to famine and war, they choose to leave their homes even if emigration is dis- -1— couraged by the authorities. In this thinking, the poor are seen to survive; 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 48 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

63 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 49 18 however, their survival is at the cost of themselves or their fellow humans. While resorting to coping mechanisms in real life seems quite widespread among the poor in many cultures, an overemphasis on the language of sur- vival strategy, as Escobar notes, may contribute to maintaining the image of 19 the poor as victims, denying them any agency. The fact is that poor people may also resist and make advances in their lives when the opportunity arises. Beyond that, evidence in many parts of the world does indicate that many of them also create opportunities for advancement— they or ga nize and get in- volved in contentious politics. John Friedmann’s notion of “empowerment” is indicative of just such an opportunity- creating tendency of the poor. It de- scribes poor people’s self- organization for collective survival through the institution of the house hold as the central element for the production of liveli- hood, the principle of moral economy (trust, reciprocity, voluntarism), and the utilization of their “social power” (free time, social skills, networking, as- 20 sociations, and instruments of production). liti The Po cal Poor Critiques of “passive poor” and “culture of poverty” models opened the way for the development of an outlook in which the urban subaltern emerged as po liti cal actors— the “urban territorial movement” standpoint. Perlman, Cas- tells, and some other scholars of Latin America insisted that the poor were not marginal, but integrated into the urban society. Rather, they argued, the poor were “marginaliz ed ”— economically exploited, po liti cally repressed, socially 21 stigmatized, and culturally excluded from a closed social system. Not only did the poor participate in party politics, elections, and mainstream eco- nomic activities, more importantly, they establish their own territorial social movements. Thus, community associations, barrios, consumer organizations, soup kitchens, squatter support groups, church activities, and the like were understood as manifesting or ga nized and territorially based movements of the poor who strive for “social transformation” (according to Castells), “eman- cipation” (according to Schuurmann and van Naerssen), or an alternative to 22 the tyranny of modernity, in the words of John Friedmann. In their imme- diate day- to- day activities, the poor struggle for a share in urban ser vices, or “collective consumption.” The territorial character of these movements results from the mode of ex- erentiated (in istence of the agents— the urban grass roots. Although quite diff —-1 terms of income, status, occupation, and production relations), the urban —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 49 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

64 50 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS grass roots nevertheless are thought to share a common place of residence, community. Shared space and the needs associated with common property, 23 then, off er these people the possibility of “spatial solidarity.” The attempts to highlight contentious politics as well as noncontentious cooperation among the urban poor undercut drastically both the “culture of poverty” and “sur- vivalist” arguments, granting a signifi cant agency to the urban subaltern. However, the “urban movement perspective” appears largely a Latin Ameri- can model rooted in the sociopo liti cal conditions of this region. Not surpris- ingly, it is a perspective that has been off ered primarily by scholars working in 24 Latin America. Local soup kitchens, neighborhood associations, church groups, or street trade unionism are hardly common phenomena in, say, the Middle East, Asia, or Africa (with the exception of countries like India and South Africa). In the Middle East, for instance, the prevalence of authoritar- ian states (of despotic, populist, or dictatorial kinds), which are wary of civil associations, together with the strength of family and kinship relations, ren- der primary solidarities more pertinent than secondary associations and so- cial movements. While collective entities such as the charity organizations and mosque associations do exist, they rarely lead to po liti cal mobilization of the pop u lar classes. Although associations based upon neighborly relations, common origin and ethnic affi liation, or traditional credit systems are quite common, social networks that extend beyond kinship and ethnicity remain largely casual, unstructured, and paternalistic (see Chapter 4). Some scholars tend to present the Islamist movements in the region as the Middle Eastern model of urban social movements. A few functional resem- blances notwithstanding, the fact remains that the identity of Islamism does not derive from its par tic u lar concern for the urban disenfranchised. Is- lamism in general has broader aims and objectives. Unlike the Catholic Church, in par tic u lar the liberation theology movement, the Islamist move- ments tend oft en to mobilize not the poor, but largely the educated middle 25 classes, which they view as the main agents of po liti cal change. So it is mainly in exceptional circumstances (e.g., crises and revolutionary situations) that some degree of mobilization and contentious politics is encouraged, as in revolutionary Iran and the crisis- stricken Algeria. It is true that the Islamist Rifah Party in Turkey mobilized slum dwellers; this was so primarily because Turkey’s free electoral system had granted the urban grass roots voting power, and thus a bargaining leverage that the Islamists as a legitimate po liti cal party -1— could utilize. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 5 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 50 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

65 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 51 Still, one must realize that the prevalence of urban movements in Latin America varies considerably. As Leeds and Leeds have shown, due to the mul- tiplicity of competing interest groups (government, private interests, and oth- ers) the grass roots have had more opportunity for collective action in Peru than in Brazil, where the extremity of constraints forced the poor to “seek their betterment through the paternalistic, individualistic channels of favors 26 and exchange of interests.” In Chile, in episodes of po liti cal openness and radical groupings, the poor have been or ga nized more extensively. The Resisting Poor The dearth of conventional collective action— in par tic u lar, contentious pro- tests among the subaltern groups (the poor, peasants, and women) in the devel- oping countries, together with a disillusionment with dominant socialist par- ties, pushed many radical observers to “discover” and highlight diff erent types of activism, however small- scale, local, or even individualistic. Such a quest, meanwhile, both contributed to and benefi ted from the upsurge of theoretical perspectives, during the 1980s, associated with poststructuralism that made micropolitics and “everyday re sis tance” a pop u lar idea. James Scott’s depar- ture, during the 1980s, from a structuralist position in studying the behavior of the peasantry in Asia to a more ethnographic method of focusing on individ- 27 ual reactions of peasants contributed considerably to this paradigm shift . In the meantime, Foucault’s “decentered” notion of power, together with a revival of neo- Gramscian politics of culture (hegemony), served as a key theoretical backing for micropolitics, and thus the “re sis tance” perspective. The notion of “re sis tance” came to stress that power and counterpower were not in binary opposition, but in a decoupled, complex, ambivalent, and 28 perpetual “dance of control.” It based itself on the Foucauldian idea that “wher- ever there is power there is re sis tance,” although the latter consisted largely of small- scale, everyday, tiny activities that the agents could aff ord to articulate given their po liti cal constraints. Such a perception of re sis tance penetrated not only peasant studies, but a variety of fi elds, including labor studies, iden- tity politics, ethnicity, women’s studies, education, and studies of the urban subaltern. Thus, multiple researchers discussed how relating stories about 29 miracles “gives voice to pop u lar re sis tance” ; how disenfranchised women resisted patriarchy by relating folktales and songs or by pretending to be pos- 30 sessed or crazy; how reviving extended family among the urban pop u lar —-1 31 classes represented an “avenue of po liti cal participation.” The relationships —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 5 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 51 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

66 52 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS between the Filipino bar girls and western men were discussed not simply in 32 terms of total domination, but in a complex and contingent fashion; and the veiling of the Muslim working woman has been represented not in simple terms of submission, but in ambivalent terms of protest and co- optation— 33 hence, an “accommodating protest.” Indeed, on occasions, both veiling and unveiling were simultaneously considered as a symbol of re sis tance. Undoubtedly, such an attempt to grant agency to the subjects that until then were depicted as “passive poor,” “submissive women,” “apo liti cal peas- ant,” and “oppressed worker” was a positive development. The re sis tance paradigm helps to uncover the complexity of power relations in society in general, and the politics of the subaltern in par tic u lar. It tells us that we may not expect a universalized form of struggle; that totalizing pictures oft en distort variations in people’s perceptions about change; that local should be recognized as a signifi cant site of struggle as well as a unit of analysis; that or ga nized collective action may not be possible everywhere, and thus alter- native forms of struggles must be discovered and acknowledged; that or ga- nized protest as such may not necessarily be privileged in the situations where suppression rules. The value of a more fl exible, small- scale, and un- 34 bureaucratic activism should, therefore, be acknowledged. These are some of the issues that critiques of poststructuralist advocates of “re sis tance” 35 ignore. Yet a number of conceptual and po liti cal problems also emerge from this paradigm. The immediate trouble is how to conceptualize re sis tance, and its relation to power, domination, and submission. James Scott seems to be clear about what he means by the term: Class re sis tance includes any act(s) by member(s) of a subordinate class that is or are intended either to mitigate or deny claims (for example, rents, taxes, pres- tige) made on that class by superordinate classes (for example, landlords, large farmers, the state) or to advance its own claims (for example, work, land, 36 [emphasis added] charity, respect) vis-à- vis these superordinate classes. However, the phrase “any act” blocks delineating between qualitatively diverse forms of activities that Scott lists. Are we not to distinguish between large- scale collective action and individual acts, say, of tax dodging? Do recit- ing poetry in private, however subversive- sounding, and engaging in armed ectivity and struggle have identical value? Should we not expect unequal aff -1— implications from such diff erent acts? Scott was aware of this, and so agreed 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 5 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 52 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

67 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 53 with those who had made distinctions between diff erent types of resistance— for example, “real re sis tance” refers to “or ga nized, systematic, pre- planned or selfl ess practices with revolutionary consequences,” and “token re sis tance” points to unor ga nized incidental acts without any revolutionary consequences, 37 and which are accommodated in the power structure. Yet he insisted that the “token re sis tance” is no less real than the “real re sis tance.” Scott’s follow- ers, however, continued to make further distinctions. Nathan Brown, in studying peasant politics in Egypt, for instance, identifi es three forms of politics: atomistic (politics of individuals and small groups with obscure content), communal (a group eff ort to disrupt the system, by slowing down production and the like), and revolt ( just short of revolution to negate the 38 system). Beyond this, many re sis tance writers tend to confuse an awareness about oppression with of re sis tance against it. The fact that poor women sing acts songs about their plight or ridicule men in their private gatherings indicates their understanding of gender dynamics. This does not mean, however, that they are involved in acts of re sis tance; neither are the miracle stories of the poor urbanites who imagine the saints to come and punish the strong. Such an understanding of “re sis tance” fails to capture the extremely complex inter- play of confl ict and consent, and ideas and action, operating within systems of power. Indeed, the link between consciousness and action remains a major 39 so cio log i cal dilemma. Scott makes it clear that re sis tance is an intentional act. In Weberian tra- dition, he takes the meaning of action as a crucial element. This intentional- ity, while signifi cant in itself, obviously leaves out many types of individual and collective practices whose intended and unintended consequences do not correspond. In Cairo or Tehran, for example, many poor families illegally tap into electricity and running water from the municipality despite their aware- ness of their behavior’s illegality. Yet they do not steal urban ser vices in order to express their defi ance vis-à- vis the authorities. Rather, they do it because they feel the necessity of those ser vices for a decent life, because they fi nd no other way to acquire them. But these very mundane acts when continued lead cant changes in the urban structure, in social policy, and in the ac- to signifi tors’ own lives. Hence, the signifi cance of the unintended consequences of agents’ daily activities. In fact, many authors in the re sis tance paradigm have simply abandoned intent and meaning, focusing instead eclectically on both —-1 intended and unintended practices as manifestations of “re sis tance.” —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 5 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 53 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

68 54 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS There is still a further question. Does re sis tance mean an al- defending ready achieved gain (in Scott’s terms, denying claims made by dominant groups over the subordinate ones) or making fresh demands (to “ its advance own claims”), what I like to call “encroachment”? In much of the re sis tance literature, this distinction is missing. Although one might imagine moments of overlap, the two strategies, however, lead to diff erent po liti cal consequences; this is so in par tic u lar when we view them in relation to the strategies of dominant power. The issue was so crucial that Lenin devoted his entire What Is to Be Done? to discussing the implications of these two strategies, albeit in diff erent terms of “economism/trade unionism” vs. “social demo cratic/party politics.” What ever one may think about a Leninist/vanguardist paradigm, it was one that corresponded to a par tic u lar theory of the state and power (a capital- ist state to be seized by a mass movement led by the working- class party); in addition, it was clear where this strategy wanted to take the working class (to establish a socialist state). Now, what is the perception of the state in the “re- sis tance” paradigm? What is the strategic aim in this perspective? Where does the re sis tance paradigm want to take its agents/subjects, beyond “prevent[ing] 40 the worst and promis[ing] something better”? Much of the literature of re sis tance is based upon a notion of power that Foucault has articulated, that power is everywhere, that it “circulates” and is 41 Such a formula- never “localized here and there, never in anybody’s hands.” tion is surely instructive in transcending the myth of the powerlessness of the ordinary and in recognizing their agency. Yet this “decentered” notion of power, shared by many poststructuralist “re sis tance” writers, underestimates state power, notably its class dimension, since it fails to see that although power circulates, it does so unevenly— in some places it is far weightier, more con- centrated, and “thicker,” so to speak, than in others. In other words, like it or not, the state does matter, and one needs to take that into account when dis- cussing the potential of urban subaltern activism. Although Foucault insists that re sis tance is real when it occurs outside of and in de pen dent of the sys- tems of power, the perception of power that informs the “re sis tance” literature leaves little room for an analysis of the state as a system of power. It is, there- fore, not accidental that a theory of the state and, therefore, an analysis of the possibility of co- optation, are absent in almost all accounts of “re sis tance.” oat around aimlessly in an Consequently, the cherished acts of re sis tance fl -1— unknown, uncertain, and ambivalent universe of power relations, with the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 5 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 54 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

69 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 55 end result an unsettled, tense accommodation with the existing power arrangement. Lack of a clear concept of re sis tance, moreover, oft en leads writers in this genre to overestimate and read too much into the acts of the agents. The result is that almost any act of the subjects potentially becomes one of “re sis tance.” Determined to discover the “inevitable” acts of re sis tance, many poststruc- 42 turalist writers oft en come to “replace their subject.” While they attempt to challenge the essentialism of such perspectives as “passive poor,” “submissive Muslim women,” and “inactive masses,” they tend, however, to fall into the trap of essentialism in reverse— by reading too much into ordinary behaviors, interpreting them as necessarily conscious or contentious acts of defi ance. This is so because they overlook the crucial fact that these practices occur mostly within the prevailing systems of power. For example, some of the lower class’s activities in the Middle East that some authors read as “re sis tance,” “intimate politics” of defi ance, or “avenues of participation” may actually contribute to the stability and legitimacy of the 43 state. The fact that people are able to help themselves and extend their net- works surely shows their daily activism and struggles. However, by doing so the actors may hardly win any space from the state (or other sources of power, like capital and patriarchy)— they are not necessarily challenging domina- tion. In fact, governments oft en encourage self- help and local initiatives so long as they do not turn oppositional. They do so in order to shift some of their burdens of social welfare provision and responsibilities onto the individual citizens. The proliferation of many NGOs in the global South is a good indica- tor of this. In short, much of the re sis tance literature confuses what one might consider coping strategies (when the survival of the agents is secured at the cost of themselves or that of fellow humans) and eff ective participation or subversion of domination. There is a last question. If the poor are always able to resist in many ways (by discourse or actions, individual or collective, overt or covert) the systems of domination, then what is the need to assist them? If they are already po liti- cally able citizens, why should we expect the state or any other agency to em- power them? Misreading the behavior of the poor may, in fact, frustrate our moral responsibility toward the vulnerable. As Michael Brown rightly notes, when you “elevate the small injuries of childhood to the same moral status as ering of truly oppressed,” you are committing “a savage leveling that di- suff —-1 44 minishes rather than intensifi es our sensitivities to injustice.” —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 5 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 55 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

70 56 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY Given the shortcomings of the prevailing perspectives— that is, the essential- ism of the “passive poor,” the reductionism of “survival strategy,” the Latino- centrism of the “urban social movement model,” and the conceptual perplex- ity of “re sis tance literature”— I like to assess the politics of the urban marginals in the developing world from a diff erent angle, in terms of “the quiet en- croachment of the ordinary.” I believe that this notion might be able to over- come some of those inadequacies and better capture the important aspect of 45 urban subaltern politics in conditions of globalization. The notion of “quiet encroachment” describes the silent, protracted, but pervasive advancement of the ordinary people on the propertied, powerful, or the public, in order to survive and improve their lives. They are marked by quiet, largely atomized and prolonged mobilization with episodic collective action— open and fl eeting struggles without clear leadership, ideology, or structured or ga ni za tion. While quiet encroachment cannot be considered a “social movement” as such, it is also distinct from survival strategies or “every- day re sis tance” in that, fi rst, the struggles and gains of the agents are not at the cost of fellow poor or themselves (as is the case in survival strategies), but of the state, the rich, and the powerful. Thus, in order to illuminate their shel- ters, the urban poor tap electricity, not from their neighbors, but from the municipal power poles; to raise their living standard, they would not prevent their children from attending school in order to work, but rather squeeze the timing of their formal job, in order to carry on their secondary work in the informal sector. In addition, these struggles are seen not necessarily as defensive merely in the realm of re sis tance , but cumulatively encroaching, meaning that the actors tend to expand their space by winning new positions to move on. This type of quiet and gradual grassroots activism tends to contest many fundamental as- pects of the state prerogatives, including the meaning of order, control of pub- lic space, of public and private goods, and the relevance of modernity. I am referring to the lifelong struggles of the fl oating social clusters— the migrants, refugees, unemployed, underemployed, squatters, street vendors, street children, and other marginalized groups, whose growth has been ac- celerated by the pro cess of economic globalization. I have in mind the pro- tracted pro cesses in which millions of men and women embark on long mi- -1— en alien environs, acquiring gratory journeys, scattering in remote and oft 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 5 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 56 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

71 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 57 work, shelter, land, and living amenities. The refugees and international mi- grants encroach on host states and their provisions, the rural migrants on the cities and their collective consumption, the squatters on public and private lands or ready- made homes, and the unemployed, as street- subsistence work- ers, on the pubic space and business opportunity created by shop keep ers. Thus, millions of rural migrants, the urban poor, and the impoverished middle class quietly claim state/public lands on the outskirts of the cities or take over cem- eteries, rooft ops, and other urban spaces creating vibrant spontaneous com- munities and informal life. Once settled, encroachments continue in many directions. Counter to formal terms and conditions, the residents add rooms, balconies, and extra space in and on buildings. Those who have formally been given housing in public projects built by the state illegally redesign and rear- range their space to suit their needs by erecting partitions, and by adding and 46 inventing new space. Oft en, whole communities emerge as a result of intense struggles and negotiations between the poor and the authorities and elites in 47 their daily lives. Within such communities, the encroachers tend to compel the authorities to extend urban ser vices to their neighborhoods by otherwise tapping them illegally, using them free of charge. However, once utilities are installed, many simply refuse to pay for their use. Some 40 percent of poor residents of Hayy el- Sellom, a south Beirut informal community, for instance, refused to pay their electric bills in the late 1990s. Similar stories are reported in urban Chile and South Africa, where the poor have periodically refused to pay for urban public ser vices aft er struggling to acquire them, oft en against the authorities’ will. Millions of street vendors in the cities of the global South have occupied the streets in the main commercial centers, infringing on favorable business opportunities the shop keep ers have generated. Large numbers of inhabitants in these cities subsist on tips from parking cars in streets that they control and or ga nize in such elaborate ways as to create maximum parking space. Finally, as in many Third World cities, such as those in South Korea, the encroach- ment of the street vendors on copyrights of labels and trademarks has invari- 48 ably caused protests by multinational companies. As state employees and professionals, the previously privileged segments of the workforce, feel the crunch of neoliberal policies, they too resort to their own repertoires of quiet encroachment. Thus, to compensate for their meager monthly salary, the schoolteachers in Egypt, for instance, turn to private paid —-1 tutoring of their own pupils. By doing so, they have created a massive sector of —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 5 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 57 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

72 58 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS illegal private teaching that generated in early 2000 some EL12 billion ($3 bil- lion) a year, and at least 25 percent of the annual earning of Egyptian fami- 49 lies.” Similarly, “street lawyers” or “unregistered practitioners” may encroach on the legal profession. These street lawyers do not hold law degrees but have ces. They acquired some legal knowledge by working as employees in law offi ord then share their legal experience with new law graduates (who cannot aff 50 ces) to off er competitive ser vices. the high cost of establishing law offi These actors carry out their activities not as deliberate po liti cal acts; rather, they are driven by the force of necessity— the necessity to survive and improve life. Necessity is the notion that justifi es their oft en unlawful acts as moral and even “natural” ways to maintain a life with dignity. Yet these very simple and seemingly mundane practices tend to shift them into the realm of contentious politics. The contenders become engaged in collective action and see their actions and themselves as po liti cal chiefl y when they are confronted by those who threaten their gains. Hence, a key attribute of quiet encroach- ment is that while advances are made quietly, individually, and gradually, the defense of their gains is oft en, although not always, collective and audible. Driven by the force of necessity (eff ects of economic restructuring, agricul- tural failure, physical hardship, war, and displacement), these actors set out on their ventures rather individually, oft en or ga nized around kinship and friend- ship ties, and without much clamor. They even deliberately avoid collective ef- fort, large- scale operation, commotion, and publicity. At times the squatters, for instance, prevent others from joining them in specifi c areas; and vendors discourage their counterparts from settling in the same vicinity. Many even hesitate to share with similar groups information about their strategies of ac- quiring urban ser vices. Yet as these seemingly disparate individuals and fami- lies pursue similar paths, their sheer cumulative numbers turn them into an eventual social force. This is another feature of quiet encroachment. But why individual and quiet direct action, instead of collective demand making? Unlike the factory workers, students, or professionals, these people ux and structurally operate largely outside institutional represent groups in fl mechanisms through which they can express grievances and enforce demands. They lack an or gan i za tion al power of disruption— the possibility of going on strike, for example. They may participate in street demonstrations or riots as part of a general expression of pop u lar discontent, but only when these meth- ods enjoy a reasonable currency and legitimacy (as in the immediate postrevo- -1— lutionary Iran, Beirut during the civil war, or aft er the fall of Suharto in Indo- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 5 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 58 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

73 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 59 nesia in 1998), and when they are mobilized by outside leaders. Thus, urban - wing activists; and the unemployed and street land takeovers may be led by left vendors may be invited to form unions (as in Iran aft er the revolution, in Lima, or in India). This, however, represents an uncommon phenomenon, since en than not, mobilization for collective demand making is prevented more oft by po liti cal repression in many developing countries, where these struggles oft en take place. Consequently, in place of protest or publicity, these groups move directly to fulfi ll their needs by themselves, albeit individually and dis- creetly. In short, theirs is not a politics of protest, but of redress, struggle for an immediate outcome through individual direct action. What do these men and women aim for? They seem to pursue two major goals. The fi rst is the redistribution of social goods and opportunities in the form of the (unlawful and direct) acquisition of collective consumption (land, shelter, piped water, electricity, roads), public space (street pavements, inter- sections, street parking places), opportunities (favorable business conditions, locations, labels, licenses), and other life- chances essential for survival and acceptable standards of living. The other goal is attaining autonomy , both cultural and po liti cal, from the regulations, institutions, and discipline imposed by the state and modern in- stitutions. In a quest for an informal life, the marginals tend to function as much as possible outside the boundaries of the state and modern bureaucratic institutions, basing their relationships on reciprocity, trust, and negotiation rather than on the modern notions of individual self- interest, fi xed rules, and contracts. Thus, they may opt for jobs in self- employed activities rather than working under the discipline of the modern workplace; resort to informal dispute resolution than reporting to police; get married through local infor- mal procedures (in the Muslim Middle East under local sheikhs) rather than by governmental offi ces; borrow money from informal credit associations rather than modern banks. This is so not because these people are essentially non- or antimodern, but because the conditions of their existence compel them to seek an informal mode of life. Because modernity is a costly exis- ord to be modern. It requires the capacity to con- tence, not everyone can aff form to the types of behavior and mode of life (adherence to strict discipline of time, space, contracts, and so on) that most vulnerable people simply can- ord. So while the disenfranchised wish to watch color TV, enjoy clean not aff tap water, and possess the security of tenure, they are weary of paying taxes —-1 and bills or reporting to work at specifi ed times (see Chapter 9). —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 5 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 59 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

74 60 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS But how far can the urban subaltern exercise autonomy in the conditions of globalization, amid expanding integration? The fact is that not only do the poor seek autonomy, they also need security, that is, freedom from the state’s surveillance, because an informal life in the conditions of modernity is also an insecure life. To illustrate, street vendors may feel free from the discipline of modern working institutions, but they suff er from police harassment for lacking business permits. The struggle of the poor to consolidate their com- munities, to have schools, clinics, or sewerage would inevitably integrate them into the prevailing systems of power (i.e., the state and modern bureaucratic institutions) that they wish to avoid. In their quest for security, the urban poor are in constant negotiation and vacillation between autonomy and integra- tion. Yet they continue to pursue autonomy in any possible space available within the integrating structures and pro cesses. BECOMING PO LITI CAL If encroachment begins with little po liti cal meaning attached to it, if illegal en justifi acts are oft ed on moral grounds, then how does it turn into a collec- tive/po liti cal struggle? So long as the actors carry on with their everyday advances without being confronted seriously by any authority, they are likely to treat their advances as ordinary, everyday exercises. However, once their gains are threatened, they tend to become conscious of their doings and the value of their gains, defending them in oft en collective and audible fashion. Examples may be found in the mobilization of the squatters in Tehran in 1976, and of the street vendors in the 1980s, and street riots by the squatters in sev- eral cities in the early 1990s. Alternatively, the actors may retain their gains through quiet noncompliance, without necessarily engaging in collective re- sis tance. Instead of collectively standing by their businesses, the mobile street vendors in Cairo or Istanbul simply retreat into the backstreets once the mu- nicipal police arrive, and they immediately resume their work when the police are gone. At any rate, the struggles of the actors against the authorities are not about gaining, but primarily about defending and furthering already- won gains. But they almost invariably involve state power. rst, by the The state’s position vis-à- vis this type of activism is aff ected, fi extent of their capacity to exercise surveillance and, second, by the dual na- ture of quiet encroachment (infringing on property, power, and privilege and, at the same time, being a self- help activity). Third World states seem to be more -1— tolerant of quiet encroachment than are those in the industrialized countries 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 6 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 60 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

75 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 61 such as the United States, where similar activities, albeit very limited, also take place. The industrial states are by far better equipped with ideological, technological, and institutional apparatuses to conduct surveillance of their populations. In other words, people have more room for autonomy under the vulnerable and “soft states” of the global South than in the advanced industri- alized countries, where tax evasion, infringement of private property, and en- croachment on the state domains are considered serious off enses. On the other hand, quiet encroachment, although it is an infringement t Third World on the public, property, and power, may in many ways benefi governments, for it is a mechanism through which the poor come to help themselves. It is no surprise, then, that these governments oft en express con- tradictory reactions toward these kinds of activities. The “soft ” and vulnerable states, especially at times of crisis, tend in practice to allow the encroachments when the latter still appear limited. On their part, the encroachers attempt constantly to appear limited and tolerable while in fact expanding so much that re sis tance against them becomes formidable. They do so by resorting to tacti- cal retreats, going invisible, bribing the offi cials, or concentrating on par tic u lar and less strategic spaces (for instance, squatting in remote areas or vending in less visible locations). However, once their real expansion and impact are revealed, when the cumulative growth of the actors and their doings passes beyond a tolerable point, the state crackdown becomes expectable. Yet in most cases the crack- downs fail to yield much, since they are usually launched too late, when the encroachers have already spread, becoming visible and past the point of no return. Indeed, the description by the offi cials of these pro cesses as “cancer- ous” brings home the dynamics of such nonmovements. The sources of confl ict between the actors and the state are not diffi cult to determine. First, the oft en “informal” and free- of- charge distribution of pub- lic goods exerts a heavy pressure on the resources that the state controls. Be- sides, the rich— the real estate own ers, merchants, and shopkeepers— also lose properties, brands, and business opportunities. The alliance of the state and ict. On the other the propertied groups adds a class dimension to the confl hand, the actors’ drive for autonomy in everyday life creates a serious void in the domination of the modern state. Autonomous life renders the modern states, in par tic u lar the populist versions, rather irrelevant. Moreover, auton- omy and informality (of agents, activities, and spaces) deprive the states of the —-1 knowledge necessary to exert surveillance. Unregulated jobs, unregistered —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 6 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 61 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

76 62 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS peoples and places, nameless streets and alleyways, and policeless neighbor- hoods mean that these entities remain hidden from the government’s books. To be able to control them, the states need to make them transparent. Indeed, programs of squatter upgrading may be seen in terms of this strategy of open- ing up the unknown in order to be able to control it. Confl ict between these encroachers and the state, therefore, is inevitable. Nowhere is this confl ict more evident than in the “streets,” this public space par excellence. Since the “streets” serve as the only locus of collective expression for, but by no means limited to, those who generally lack an insti- tutional setting to express discontent, including squatters, the unemployed, street- subsistence workers, street children, members of the underworld, and house wives. Whereas factory workers or college students, for instance, may cause disruption by going on strike, the unemployed or street vendors can voice grievances only in the public spaces, the streets. Indeed, for many of these disenfranchised, the streets are the main, perhaps the only, place where they can perform their daily functions— to assemble, make friends, earn a living, spend their leisure time, and express discontent. In addition, streets are also the public places where the state has the most evident presence, which is expressed in police patrol, traffi c regulations, and spatial divisions— in short, in public order. The dynamics of the power relationship between the encroachers and the authorities are what I have termed “street politics.” By “street politics,” I mean a set of confl icts and the attendant implications between a collective populace and the authorities, which are shaped and expressed episodically in the physical and social space of the “streets,” from alleyways to the more visible street sidewalks, public parks, and pub- lic sport facilities. It describes the articulation of discontent by people who operate usually outside the modern institutions (like the unemployed, or casual workers or house wives); or by those groups who may enjoy the insti- tutional settings (such as factory workers or students), but wish to gain support and solidarity beyond the confi nes of their institutions among the 51 general public. Two key factors render the streets an arena of politics. First is the use of public space as a site of contestation between the actors and the authorities. In this sense, what makes the streets a po liti cal site is the active or participative (as opposed to passive) use of public space. This is so because these sites (side- walks, public parks, intersections, etc.) are increasingly becoming the domain -1— of the state power, which regulates their use, making them “orderly.” It ex- 0— +1— 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 6 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 62 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

77 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 63 pects the users to operate them passively. An active use challenges the author- t from such order. ity of the state and those social groups that benefi The second element shaping street politics is the operation of what I have called the “passive network” among the people who use and operate in the pub- lic space. By “passive network” I mean an instantaneous communication among atomized individuals that is established by a tacit recognition of their common identity, and which is mediated through real and virtual space. When a woman enters a party full of male guests, she instantaneously notices another woman at that party. Vendors on a street are most likely to recognize one an- other even if they never meet or talk. Now when a threat occurs to the women in the party or the vendors in the street, they are likely to get together even if they do not know each other or have not planned to do so in advance. The sig- nifi cance of this concept lies in the possibility of imagining mobilization of at- omized individuals, such as the quiet encroachers, who are largely deprived of organizations and deliberate networking. “Passive network” implies that indi- viduals may be mobilized to act collectively without active or deliberately con- structed networks. Street as a public space has this intrinsic feature that makes it possible for people to become mobilized through establishing passive net- works. Once the individual actors, the encroachers, are confronted by a threat, their passive network is likely to turn into an active communication and coop- eration. That is how an eviction threat or a police raid may immediately bring together squatters or street vendors who did not even know one another. Of course, the shift from passive network to collective re sis tance is never a given. Actors might feel that tactical retreat would yield far better result than con- frontation, a tendency common in today’s Cairo’s streets, but uncommon in the 52 revolutionary Iran, where on- the- spot collective re sis tance prevailed. I suggested at the outset that a major consequence of the new global re- structuring has been a double pro cess of integration, on the one hand, and social exclusion and informalization, on the other. Both pro cesses tend to gen- erate discontent on the part of many urban grass roots in the global South. First, there are many among the urban grass roots who fi nd it diffi cult to func- tion, live, and work, within the modernizing economic and cultural systems characterized by market discipline, contract, exchange value, speed, and bu- reaucracy, including the state organizations. These people attempt to exit from such social and economic arrangements, seeking alternative and more —-1 familiar, or informal, institutions and relations. Second, globalization has —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 6 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 63 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

78 64 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS also a tendency to informalize through programs of structural adjustment, rendering many people unemployed or pushing them to seek refuge in infor- mal production, trade, housing, and transportation. Transnational street ven- dors (circulating, for instance, between the new Central Asian republics and Istanbul, or between Jamaica and Miami) are the latest product of this age. In short, the new global restructuring tends to intensify the growth of subjectivi- ties, social space, and terrain of po liti cal struggles that are coming to charac- terize the cities of the developing world. Although the prevailing perspectives (survival strategy, urban social move- ments, and everyday re sis tance) provide useful angles to view the activism of er from major drawbacks, as dis- the urban subaltern, they do, however, suff cussed earlier. I suggested that the “quiet encroachment” perspective might off er a way out of those conceptual problems. From this vantage point, the poor not only struggle for survival, but strive in a lifelong pro cess to improve their lot through oft en individualistic and quiet encroachment on the public goods and on the power and property of the elite groups. In this pro cess, the grass roots do not directly challenge the eff ect of globalization. Rather, in their quest for security, they get involved in constant negotiations with global- ization to maintain or seek autonomy in any space remaining unaff ected. At the same time, in this pro cess, the unintended consequences of their daily en- croachments and negotiations beget signifi cant social changes in urban struc- ture and pro cesses, in demography, and in public policy. We saw earlier how crucial such a strategy is in the lives of the urban grass roots. Yet the question remains as to how far this quiet encroachment can take these actors. Given their existential constraints (poor skills and education or meager income, connection, and or ga ni za tion), quiet encroachment serves as a viable enabling strategy for the marginalized groups to survive and better their lot. However, this nonmovement neither is able to cause broader po liti cal transfor- mation nor aims to. The larger national movements have the capacity for such a transformation. Yet, compared to global/national mobilization, these local- ized struggles are both meaning ful and manageable for the actors– meaningful in that they can make sense of the purpose and have an idea of the conse- they quences of these actions; and manageable in that , rather than some remote national leaders, set the agenda, project the aims, and control the outcome. In this sense for the poor, the local is privileged over the global/national. It is true that the disenfranchised succeed relatively in extending their life- -1— chances, oft en through lifetime struggles; nevertheless, crucial social spaces 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 6 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 64 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

79 THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY 65 remain out of their control. The poor may be able to take over a plot of land to build shelters, may tap running water or electricity illegally from the main street or neighbors; they may secure a job on the street corner by selling things and may be able to bribe or dodge the municipal police every now and then. But how can they get schools, health ser vices, public parks, paved roads, and security— the social goods that are tied to larger structures and pro cesses, the national states, and the global economy? In other words, the largely atomistic and localist strategies of the disenfranchised, despite their own advantages, render a search for social justice in the broader, national sense poorly served. The urban grass roots are unlikely to become a more eff ective player in a larger sense unless they become mobilized on a collective basis, their strug- 53 gles linked to broader social movements and civil- society organizations. Ye t it is crucial to stress that until this is realized and its result is tested, quiet en- croachment remains a most viable enabling strategy, which the urban disen- franchised pursue to cause change in their own lives, and in the domains of social policy, urban governance, and public order. —-1 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c 9/1/09 1:59 PM 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 6 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 65 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M h

80 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT 4 OF LIFE CHANCES how do the Middle Eastern poor manage to live in the current new- liberal times, and what does their life struggle mean to urban politics in the region? Prior to the advent of the political- economic restructuring of the 1980s, most Middle Eastern countries were largely dominated by either nationalist- populist regimes (such as Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, and Turkey) or pro- western rentier states (Iran, the Arab Gulf states). Financed by oil or remittances, these largely authoritarian states pursued state- led development strategies, attain- 1 ing remarkable (21 percent average annual) growth rates. Income from oil ered the rentier states the possibility of providing social ser vices to many off of their citizens, and the ideologically driven populist states dispensed signi- 2 fi ts in education, health, employment, housing, and the like. cant benefi For these postcolonial regimes, such provision of social welfare was necessary to build popularity among the peasants, workers, and middle strata at a time that these states were struggling against both the colonial powers and old internal ruling classes. The state acted as the moving force of economic and social development on behalf of the populace. The authoritarian nature of these states restricted meaningful po liti cal participation and the development of eff ective civil- society organizations. The regimes’ etatist ideology and patrimonial tendencies rendered the states the main, if not the sole, provider of livelihoods for many citizens, in ex- Adapted from Asef Bayat, “Activism and Social Development in the Middle East,” Inter- 34, no. 1 (February 2002), pp. 1– 28. Copyright national Journal of Middle East Studies -1— © 2002 Cambridge University Press. Reprinted with permission. 0— +1— 66 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 6 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 66 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

81 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 67 change for their loyalty. In etatist models, the state controls the bulk of the economic, po liti cal, and social domains, leaving little space for society to de- velop itself and for interest groups to surface, compete, and act autonomously. In the Middle East, such ideology oft en led to the demobilization— or, at best, controlled mobilization— of certain segments of the population, as exempli- fi ed by the corporatist unions under Gamal Abdel Nasser and currently in Syria; the state- run syndicates under the Shah of Iran; the Islamic Associa- 3 tions under Ayatollah Khomeini; and the People’s Councils in Libya. The advent of “liberalization” and marketization through the Interna- tional Monetary Fund– sponsored Economic Reform and Structural Adjust- ment programs (ERSA) has, since the early 1990s, provoked important socio- economic changes. Free- market economies have made consumer commodities vastly more accessible and have enriched the upper socioeconomic strata while also increasing income disparities and causing critical changes in labor markets. Informal and marginalized groups, such as the unemployed, casual workers, and street- subsistence laborers, have expanded. A large number of public- sector workers and rural laborers, as well as educated, once well- to- do members of the middle class (government employees and college students), have been pushed into the ranks of the urban poor in labor and housing markets. In the meantime, states have gradually been retreating from the social re- sponsibilities that characterized their early populist development. Many so- cial provisions have been withdrawn, and the low- income groups largely have to rely on themselves to survive. For instance, in Egypt, state subsidies on cer- tain basic foodstuff s such as rice, sugar, and cooking oil have been removed, and subsidies on items such as fuel, power, and transportation have been re- duced. Rent control is being reconsidered; a new land law has ended tenant farmers’ control over land; and pubic- sector reform and privatization con- tinue, all with signifi cant social costs. As early as 1993, a United States Agency for International Development report warned of the “deteriorating social 4 conditions in Egypt.” Although certain social indicators such as life expec- tancy and infant mortality have improved, unemployment, poverty, and in- 5 come gaps reportedly increased in the 1990s. Similar changes are taking place in Jordan, resulting from a series of events such as the second Gulf War, 6 which deepened the crisis there. In Iran, the government has been vacillating between etatism and free- market policies since 1990. Compared with that in —-1 other countries in the region, the direction of economic liberalization in Iran —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 6 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 67 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

82 68 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS has been slow, due partly to labor re sis tance and partly to the struggle among po liti cal factions. Although the Syrian economy remains predominantly un- 7 der state control, the private sector is being allowed to expand gradually. Concurrent with these political- economic developments has been the glo- balization of the ideas of human rights and po liti cal participation, which have placed economic rights and citizen participation on the po liti cal agenda and lization. The inability subsequently helped to open new spaces for social mobi of populist states to incorporate or suppress the new social forces (such as lower- middle and middle classes) that they have helped to generate has led to the growth of civil- society institutions. When states are unable to meet the needs of these classes, they resort to (and encourage the establishment of) civil 8 associations to fulfi ll them. Surveys on civil society in the Middle East sug- gest that, despite the authoritarian nature of many states, human rights activ- ists, artists, writers, religious fi gures, and professional groups have brought 9 pressure to bear on the governments for accountability and openness. These overall economic and social changes— notably, the deteriorating social conditions of the poor, on the one hand, and the expansion of the public sphere and civil institutions, on the other— raise some crucial questions. How do the grass roots in the Middle East react to their changing social and eco- nomic realities? And if they indeed confront their changing circumstance, what is the logic behind the shift in the nature of demands, sites of protests, and patterns of struggles in the region? To what extent is “pressure from below” required for meaningful policy change and institutional reform conducive to social development for defending people’s livelihoods and rights? By address- ing such questions, this chapter explores the ways in which the urban disen- franchised strive to defend their livelihoods and assert their right to the city. While past mass urban protests and labor unionism have failed to improve the living conditions of a large number of people, community activism has been feeble, and social Islam and NGOs address only some of the problems. Middle Eastern societies thus seem to foster quiet encroachment as a prevalent strategy that gives the urban grass roots some power over their own lives and infl uence over state policy. URBAN MASS PROTESTS The urban riots of the 1980s were an early expression of discontent with some aspects of neoliberal policies in the Middle East, as various countries tried to -1— reduce their defi cits through austerity policies, such as cuts in consumer sub- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 6 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 68 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

83 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 69 sidies. These reductions violated the social contract between the states and cult to deter- the masses, triggering anger and discontent. Although it is diffi le of the participants, the urban middle and lower classes mine the precise profi were among the main actors. In August 1983, the Moroccan government re- duced consumer subsidies by 20 percent. Even though public- sector salaries were raised by an equal amount, riots broke out in northern Morocco and other regions. Similar riots occurred in Tunis in 1984 (89 killed) and in Khar- toum in 1982 and 1985 (number of dead unknown). In the summer of 1987, Lebanese involved in the civil war got together to stage a massive demonstra- tion in Beirut against the drop in the value of the Lebanese pound. Algeria was struck by cost- of- living riots in the fall of 1988, and Jordan experienced 10 similar violence in 1989. This list excludes many po liti cal protests that raised issues concerning individual freedoms, regional autonomy, and professional matters (e.g., at Egypt’s Military Academy in 1986 and in the Ira ni an cities of Tabriz and Qazvin and, later, among students in 1999). Despite the acceleration of neoliberal policies, urban mass protests ebbed noticeably during the 1990s. Several factors played a part. Alarmed by the earlier unrest, governments imposed tighter controls while delaying or imple- menting unpop u lar policies only gradually. Aside from internationally spon- sored safety nets, such as the Social Fund for Development in Egypt and Jor- dan, additional outlets were off ered by the growth of welfare NGOs and social Islam. The experience of the Islamic Revolution and the war with Iraq distin- guished Iran from its regional counterparts. While many regimes in the Mid- dle East were shedding their pop u lism during the 1980s and 1990s, Iran began to experience that only aft er the revolution. The Islamic regime’s rhetoric in favor of the “downtrodden” contributed to the mobilization of the grass roots. The war suppressed internal dissent; once it ended, a new opportunity for col- lective activities, such as urban mass protests, arose. Thus, unlike the relatively quiet 1980s, six major protests took place in Tehran and other Ira ni an cities in the early 1990s. Riots in Tehran in August 1991 and in Shiraz and Arak in 1992 were carried out by squatters because of de mo li tion of their shelters or forced evictions. Even more dramatic unrest took place in the city of Mashad in 1992 and Tehran’s Islamshahr community in 1995. In Mashad, the protests were triggered by the municipality’s rejection of demands by city squatters to legal- ize their communities. This massive unrest, on which the army failed to —-1 more than one hundred buildings and stores destroyed, clamp down, left —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 6 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 69 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

84 70 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS three hundred people arrested, and more than a dozen people dead. The three- day riots in Islamshahr, a large informal community in South Tehran, in April 1995, had to do with the postwar economic austerity— notably, in- creases in bus fare and the price of fuel— under President Hashemi Rafsanjani. Urban protests in the Middle East have had mixed results. Following im- mediate repression, governments in many cases have had to revoke unpop u lar mea sures (as in Egypt in 1977, Tunisia and Morocco in 1984, Sudan in 1985, Algeria in 1988, Jordan in 1989, and Iran on many occasions). At times, they have made tactical concessions, such as increasing wages; this, however, af- fects only wage earners, at the expense of the self- employed poor and the 11 unemployed. Where the protests are local or small- scale, the governments usually have managed to end them by force. In the early 1980s, workers in Kafr al- Dawwar in Egypt managed to fulfi ll only part of their demands. The Egyptian farmers’ protests in 1998 across isolated villages failed to modify the new policy that ended tenant farmers’ long- term control over land. However, when social protests have gained national support by embracing diverse is- sues and actors (such as students and the middle classes making economic as well as po liti cal claims), they oft en provoke signifi cant changes, including po- liti cal reform (as in Algeria, Jordan, Tunisia, and Turkey in the late 1980s). Despite their drama and, at times, their remarkable impact, urban mass protests are usually spontaneous, ad hoc, and consequently uncommon; they oft en involve violence and a risk of repression. Urban riots are a response to the absence of eff ective institutionalized mechanisms of confl ict resolution. The social groups without institutionally based power to disrupt (such as the unemployed, who cannot strike) and those who enjoy such power but fi nd it inadequate (workers, students) are likely to follow leaders in initiating mass protests. This is not to say, as some have claimed, that Middle Eastern masses 12 essentially lack a “truly collective life,” resorting instead to “mob action.” For in favorable conditions, they also engage in modern forms of collective action, notably, trade unionism. TRADE UNIONISM Trade unionism represents an older and sustained institution through which working people have defended their rights or exerted pressure on economic elites and governments to bring about social change. Trade unions have the -1— potential to respond rapidly and systematically to unjust labor practices, dis- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 70 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

85 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 71 tributive issues, and po liti cal matters. At the same time, they are most ected by the current neoliberal economic policies, including new labor dis- aff cipline and lay- off s which in the end undermine the power of the unions. Originally, trade unions in the Middle East emerged in the context of Eu ro pe an colonial domination. Their struggles, therefore, involved both class and nationalist dimensions— usually a tense strategic position. At in de pen- dence, most trade- union organizations were integrated into the state struc- ture or the ruling parties, resulting in the current situation, in which unitary, compulsory unions make up the majority of labor organizations. This type of union, in which public- sector workers constitute the core members, operates in countries with populist pasts (such as Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, and Syria) as well as in Kuwait and Yemen. The Arab Gulf states, using mostly foreign workers, impose tough discipline and disallow labor organizations in exchange for relatively high pay. Surveillance, however, has not prevented occasional outbreaks of labor unrest, such as the Palestinian workers’ strike in the Saudi oil industry in the 1980s and the riots of Egyptian workers in Kuwait against 13 discrimination in October 1999. Only Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Turkey have pluralist unions that are relatively in de pen dent from the state or ruling parties. Union structure aff ects workers’ ability to maintain their gains or to ad- vance them. In de pen dent unions, more than corporatist ones, are likely to defend workers’ rights. However, in the experience of the region, workers tend to use the existing corporatist organizations to further their own interests, as shown in the state- controlled workers syndicates before the Ira ni an Revolu- 14 er. tion and workers’ shuras and the Union of Unemployed Workers aft This applies also to the corporatist trade unions in Egypt established by Nasser fol- lowing the liberal era (1928– 52), when labor unions enjoyed a period of relative 15 in de pen dence. Currently, or ga nized public- sector workers, more than any other group, feel the immediate consequences of economic adjustment. Thus, trade unions are concerned with and oft en struggle against cuts in consumer subsidies, price rises, reductions in wages and allowances, layoff s, and government interfer- ence in union aff airs. A human- rights or ga ni za tion reported seventy strikes against large companies in Egypt during 1998, most of which involved state security forces. The main cause of the industrial actions was “government re- 16 form policy.” cial statements, reported in early The Egyptian press, citing offi —-1 1999 the occurrence of more than fi ve strikes and sit- ins per week. These —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 7 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 71 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

86 72 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS actions resulted largely from reductions in allowances and perquisites and the 17 nes. introduction of fi In Iran, the 1990s saw a rapid increase in worker strikes. 18 During the fi rst half of 1991, some two thousand strikes were reported. ation According to one account, strikes by workers trying to catch up with infl 19 were so common that the authorities hardly noticed them. New labor laws, ed to accord with the neoliberal era and economic realities, have been redraft en strip workers of several traditional rights, hotly contested, because they oft notably, job security. In Egypt, the labor unions compelled government and business to accept in 1994 an exchange of “the right to strike for the right to 20 re.” fi In Iran, labor law remained a matter of dispute between the ruling clergy and pro- labor forces for more than a de cade. Some observers tend to underestimate the capacity of or ga nized labor in the Middle East to aff ect social and po liti cal developments on the grounds en involve the risk that strikes, the workers’ major weapon, are illegal and oft of arrest and imprisonment. In addition, they argue, states usually co- opt the leaderships of these largely corporatist labor unions, thus rendering 21 union activism practically in eff ec tive. It is true that strikes are illegal, and labor leaders may be bought off , with many of them becoming part of the ruling parties and the state bureaucracy. However, as Posusney rightly ar- gues, “labor has been able to pursue economic demands and wring conces- sions from the state, in spite of corporatist controls,” and its ability to do so “is contingent on the specifi c issue at hand and how policy around that issue 22 is made.” The fact is that even the corporatist leadership must be somehow responsive to the views and concerns of its rank and fi le. Not only do labor leaders oft en express opposition to certain government policies (e.g., removal of subsidies, privatization, aspects of labor law), but the rank and fi le tend to cial industrial action when the leadership fails to take the initia- wage unoffi tive. In Egypt, for instance, opposition by or ga nized labor has been the main cause of delays in the implementation or renegotiation of terms of adjust- ment with the International Monetary Fund both currently and under pre- 23 vious governments. Notwithstanding its social and po liti cal impact, or ga nized labor in the Middle East has continued to comprise only a small portion of the total work- force. The vast majority have been self- employed, with a large fraction of wage earners working in small workshops in which paternalistic labor relations prevail. Although tension between bosses and employees is not uncommon in -1— these establishments, laborers are more likely to remain loyal to their bosses 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 72 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

87 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 73 than to ally with their colleagues in the shop next door. On the whole, be- tween one- third and one- half of the workforce in the cities (Egypt, 43; Iran, 35; Turkey, 36; Yemen Arab Republic, 70) are active in the informal sector 24 and thus remain unor ga nized and beyond the provisions of labor law. The economic restructuring of the 19 80s has further undermined or ga nized labor, as the public sector, the core of trade unionism, is shrinking because of clo- sures, downsizing, and early retirements. Numerous reports point to the de- clining capacity of the region’s labor movements to mobilize. Or ga nized labor in Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, and Iran is described as “disjointed,” 25 “defensive,” “decapitated and de- proletarianized.” Sporadic unrest notwith- standing, labor is becoming more informal and fragmented, with less or no protection, and dispersed across vast arrays of activities and spaces among the unemployed, casual workers, and domestic labor, in the small workshops, and 26 on street corners. COMMUNITY ACTIVISM For the urban grass roots, then, urban community or neighborhood may off er a sense of common identity and a ground for collective action in the stead of culties in the workplace. For in the neighborhoods, most face the same diffi ensuring secure housing, paying rent, and acquiring access to urban ameni- ties, schools, clinics, cultural centers, and the like. Community- based collec- tive struggles for such “collective consumption” through institutional settings are what in a sense characterize the urban social movements. This kind of community activism, oft en contentious, should be distinguished from the no- tion of “community development.” The latter has had a double eff ect of both maintaining the status quo and engendering social change. Indeed, the pro- gram of community development in the West was originally aimed at counter- insurgency against communism (in the colonies), containment of discontent among the black underclass (in the United States), and management of the 27 poor by providing community solutions (in the United Kingdom). Yet com- munity development may also open space to cultivate re sis tance against the en the case when the grass roots initi- elites and foster social change. This is oft ate development on their own or are mobilized by local leaders, NGOs, reli- gious groups, or politicians (as in Brazilian barrios or in the Self- Employed Women’s Association in India). Here mobilization may not necessarily be contentious; it could express cooperative community engagement whereby —-1 people work together to improve their lives and communities with a degree of —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 73 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

88 74 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS control over decisions and their outcome. How do the Middle Eastern cities fare in terms of such community activism? In recent times, a number of community mobilizations that took place in Middle Eastern cities bore some resemblance to urban social movements. Take, for instance, the campaign of the people of Ezbet Mekawy, a low- income community in Cairo, against industrial pollution in the area, where smelters 28 had caused major health and environmental problems. They used tradi- tional strategies of communication within the community, as well as modern tactics such as engaging the media, lobbying politicians, and resorting to the court system as a means of registering opposition. In a diff erent example, mem- bers of the Shubra al- Khaima community in Egypt rapidly responded to a governorate’s plan in August 1994 to demolish an unauthorized section of a community complex (a mosque, a clinic, and a pharmacy) that had taken in- 29 habitants ten years to build with their own money. At certain periods— notably, when states become more vulnerable— even more enduring and large- scale mobilization develops. The collapse of the state during the Lebanese civil war caused quiet encroachment and commu- nity mobilization in the Muslim south, where its institutions continue to this day. Thousands from the south moved to the southern suburb of Beirut, build- ing illegal settlements that currently make up 40 percent of the homes in the area. Following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, networks of vol- unteer and associational groups played a vital role not only in supporting civil disobedience, but also in fi lling the vacuum created by loss of municipal ser- 30 vices. The Palestinian Pop u lar Organizations acted as the main organs of social provisioning and development in the occupied territories, both during 31 er. the intifada and aft Immediately aft er the Ira ni an Revolution of 1979, many poor families took over hundreds of vacant homes and half- fi nished apart- ment blocks, refurbishing them as their own properties and establishing apartment councils to manage them collectively. In the meantime, land take- overs and illegal construction accelerated. With the help of local and outside mobilizers, squatters got together and demanded electricity and running wa- ter; when they were refused or encountered delays, they acquired them ille- gally. They established roads, opened clinics and stores, constructed mosques and libraries, and or ga nized refuse collection. They further set up associa- tions and community networks and participated in local consumer coopera- tives. A new and a more autonomous way of living, functioning, and or ga niz- -1— ing community was in the making. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 74 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

89 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 75 However, when compared with movements in some Latin American coun- tries, these experiences, as exemplary of urban social movements, seem acutely uncommon. They tend to happen in extraordinary social and po liti cal cir- cumstances— in revolutionary conditions or in times of crisis and war, when the state is undermined or totally absent, as in Palestine. Thus, few such activi- ties become a pattern for sustained social mobilization and institutionalization in normal situations. Once the exceptional conditions come to an end, the ex- periments begin to wither away or become distorted. In Iran, community ac- tivism did not get a chance to consolidate itself. Lack of experience, rivalry of outside mobilizers and po liti cal groups, and especially the hostility of the government seriously undermined the experiment. Instead, mosque associa- tions not only were established to off er the locals assistance in distributing basic necessities such as food during the war with Iraq, but served also to con- trol po liti cal discontent in the neighborhoods. They resembled the three thousand Community Development Associations (CDAs) that currently op- 32 erate throughout Egypt. Although CDAs contribute to the poor’s social well- being, their mobilizing impact is minimal. As a fi eld researcher working in a pop u lar quarter of Cairo stated: “Even in the highly politicized Sayyeda Zeinab, or ga nized social action that involves the area’s inhabitants seems minimal. The residents’ role is usually limited to that of benefi ciaries of what- 33 ever ser vices . . . are available.” Needless to say, urban communities are not blank spots devoid of social interaction. Surely, they are more than small villages subject to individualism, anonymity, and competition. Nevertheless, they contain numerous forms of networks and institutions. In the modern city of Tehran, neighborly relations still prevail; members participate in assisting one another, pay visits, consult, 34 and take part in weddings and funerals. In Egyptian cities, migrant associa- tions have institutionalized some of these functions; funeral activities and maintaining cemeteries for the people from “home villages” are their main 35 activity. Infl uential individuals may take advantage of the state- controlled neighborhood councils. But the informal credit systems serve as perhaps the most important form of community network in urban centers. Social networks that extend beyond kinship and ethnicity remain largely casual, unstructured, and paternalistic. The weakness of civic or nonkinship cooperation at the community level only reinforces traditional hierarchical and paternalistic re- , shaykhs, Friday prayer kibar lations with people depending on local leaders ( —-1 leaders), problem solvers, and even local bullies, rather than on broad- based —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 75 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

90 76 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS social activism. In such social conditions, the modern institutions such as po- liti cal party branches, local NGOs, or police are susceptible to clientelism. Thus, while the Egyptian lower classes, for instance, are aware of environ- mental problems, they undertake little in the way of collective action, either through communal engagement to upgrade the community itself or through 36 protest actions to demand that offi cials do this for them. Why is community activism, a social action for collective consumption, relatively uncommon in the Middle East? Why is the region a “blank space” in 37 the global map of community action, as some observers have put it? One reason has to do with the legacy of pop u lism, which continues to infl uence the po liti cal behavior of the ordinary people in most Middle Eastern countries. Populist regimes established a social contract between the lower and middle classes and the state, whereby the state agreed to provide the basic necessities in exchange for their support, social peace, and consequent demobi lization, or just a controlled mobilization. This was not an agreement between the state and in de pen dent classes. Rather, it was an agreement between the state and a shapeless mass, an aggregate of individuals and corporate institutions in which in de pen dent collective identity and action were seriously undermined. Although distributive pop u lism is currently waning and market forces are escalating, many people still tend to look at the states as the main source of protection as well as misfortune. In countries where authoritarian pop u lism still predominates (such as Iran in the 1980s, Libya, and Syria), the statesman’s dread of the public sphere has given a structure to the regimes that in some ways incarcerate the entire population. This legacy has also contributed to the tendency among many ordinary 38 people to seek individualistic solutions to their problems. More oft en than not, families of diff erent social strata tend to compete when resources are scarce. This occurs even more oft en in the new and heterogeneous communi- ties (such as Dar el- Salam, Madinat al- Nahda, and Kafr el- Seif in Cairo, and Islamshahr and Khak Sefi d in Tehran) than in the old city quarters, where the relative homogeneity of inhabitants and the longevity of residence have pro- duced a spatial identity. The coexistence of identifi able strata in a community— such as old- timers and newcomers, those with and without security of tenure, erent ethnic groups— oft en sharpens the existing competition, leading and diff 39 to confl icts. Consequently, with solidarity intangible among the people, re- course to the mighty state— this provider and punisher— becomes an alterna- -1— tive way to achieve their goals. Many of them know, however, that the bureau- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 76 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

91 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 77 cracy is unable or unwilling to respond formally to the growing demands of the urban poor, and they tend to seek informal, individualistic, and even op- portunistic ways to cultivate connection or bribe the offi cials. “The best way to get what ever you want done,” said a resident of the Sayyeda Zeinab district of Cairo, “is to pay a bribe to any of the assistants of any of the area’s big politi- 40 cians and they will do for you what ever you want.” A key contributor to such social response is the lack of a structure of op- portunity for mobilization. The advent of neoliberal economies in the Middle 41 East has not accompanied a suffi ciently demo cratic polity. Put simply, most governments in the region are still apprehensive of and tend to restrict in de- pen dent collective mobilization for fear of losing po liti cal space. In many states, public demonstrations and gatherings are largely illegal. As a street vendor in Cairo’s Madinat al- Nahda invoking Egypt’s emergency law said: “If I call my neighboring street vendor to get together and do something collectively, this 42 would be called mobilization, and I could be taken in for that.” A human rights agency’s account of farmers’ protests in twenty- fi ve villages against the new land law in Egypt in the course of eight months reported fi ft een 43 deaths, 218 injuries, and 822 arrests. Alternatively, the governments may allow pop u lar initiative in order to control it. Where it su cceeds in do ing so, the pop u lar classes tend to lose inter- est, with the result that their activism fails to sustain itself. Because the sup- porting environment is lacking, they fail to experiment and learn new ways of doing things. Thus, most of the genuine pop u lar institutions transform into the extension of the states. Po liti cal democracy is instrumental in another way. In a truly competitive polity, po liti cal forces are compelled to bargain with and thus mobilize the grass roots to win their electoral support. This is how the urban poor in Iran became the subject of an intense competition between the ruling clergy and various oppositional groups in the early 1980s. Similarly, a sustained competi- tive system in Turkey allowed the Islamist Rifah Party to mobilize the urban masses in the twenty- six municipalities it controlled, thereby giving the elec- torate strong bargaining power. Manipulative electoral practices in Egypt, however, tend to limit the oppositional parties to restricted local campaigns, as in Ezbet Mekawy described earlier. Finally, collective patronage may also lead unintentionally to social and po liti cal mobilization when patrons bargain with their poor clients’ leaders in —-1 their quest for personal and po liti cal power. Mobilization of street vendors in —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 77 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

92 78 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS Mexico City through negotiation between the vendors’ union leaders and 44 politicians is partly the result of this type of po liti cal patronage. In much of the Middle East (except in Lebanon and in the case of Istanbul’s street car parkers’ “mafi a”), however, patronage seems to work more through individ- ual channels and rarely leads to group activities. Favors are granted more to individuals or families (in getting the security of tenure or jobs, for instance) than groups who then can bargain with their patron in exchange for his support. In brief, community activism in the form of urban social movements seems to be largely a Latin American model rooted in sociopo liti cal condi- tions of that region (although it can be found in South Africa and, to a lesser extent, in India). The likes of local soup kitchens, neighborhood associations, church groups, and street trade unionism are hardly common features in the Middle East. The prevalence of authoritarian states and the legacy of pop u- lism, together with the strength of family and kinship ties in this region, render primary solidarities more pertinent than secondary associations and social movements. ISLAMIST MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Some observers view the current Islamist movements in the region as the Middle Eastern model of urban social movements. In this vision, Islamism— in par tic u lar, “social Islam”— articulates the concerns and struggles of the un- derprivileged urban Middle Easterners. For many, the seemingly disadvan- taged background of the radical Islamists is indicative of the nature of the movements. Others look at the locations of their activities, in poor areas, to 45 arrive at similar conclusion. No doubt, Islamist movements— notably, “social Islam”— represent a sig- nifi cant means through which some disadvantaged groups survive hardship or better their lives. The Islamist movements contribute to social welfare fi rst by directly providing ser vices such as health care, education, and fi nancial aid; at the same time, they off er involvement in community development and a social network, most of which are carried out through local, nongovern- mental, mosques. Second, the Islamist movements tend to foster social com- petition wherein other religious and secular organizations are compelled to become involved in community work. Finally, the governments, in order to outmaneuver the Islamists and regain legitimacy, are oft en forced to imple- -1— ment social policies in favor of the poor. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 7 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 78 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

93 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 79 Although Islamic social welfare has a long history in the Middle East, it has multiplied and taken on new forms in recent de cades. During the 1980s growth of Islamism in Turkey, “mosques and their attendant religious associ- ations represented direct channels of neighborhood or ga ni za tion and recruit- 46 ment.” The Islamist Rifah Party continued in the 1990s to focus on grass- roots community issues—“garbage, potholes and mud.” Many Rifah Party mayoral candidates even distributed in- kind incentives to secure support. This grassroots strategy led to the party’s massive victory in the 1994 elections, cap- turing 327 municipalities throughout Turkey, including Ankara and Istanbul. Mayors have boasted about successfully addressing the problems of congested transportation, water and fuel shortage, inadequate housing, pollution, corrup- 47 tion, and the like. Similarly, the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), a co ali tion of diff erent Islamist parties in Algeria, prevailed in municipal elections in June 1990 in a very similar fashion. When the National Liberation Front allowed a multiparty system in 1989, FIS activists began to work within the existing Charity Associations (mosque- centered networks) that had been established in the 1980s by religious activists. Supported by the Charity Associations, the 48 FIS took its po liti cal ideas into the neighborhoods. In a quite diff erent context, Hizbullah fi lled the vacuum created by the absence of the state in southern Lebanon to construct the infrastructure for social development. During the 1980s, Hizbullah began gradually to address social problems faced by the Shi ̔i community. It developed plans to off er medical care, hospital treatment, electricity, and water trucking. It also paved roads, built housing, managed sewage systems, set up gas stations, and oper- 49 ated schools, nurseries, hospitals, and sports centers. It provided 130,000 scholarships, aid for 135,000 needy families, and interest- free loans. Repairing war- damaged houses and attending to daily needs of the population in areas 50 of Shi ̔i concentration were priority areas of intervention. Egypt’s social Islam has become perhaps the most pervasive phenomenon in the region. The Islamic associations, oft en centered in nonstate mosques, grew extensively in part because the government’s development programs had fallen into crisis in the past two de cades. They accounted for one- third of all Egyptian private voluntary organizations (PVOs) in the late 1980s, and at least 51 50 percent of all welfare associations (or 6,327) in the late 1990s, off ering charity and health ser vices to millions. More than four thousand zakat (reli- gious tax) committees or ga nized in mosques mediate between the donors and —-1 the needy. Some estimates put the number of benefi ciaries of the Islamic welfare —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 7 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 79 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

94 80 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS (health) ser vices at 15 million people (in 1992), as opposed to 4.5 million in 52 1980. Indeed, the mosques came to provide alternative support ser vices to low- income groups to compensate for the government’s withdrawal of sup- port aft er adopting more liberal economic policies. One typical association, the Ansar al- Muhammadiya Association in the poor community of Imbaba, built a mosque and two schools and provided day care, medical treatment, 53 and an elaborate welfare program. ered video clubs, computer Others off training centers, and similar ser vices to cater to the needs of such groups as the high- school graduates who are the potential recruits of the radical po liti- cal Islamists. Contrary to the common perception, radical Islamists such as al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya and al- Jihad were far less involved in urban commu- nity work. As rural and urban guerrillas, their strategy centered on armed attacks, targeting the state offi cials, police, and tourism. Nevertheless, where possible, they combined their po liti cal agitation with some welfare activities, 54 as they did in such poor quarters of Cairo as Ain Shams and Imbaba. What makes all of these activities “Islamic” is the combination of an alter- native to both the state and the private sector, the religious conviction of many of their activists, Islamic- based funding and, fi nally, the provision of aff ord- able social ser vices. It is widely agreed that such Islamic community activities en outdo their secular counterparts. The availability of funding in the form oft of zakat (2.5 of income) from Muslim businesses and activists, various dona- h) levied on the savings of Shi ̔i Muslims, and tions ( saadaqat ), khums (a fi ft external aid (e.g., from Iran to Hizbullah and from Saudi Arabia to the FIS) renders these associations comparatively advantageous. In the early 1990s, the Nasser Bank, which supervises the zakat committees in Egypt, reported a $10 55 million zakat fund. The additional advantages include the spirit of volun- tarism, as well as legal favor. That is, unlike secular NGOs, which have to surmount many bureaucratic hurdles to raise funds, the religious PVOs tend to get around the law by obtaining donations and other contributions from 56 Muslim believers in places of worship. The grassroots activities of the Islamists, in the meantime, compelled other social forces to enter into the competition, hoping to share this po liti cal space. The Turkish religious orders ( tariqa s) emulated one another in com- 57 munity activities through mosques and their attendant associations. Al- Azhar, er similar social ser- the pillar of establishment Islam in Egypt, began to off vices to the needy in competition with the Muslim Brotherhood and al- -1— Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya. Similarly, secular groups— notably, secular NGOs— seem 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 80 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

95 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 81 to work hard to off ve mil- er their own piecemeal alternatives. An estimated fi ted from the health, educational, fi lion poor benefi nancial, and community 58 ser vices of Egyptian PVOs in 1990. In addition, the governments were af- fected, as they feared losing the po liti cal initiative to the Islamists. The Egyp- tian government’s mea sures to upgrade slums and squatter areas in the early ected the infl 1990s clearly refl uence of Imbaba, the slum community in Cairo in which by 1992 militant Islamists had created, according to foreign media, 59 “a state within the state.” Given these activities, to what extent does Islamism represent a Middle Eastern model of urban social movements? To what degree does Islamism embody grassroots activism in communities or work collectives? How far do the Islamists encourage the grass roots to participate in their own aff airs, to defend and extend their social rights? I suggest that although Islamism, not- withstanding its variations, may be considered a form of social movement, it urban does not express an social movement. The identity of Islamism does not derive from its par tic u lar concern for the urban disfranchised. It has never articulated a vision of an alternative urban order around which to mo- bilize the community members, whom the Islamists see as deserving welfare recipients to be guided by leaders. The members are rarely expected to partici- pate actively in making their communities. The Islamist movements have more extensive aims than simply focusing on the disfranchised, although many activists work through the poor com- munities to pursue broader objectives. Not all, however, operate even in this fashion. For example, in Iran before the revolution, neither the clergy nor nonclerical Islamists, such as Ali Shariati, were particularly interested in mo- bilizing the poor; nor did the poor take an active part in the Islamic Revolu- tion. The mobilization of the urban grass roots by the ruling clergy in Iran began mainly aft er the revolution. The clergy lent its support to the poor through the rhetoric of the downtrodden ( mustaz ̔afin ), fi rst, to off set the and the Mujahedin- e Khalq, stands in favor of the lower class taken by the left and second, to win over the poor as their social basis in their struggles against the Left , liberals, and the remnants of the ancien régime. The honeymoon between the poor and the ruling clergy was over when the poor were polar- ized. A segment was integrated into the state structure as members of the revolutionary institutions, such as the Revolutionary Guards, Construction Crusade, and the like; others remained outside, and their struggles for devel- —-1 opment brought them into confrontation with the regime. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 81 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

96 82 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS The Lebanese Hizbullah, with its law enforcement apparatus, fell some- where between a social movement and a quasi- state. Among other things, Hizbullah constructed an infrastructure of social development, but few of 60 these ser vices were free. As of early 2000, the Hizbullah and Amal move- ments controlled the poor suburban municipalities of South Beirut. Although they use the United Nations Development Program discourse of participation and mobilization, their attitudes toward the local people remain paternalistic. en select (not elect) people for municipality councils and cooperate They oft 61 with those NGOs that are closer to them. However, alongside their mobili- zation of the grass roots, Turkey’s Rifah Party and Algeria’s FIS adopted ex- clusivist and divisive mea sures. The Rifah- dominated municipalities prac- ticed nepotism and patronage, laid off secular employees in favor of religious ones, favored contractors who donated money to the party, and overlooked il- legal real- estate construction in exchange for donations. The Rifah Party’s 62 policy of “cultural purifi cation” tended to divide communities. Ta k i ng a similarly exclusionary stand, Egypt’s al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya in Imbaba forced women to veil themselves, burned video shops and hairdressing salons, and beat men who drank alcohol. The Christian residents turned fearful and inse- cure. While or ga nized labor generally has remained out of the Islamists’ reach, the relationship between the Islamists and the urban poor has been complex. For instance, contrary to common perception, Islamic social- welfare organiza- tions in Egypt are not sites of Islamist po liti cal activity. They simply act as ser- vice organizations. The vast majority have no link to po liti cal Islam as such. Only a few were affi liated with the Muslim Brotherhood, and a mere handful with the radical Islamists, notably al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya. The rest operate on the basis of humanitarian commitment or simple business rationale in a coun- try where the market for “Islamic” commodities (Islamic fashion, books, edu- cation, and entertainment) has been thriving. The explicit po liti cal stance emerged in the welfare associations not in the poor areas, but in the middle- class neighborhoods and among professional associations of doctors, engi- 63 neers, and lawyers who were allied with the Muslim Brotherhood. However, the spread of Islamic ser vices and commodities is not restricted to the poor neighborhoods or exclusively to Muslims. It extends to middle- class and af- fl uent districts and to the Christian community. The Islamic schools are not free of charge but are private institutions that virtually exclude the poor. In 64 the Imbaba slum, for instance, only a fraction were admitted for free. The -1— Islamic schools are geared largely toward the well- to- do, urban middle classes. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 82 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

97 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 83 Although it has links to diverse classes, Islamism in the Middle East is primarily a movement not of the disfranchised, but of the marginalized middle classes. Middle- class agitators in turn tend to activate the youth and the educated unemployed, as well as the socially well- to- do and po liti cally marginalized groups. It is these groups that are considered the main agents of social change. Activities among the poor are largely limited to the provi- sion of social ser vices, oft en charity, and mobilization during elections in which free balloting takes place. In exchange, the Muslim poor in the cities approach the Islamists in pragmatic terms. Many of those who have no direct interaction with the Islamists remain confused as to their intentions. Others who benefi t from their activities appear both appreciative and apprehensive. There is no evidence suggesting that the urban poor as a whole have off ered an ideological allegiance to the Islamists or to the governments that have fought against the Islamists. Islamist movements, therefore, are distinct from Latin American liberation theology. The strategic objective of the liberation theology has been the “liberation of the poor”; the interpretation of gospel 65 follows from this point of departure. The Islamist movements, however, generally have broader social and po liti cal objectives (e.g., an Islamic state, law, and morality) than simply helping the downtrodden, and secular issues such as social justice for the poor follow only from the establishment of Is- 66 lamic order— the most noble objective. In addition, what most Islamists share is a par tic u lar moral vision of society, which is repressive in terms of gender relations and intolerant of religious minorities and modern– secular forces with a stake in building a nonreligious demo cratic polity. Ideological monopolies disrupt the pro cess of pluralist demo cratization and frustrate the truly participatory framework that is essential for a sustained social de- velopment. But does the vision behind nonreligious NGOs off er a more via- ble alternative for the poor? THE POLITICS OF THE NGOs The remarkable expansion of the Islamic welfare associations in the 1980s ection of the trend toward Islamization as of the ex- and 1990s is as much a refl plosive growth of NGOs in the Middle East in general. The notable gathering in Cairo in May 1997 of some seven hundred NGO delegates from almost all of the Arab countries to follow up their discussions during the 1994 Inter- national Conference on Population and Development marks the growing sig- —-1 nifi cance attached to this sector. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 8 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 83 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

98 84 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS Associational life is not new in the Middle East. Many countries in the re- gion have a long history of philanthropic activities. Early- nineteenth- century associations were religious, drawing either on the Islamic notions of com- passion and good deeds (as in paying zakat and sadaqiat ) or on the Christian value of charity. They were followed in the early twentieth century by largely secular welfare and charitable associations, some of which were also used to cover anticolonial campaigns. Many of the welfare associations were run mainly by women of aristocratic families, who through work in such associa- tions aimed to play a role in the public sphere, a domain occupied almost exclusively by men. Although the legacy of such associational culture has con- erent breed and follow a tinued to the present, the recent NGOs are of a diff diff erent logic. In the late 1990s there were some fi ft een thousand registered NGOs in Egypt, double the number that existed in 1977. By comparison, Tunisia devel- oped fi ve thousand NGOs, of which 10 percent are charity- based. Lebanon’s NGOs grew from 1,586 in 1990 to more than 3,500 by 1996, in a population of three million; Jordan’s NGOs have increased from 112 in 1980 to over 800 to- day. The Palestinian Indigenous (Ahli) Organizations (IAOs) increased from 1,000 (including 800 in the occupied territories and some 200 in Israel) in the early 1990s to 1,800 today. (A number of them were registered with either Is- raeli or Jordanian authorities. But perhaps the more important ones, known as “mass- based organizations,” were largely unregistered.) With regard to Iran, some accounts put the number of NGOs as high as fi ft een thousand. However, this is likely to be an exaggerated fi gure. During the 1980s, in the course of the war with Iraq, many informal people’s associations were set up. Yet because of the predominance of pop u lism and Iran’s “closed door” policy, the country’s record of development NGOs is insignifi cant when compared with those of other Middle Eastern countries. Many relief and welfare activities in Iran are carried out by governmental or governmental– nongovernmental organizations— notably, the Imam’s Relief Committee, the Foundation of Martyrs, the Con- struction Crusade, the Housing Foundation, and the Volunteer Women’s Com- munity Health Workers’ Or ga ni za tion. However, since the late 1990s, a new trend has arisen toward setting up professional, women’s health, and environ- mental NGOs. The Network of Women’s NGOs included between fi ft y- eight and one hundred organizations, for instance. The new thinking, since the era of President Mohammad Khatami, has been that the local councils should -1— be turned into the locus of pop u lar participation, while the NGOs, currently 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 84 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

99 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 85 numbering about 2,500, should be in charge of delivering ser vices and 67 charity. NGOs in the region fall into four general types in terms of their rationale or the impetus behind their activities. The religiously motivated associations gures or by churches and Christian are or ga nized by mosques and Islamic fi institutions. They are inspired by religious obligations or religious– political factors. Classical welfare associations, run mostly by upper- class families, have now incorporated some developmental functions, such as income gen- eration, training, and community upgrading. Professional NGOs are managed largely by upper- middle- class professionals and, at times, by development experts who are driven by their training and humanistic urge or simply by material self- interest. And, fi nally, there are a host of state- sponsored “NGOs,” such as the Egyptian Community Development Associations and the Ira ni an Foundation of the Dispossessed. These groups remain, in eff ect, an extension of the state. Put together, these NGOs are active in diverse fi elds of human rights, women’s issues, welfare, culture, business, and development. Here I will focus on welfare and development NGOs that target disadvantaged groups. Several factors have contributed to the spectacular growth of the NGOs. First, as elsewhere, there was a need in the region’s poorer countries (such as ll the gap left by the states’ inability and un- Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia) to fi willingness to face the challenge of social development following the imple- mentation of neoliberal policies. Population growth and urban migration had already placed great pressure on urban social ser vices. Where a state was ab- sent or defunct, as in Lebanon and Palestine, or ga nized self- help fi lled the ow of foreign funding resulting from new vacuum. The second factor is the fl donor policies that extend aid largely to NGOs rather than to individual states. External funding not only encouraged the establishment of NGOs but oft en infl uenced their activities. When there was money for human- rights ac- tivities, for example, human- rights organizations were established. Third, there seemed to be a unique consensus along the po liti cal spectrum— among neoliberals, the World Bank, governments, and liberal and left ist opposition the bur- groups— in support of the NGOs. The conservatives wanted to shift den of social provisions from the state to individuals. For them, NGOs acted as a safety net to off set the possibility of social unrest caused by the repercus- sions of neoliberal policies. In the view of Prince Talal Abdel- Aziz al- Saud of Saudi Arabia, “NGOs are the central component of development.” According —-1 to a prominent Arab NGO advocate, “NGOs have replaced class struggle and —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 85 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

100 86 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS 68 also supported the NGOs socialism.” Middle Eastern liberals and the Left for their perceived role as agents of social change from below, contributing ultimately to development and democracy. Thus, for a Palestinian activist, “the most important role of NGOs in a future Palestinian self- authority is to accelerate the speed of change, to mobilize the rural population and to demo- 69 cratize the society.” ciency, and commitment Because of their small size, effi to the cause of the poor, NGOs are seen as true vehicles for grassroots partici- pation in development. Consequently, they serve as a bulwark against the creeping spread of Islamic fundamentalism by off ering an alternative outlet to the Islamist agendas. How eff ective are the development and welfare NGOs in facing the chal- lenge of social development in the Middle East? Most studies confi rm that the sector is “a vital component of the nations’ social safety net and important 70 provider of valued social ser vices.” In Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, and Sudan, where the states have been absent, defunct, or in deep crisis, NGOs played a vital role in survival, emergency aid, and relief. According to the World Bank, Palestinian NGOs in 1994 accounted for 60 percent of primary health- care ser vices and 50 percent of all secondary and tertiary health- care ser vices; 100 percent of the programs for the disabled and preschool children; and a sizable 71 portion of agricultural, housing, small business credit, and welfare ser vices. In addition, given the growing privatization and high costs of health care and ord their education, the poorest segments of society would hardly be able to aff increasing costs without these associations. In a sense, NGOs assist the de- clining public sector on which millions of citizens still rely. In my research in Cairo, for example, NGO premises oft en served a community function and could be used free of charge or for a nominal fee as day- care centers; medical clinics; family- planning ser vices; recreational and vocational training classes in sewing, doll making, electrical appliance repair; and the like. One associa- tion that provided microcredit loans to single mothers had made it possible for hundreds of women to set up vending enterprises in their localities and en served a thereby become functionally self- suffi cient. NGO headquarters oft social function, as well, allowing local poor families, mostly women, to gather in public and learn social skills, such as how to talk in public or behave “prop- 72 erly.” An estimated 5 million poor people benefi t from such associations. The 3,000 Egyptian CDAs alone serve some 300,000 people by implementing programs in health care, food production, women’s projects, family planning, -1— 73 income generation, and child and youth development. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 8 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 86 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

101 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 87 Social development, however, is more than mere survival, relief, and safety 74 net, with total dependence on charity or precarious foreign aid. In addition, in the current development discourse, social development does not only mean lling basic needs; it also involves achieving social and economic rights fulfi and being self- sustaining. This requires, in Anisur Rahman’s words, “creating a condition where people can think, use their abilities, and act, that is, to par- 75 ticipate.” Ideally, an “NGO should work so as to make itself progressively redundant to any group or set of groups with which it has been working in- tensively.” In short, they should mobilize the grass roots. How well do the Middle Eastern development NGOs meet this goal of mobilization? Many NGO advocates have complained about the absence of a spirit of participation in the NGOs. Despite a recent tendency to establish professional and advo- 76 cacy associations, Jordanian NGOs remain largely “charity- driven.” Activ- 77 ists hope that they will adopt an “enabling approach.” Lebanese NGOs con- tinued to carry the legacy of war and have been active largely in the fi elds of relief and emergency; like their Palestinian counterparts, they depended heav- 78 ily on external humanitarian assistance. Only recently has there been a clear from relief and humanitarian assistance to the developmental and advo- shift 79 cacy associations (human rights, women, and democracy). The charitable societies in Palestine have managed to alleviate (in the areas of relief, health, education, and culture) the pressure generated by daily needs. They play a “preventive role at best, by maintaining basic social care, but they do not 8 0 perform a developmental role in the full sense of the term.” Accordingly, NGOs’ overwhelming focus on ser vices at the cost of ignoring productive ac- tivities has pushed the Palestinians toward further dependence on the Israeli economy. Several accounts of NGOs— notably, the likes of the traditional welfare as- sociations in Egypt— point to their largely paternalistic attitudes and struc- 81 ture. Paternalism is refl ected both in local NGOs’ top- down internal or ga ni- za tion and in their relationship with the benefi ciaries. The main decisions in , includ- NGOs are made by one or two people, with rare participation of staff ing the extension workers. In turn, staff are motivated not by altruistic incen- tives but by monetary motives. With the dearth of voluntarism, NGO work for status- conscious but low- paid employees appears to be no more than a dull job experience. Paternalistic NGOs perceive their benefi ciaries more as recipients of assis- —-1 tance than as participants in development. For their “favors” and benevolence, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 87 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

102 88 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS NGOs oft - en expect loyalty, support, and ser vice. It is not the place of benefi ciaries to question the adequacy and quality of ser vices or the accountability of the NGOs, for this would be interpreted as interfering in the NGOs’ aff airs. It is not the target groups but the NGO leaders and donors who defi ne the needs and priorities of a given NGO. A common problem among Middle Eastern NGOs is project duplication, which results not only from inadequate coordi- c concerns of the benefi ciaries. Com- nation, but also from ignoring the specifi en petition and factionalism among NGOs, and the variations in donors’ (oft intermediary NGOs) policies, prevent coordination of development strategies and add up to the problem of duplication. Indeed, local associations are oft en subjected to clientelistic relations with the intermediary NGOs, who extend funds to the former. The professional NGOs, which have grown exponentially since the 1990s, seem to have overcome some of the administrative and attitudinal short- comings of the more traditional welfare associations. They attempt to prac- tice participatory methods both internally and in relation to their clients, placing the emphasis on professionalism, education, and effi ciency. A number 82 of women’s, human- rights, and advocacy NGOs refl ect this trend today. However, certain features of professional organizations— hierarchy of author- ity, fi xed procedures, rigidity, and the division of labor— tend to diminish the spirit of participation. Rema Hammami has shown in the case of Palestine that local activism and mass organizations before the peace pro cess were mostly mobilizational— that is, the activities were initiated, decided on, and carried out with the involvement of the grass roots. Aft er the Palestinian Na- tional Authority (PNA) was set up, however, the conditions of foreign funding turned these groups into organizations of the professional elite, with par tic u- lar discourses of effi ciency and expertise. This new arrangement tends to cre- 83 ate distance between NGOs and the grass roots. Thus, what NGO activism means in reality is the activism of NGO leaders, not that of the millions of targeted people. These NGOs serve more their employees than the potential benefi ciaries. In addition to the internal problems (paternalism and administrative in- adequacy), government surveillance poses a real obstacle to autonomous and healthy operation of NGOs. In general, as with the grassroots associations, states in the region express a contradictory position toward NGOs: they lend them support as long as the NGOs reduce the burden of social- service provi- -1— sion and poverty alleviation. In the late 1990s, recognition was growing among 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 88 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

103 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 89 Middle Eastern states of the contributions made by the voluntary sector in ected in new and more favorable NGO laws and the social development, as refl public expression of support for the organizations (as in Egypt, Iran, and Jor- dan). Yet the governments also fear losing po liti cal space, because there is the possibility of NGOs turning oppositional. Professional associations (in Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, and Iran) are oft en drawn into politics, compensating for the absence or inadequacy of po liti cal parties. Consequently, governments, while allowing associational life, impose strict legal control by screening ini- tiators; they also check fund- raising and unilaterally outlaw nonconformist NGOs. This contradictory position is partly related to the states’ economic and po liti cal capacities. Thus, while economic weakness in a country may generate space for people’s self- activity as in NGOs, the states’ po liti cal weak- ness usually restrains it. To illustrate, the Ira ni an government, lacking fi nan- cial resources to curb population growth in the early 1990s, mobilized more than 20,000 female volunteers, who managed educational work to achieve successful family- planning and primary health- care programs in cities, con- tributing to bring the growth rate down from a high of 3.4 percent in 1987 to 1.4 percent by 1996. Yet the government fi ercely rejected these women’s de- 84 mand to set up an association, because it feared in de pen dent or ga ni za tion. In a way, this implies that in practice the state favors certain NGOs (depend- ing on what they do) and is leery of others. For instance, associations that belong to well- connected high offi cials are treated better than are critical 85 human- rights and women’s rights organizations. It is therefore crucial not to approach the NGO sector as a homogeneous entity. Just as with the concept of “civil society,” class and connection intervene to stratify the private volun- tary sector. These handicaps are partially cultural and attitudinal (e.g., the paternalis- tic approach to development and status orientation) and partly structural. Unlike those of trade unions and cooperatives, the benefi ciaries of an NGO are not its members and therefore cannot hold it accountable for inadequacy. The same relationship, in turn, persists between local NGOs and donor agen- cies; as a result, the NGOs are accountable not to their benefi ciaries but to their 86 donors. Mahmood Mamdani is perhaps correct in saying that the NGOs do undermine the existing clientelism, yet they simultaneously create a new 87 type. The question, then, is whether the present NGOs are structurally able to foster grassroots participation for meaningful development. Perhaps we —-1 simply expect too much from NGOs, as Neil Webster, writing on India, has —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 8 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 89 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

104 90 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS noted. Maybe we attribute to these NGOs “development qualities and abilities 88 that they do not in fact possess.” What ever our expectations, the fact re- mains that self- activity—collective or individual mobilization— remains a cru- cial factor in poor people’s elevation to a point at which they can meaningfully manage their own lives. In the Middle East, the existing forms of activism in the communities— or through labor unions, social Islam, and the NGOs— do contribute to the well- being of the underprivileged groups. However, they fall short of activating and directing a great number of people in sustained mobili- zation for social development. The sociopo liti cal characteristics of the Middle East instead tend to generate a par tic u lar form of activism— a grassroots non- movement that, I think, has far- reaching implications for social change. I am referring to the “quiet encroachment of the ordinary.” THE QUIET ENCROACHMENT OF THE ORDINARY In the previous chapter, I described the quiet encroachment as the silent, pro- tracted, and pervasive advancement of ordinary people on the propertied and 89 powerful in a quest for survival and improvement of their lives. They are characterized by quiet, largely atomized, and prolonged mobilization with eeting struggles without clear leader- episodic collective action— open and fl ship, ideology, or structured or ga ni za tion. Although the quiet encroachment is basically a nonmovement, it is diff erent from survival strategies or “every- day re sis tance” in that, fi rst, the struggles and gains of the grass roots are at the cost not of fellow poor people or themselves (as in survival strategies), but of the state, the rich, and the general public. In addition, these struggles should be seen not as necessarily defensive merely in the realm of re sis tance, but as cumulatively encroaching, meaning that the actors tend to expand their space by winning new positions to move on. This kind of quiet activism challenges many fundamental state prerogatives, including the meaning of “order,” control of public space, and the meaning of “urban.” But the most im- mediate consequence is the redistribution of social goods in the form of the (unlawful and direct) acquisition of collective consumption (land, shelter, piped water, electricity), public space (street pavements, intersections, street parking places), and opportunities (favorable business conditions, locations, and labels). Postrevolution Iran experienced an unpre ce dented colonization, mostly by the poor, of public and private land, apartments, hotels, street sidewalks, -1— and public utilities. Between 1980 and 1992, despite the government’s opposi- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 9 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 90 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

105 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 91 tion, the land area of Tehran expanded from 200 square kilometers to 600 square kilometers; well over one hundred mostly informal communities were created in and around Greater Tehran. The actors of the massive informal economy extended beyond the typical marginal poor to include the new mid- dle classes, the educated salary earners whose public- sector positions rapidly declined during the 1980s. In a more dramatic fashion, millions of rural mi- grants and the urban poor in Egypt have quietly claimed cemeteries, rooft ops, and state and public lands on the outskirts of the city, creating largely autono- mous communities. Greater Cairo contains over 111 spontaneous settlements ( ashwaiyyat ) housing more than six million people who have subdivided agri- cultural lands and put up shelters unlawfully. Throughout the country, 344 square kilometers of land has come under occupation or illegal construction, mainly by low- income groups. Some 84 percent of all housing units from 1970 and 1981 were informally built. To these informal units one should add “verti- cal encroachments”— the addition of rooms, balconies, and extra space on top of buildings. The capital for construction comes mainly from the informal credit associations ( gama ̔iyyat ) located in neighborhoods. Many rent the homes unlawfully to other poor families. The prospective tenant provides the “key money,” which he borrows from a credit association, to a plot holder, who then uses it to build but rents it to the provider of the key money. The plot holder becomes a homeowner, and the tenant fi nds a place to live. Both break 90 the law that allows only one year’s advance on rent. Once settled, the poor tend to force the authorities to extend living ame- nities, or collective consumption, to their neighborhoods by otherwise tap- ping them illegally. Many poor in Tehran, Cairo, Istanbul, Tunisia, and other cities illegally use electricity and running water by connecting their homes to electricity poles, extending water pipes to their domiciles, or sharing or ma- nipulating utility meters. For instance, in the late 1990s, illegal use of piped water in the city of Alexandria alone cost, on average, some $3 million a year. A cursory look at Cairo- based communities such as Dar al- Salam, Ezbet Sa- dat, Ezbet Khairallah, Ezbet Nasr, and Basaatin shows evidence of this wide- spread phenomenon. In late April 1996, the municipality reported that it had eight hundred illegal electricity lines in the Dar a-Salam and Basaatin cut off communities in a single raid. en uncharged use of collective ser vices leaves gov- This informal and oft ernments little choice but selectively to integrate the informal settlements, —-1 hoping to commit the residents to pay for ser vices they have thus far used —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 9 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 91 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

106 92 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS illegally. Securing property and community tax is another consideration. Al- en cannot af- though the poor welcome the extension of provisions, they oft ford to pay the bills. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see reinformalization springing up from the fringes of the new formalized communities. In the do- main of work, “street- subsistence workers” quietly take over public thorough- fares to conduct their business in the vast parallel economy. The streets in the commercial districts of Middle Eastern cities are colonized by street vendors who encroach on favorable business opportunities that shop keep ers have cre- ated. Cairo reportedly has 600,000 street vendors, and Tehran, until recently, had some 150,000. Informality means not only that the actors generally escape the costs of formality (tax regulation, for instance), but that they also benefi t from the theft of imported goods, brands, and intellectual property. With 91 capital of $6, a Cairene vendor could make up to $55 a month. Thousands of poor people (in Cairo, Istanbul, and Tehran, for instance) subsist on tips from parking cars in the streets that they control and or ga nize in such a way as to create maximum parking space. They have turned many streets into virtual parking lots, which they control by creating working gangs with elaborate internal or ga ni za tion. Establishing alternative transportation systems is another way to make a living. Ezbet Khairallah in Cairo typifi es thousands of similar neighborhoods in the region, where vans carry passen- gers without even registration plates. A newspaper described this community as one in which “no offi cial has ever entered since its establishment” in the 92 early 1980s. The logic behind these types of encroachment is refl ected in the words of a Cairene street vendor, who said, “When dealing with the govern- 93 ment, you have to take the proverb, ‘What you can win with, play with.’ ” Governments usually send mixed signals about quiet encroachment. On the one hand, they see the people helping themselves by building their own shelters, getting their own ser vices, creating their own jobs. On the other hand, they realize that these activities are carried out largely at the cost of the state, the propertied, and the public. Equally important, the poor tend to outadmin- ister the authorities by establishing a diff erent public order, acting in de pen- dently and oft en tarnishing the image of modernity the nation seeks to por- tray. “We are not against the vendors making a living,” says the chief of Cairo’s security department, “but not at the expense of Egypt’s reputation. They spoil 94 the picture of Cairo, they block the streets, they crowd the pavements.” Yet encroachment is tolerated in practice as long as it appears limited. -1— Once it goes too far, governments oft en react. Postrevolutionary Iran, for 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 9 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 92 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

107 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 93 instance, saw many bloody confrontations between the security forces and encroachers. Daily police harassment is a common practice in many Middle Eastern cities. Nevertheless, the frequent off ensives against squatters and street vendors oft en fail to bring a result. The actors either resort to on- the- spot re- sis tance (as in Iran) or, more commonly, resume their activities quietly fol- lowing each tactical retreat (as in Egypt). For instance, while the municipal police drive around to remove street vendors— in which case the vendors sud- denly disappear— the vendors normally return to their work once the police 95 cial. are gone. “Everything we are doing is useless,” says an Egyptian offi The Ira ni an authorities became even more frustrated when “anti- vending squads” failed to clear public spaces. Confronting quiet encroachment is particularly diffi cult for vulnerable governments. The municipalities, using stick- and- carrot tactics, may indeed manage to demolish communities, drive vendors away from the main streets, or track down unregistered transportation. Nev- ertheless, they have to yield to the actors’ demands by off ering alternative solutions. Where removals or de mo li tions have actually been carried out, the dispossessed have been off ered alternative street markets, housing, or regu- lated taxi ser vice. Only thirteen of a total eighty- one squatter settlements in ed for de mo li tion (for safety rea- Cairo (excluding Guiza) were in 1998 identifi 96 sons); the rest were planned to be upgraded. Quiet encroachment, therefore, is not a politics of collective demand mak- ing, a politics of protest. Rather, it is a mix of individual and collective direct action. It is accentuated under the sociopo liti cal circumstance characterized by authoritarian states, populist ideology, and strong family ties. The authori- tarian bureaucratic states make collective demand making both risky (because of repression) and less than eff ective (owing to bureaucratic ineffi ciency); pop- u lism tends to obstruct the public sphere and autonomous collectivities, ren- dering primary loyalties the more functional mechanism of survival and struggle. Yet, in the long run, the encroachment strategy generates a reality on the ground with which states oft en fi nd no option but to come to terms. In the cant changes in their own lives, the end, the poor manage to bring about signifi urban structure, and social policy. It is precisely this centrality of the agency, of the urban grass roots, that distinguishes quiet encroachment from any in- cremental social change that may result from urbanization in general. Al- though this kind of activism represents a lifelong, sustained, and self- generating advance, it is largely unlawful and constantly involves risk of harass- —-1 ment, insecurity, and repression. As a fl uid and unstructured form of activism, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 9 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 93 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

108 94 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS encroachment has the advantage of fl exibility and versatility, but it falls short nancial, or gan i za tion al, and even moral support. The of developing legal, fi challenge is to encourage convergence of the mobilizational element of quiet encroachment, the institutional capacity of NGOs, and the consent of the authorities. Early reaction by the urban grass roots to aspects of structural adjustment policies during the 1980s included developing coping strategies and mounting urban riots. These strategies, however, seem to have given way to more insti- tutionalized methods of dealing with austerity. The safety nets provided by social Islam and NGOs (coupled with state repression) contributed to this shift in method. With po liti cal Islam undermined (institutionalized, co- opted, or curbed) by the end of the 1990s, social Islam, “NGOization,” and quiet encroachment, despite their fl aws, appear to have become the dominant forms of activism that now contribute to improving some aspects of people’s lives in Middle Eastern countries. Although quiet encroachment has a longer history, the spread of Islamism and NGOs gained new momentum in the 1980s and especially in the 1990s, the period in which neoliberal economic policies began to be implemented. The growth of these types of activism (along with the new social movements associated with women and human rights) coincides with the relative decline in traditional class- based movements— peasant organizations, cooperative movements, and trade unionism. The transformation of the rural social structure, “de- peasantization,” and growing urbanization are eroding the social bases of peasant and cooperative movements. The weakening of economic pop u lism, closely linked to the new economic restructuring, has resulted in a decline of public- sector employment, which constituted the core of the corporatist trade unionism; at the same time, it has led to a growing fragmentation of the work- force, expressed in the expansion of the informal urban economy. State bu- reaucracy (as a segment of the public sector) continues to remain weighty; however, its employees, unlike workers in industry or ser vices, largely have been unor ga nized. A large segment of low- paid state employees survive on incomes deriving from second or third jobs in the informal sector. In the meantime, the increasing informality of economies and expanded urbanization in the Middle East tend to cause a shift in pop u lar needs and demands. The growth of informality means that struggles for wages and con- ditions, the typical focus of traditional trade unionism, are losing ground in -1— ordable favor of broader concerns for jobs, informal work conditions, and aff 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 9 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 94 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

109 THE POOR AND THE PERPETUAL PURSUIT OF LIFE CHANCES 95 cost of living. Rapid urbanization, however, increases the demand for urban collective consumption— shelter, decent housing, electricity, piped water, trans- portation, health care, and education. This desire for citizenship, expressed in community membership and developmental rights, is one that traditional trade unionism is unable to address. The task instead falls on community movements that remain feeble in the Middle East. At the same time, the scope of social Islam and NGOs, despite their contributions to social welfare, is also unable to realize fully the goal of social development. Even though by the close of the 1990s, some Middle Eastern governments (in Jordan, Iran, the Palestin- ian Territories) were cautiously recognizing the activities of some civil- society organizations, especially the social- development NGOs, they fell short of em- powering civil- society organizations from above and encouraging social devel- opment from below. It is, therefore, mainly to the strategy of quiet encroach- ment that the urban disenfranchised in the Middle East resort in order to fulfi ll their growing needs. Through quiet encroachment, the subaltern create realities 97 on the ground with which the authorities sooner or later must come to terms. Joan Nelson’s contention that, because the poor are never or ga nized well 98 enough, they fail to exert infl uence on national policies is true. Yet the cu- mulative consequence of poor people’s individual direct actions may, in the end, result in some improvements from below and policy changes from above. Given the gradual retreat of states from their responsibilities in off ering social welfare, the poor in the Middle East would have been in a far worse condition had grassroots actions been totally absent. Yet grassroots activities do have limitations in terms of their own internal constraints, in their capacity to win concessions adequately, and in relation to the constraints directed from the states. It is a mistake to leave the entire task of social development to initia- tives from below; a bigger mistake is to give up on the states— in par tic u lar, on their crucial role in large- scale distribution. Yet imagining policy change and the concrete improvement of people’s lives without their pressure or direct action seems no more than an unwarranted illusion. —-1 —0 —+1 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 95 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

110 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 5 feminists have long argued that probably all modern states possess, albeit in diff erent degrees, patriarchal tendencies. But patriarchy fi gures especially prominently in those authoritarian regimes and movements that exhibit con- servative religious (Islamic, Christian, Jewish, or Hindu) dispositions. Indeed, 1 patriarchy is entrenched in religious authoritarian polity. In many authori- tarian Muslim states, such as Egypt, the Sudan, Saudi Arabia, or the Islamic Republic of Iran, where conservative Islamic laws are in place, women have become second- class citizens in many domains of public life. Consequently, a central question for women’s rights activists is how to achieve gender equality under such circumstances. A commonly proposed strategy consists of or ga- movements to fi ght for equal rights. Movements are niz ing strong women’s usually perceived in terms of collective and sustained activities of a large ective net- number of women or ga nized under strong leaderships, with an eff work of solidarities, procedures of membership, mechanisms of framing, com- munication, and publicity— the types of social movements that are associated with images of marches, banners, organizations, lobbying, and the like. It is a credit to women in most western and demo cratic countries for creat- ing sustainable movements that have achieved remarkable outcomes since the 1960s. While it may be that many women in Muslim (and non- Muslim) au- thoritarian states do wish and indeed strive to build similar social movements, Adapted from “A Women’s Non- Movement: What It Means to Be a Woman Activist Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 27, in an Islamic State,” -1— no. 1 (2007), pp. 160– 72. 0— +1— 96 5 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 96 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

111 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 97 en thwarted by the repressive mea sures of authoritarian/ their struggles are oft patriarchal states as well as the unsympathetic attitudes of many ordinary men. Consequently, the type of collective actions practiced mostly in demo- cratic settings, which have come to dominate our conceptual universe as the women’s movements, may not deliver under nondemo cratic conditions, if they are ever allowed to emerge. The conventional social movement is con- cerned chiefl y with politics of protest, contentious politics where collective actors exert pressure (by threat, disruption, or causing uncertainty) on ad- versaries to meet their demands. How do we account for a women’s activism that may rarely deploy or ga ni za tion and networking, mobilizing strategies, street marches, picketing, strikes, or disruption, and yet is able to extend their choices? In the aft ermath of a revolution in which they had participated massively, Ira ni an women faced an authoritarian Islamic regime that imposed forced veiling, gender segregation, and widespread surveillance, and revoked the pre- revolutionary laws that favored women. Women resisted these policies, not much by deliberate or ga nized campaigns, but largely through mundane daily practices in public domains, such as working, playing sports, studying, show- ing interest in art and music, or running for po liti cal offi ces. Imposing them- cant shift in gender selves as public players, women managed to make a signifi dynamics, empowering themselves in education, employment, and family law, while raising their self- esteem. They reinstated equal education with men, curtailed polygamy, restricted men’s right to divorce, demonized religiously sanctioned temporary marriage ( mut ̔a ), reformed the marriage contract, im- proved the employment status of women, brought back women as judges, de- bated child custody, and to some degree changed gender attitudes in the fam- ily and in society. Women’s seemingly peculiar, dispersed, and daily struggles in the public domain not only changed aspects of their lives; they also ad- vanced a more inclusive, egalitarian, and woman- centered interpretation of Islam. Not only the Islamic republic, but many other Muslim societies have also experienced similar dispersed activities, albeit with varying eff ect, depending on the degree of misogyny of the states and the mobilizational effi cacy of women. Nevertheless, because of their largely mundane and everyday nature, such women’s practices are hardly considered a par tic u lar type of activism that can lead to some far- reaching consequences. How do we characterize —-1 such activities? How do we explain the logic of their operation? Drawing on —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 9 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 97 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

112 98 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS the experience of women under the Islamic Republic of Iran, my purpose in erent ways in which Muslim this essay is to suggest that there are perhaps diff women under authoritarian regimes may, consciously or without being aware, defy, resist, negotiate, or even circumvent gender discriminat ion— not neces- sarily by resorting to extraordinary and overarching “movements” identifi ed by deliberate collective protest and informed by mobilization theory and strategy, but by involving ordinary daily practices of life— by working, play- ing sports, jogging, singing, or running for public offi ces. This involves de- ploying the , the assertion of collective will in spite of all odds, power of presence refusing to exit, circumventing constraints, and discovering new spaces of free- dom to make oneself heard, seen, felt, and realized. The eff ective power of these practices lies precisely in their ordinariness , since as irrepressible actions they encroach incrementally to capture trenches from the power base of patriar- chal structure, while erecting springboards to move on. Conventional social movements with identifi able leaderships may be more readily prone to repres- sion than such dispersed but common practices by a large number of actors whose activism is deeply intertwined with the practices of daily life. Their end result can amount to a considerable modifi cation in gender hierarchy and discrimination. This par tic u lar strate gy of Ira ni an women to achieve equal rights may give us an opportunity to perhaps rethink about what it means to be a woman activist, or what may constitute a woman’s “nonmovement,” un- der authoritarian regimes in contemporary Muslim societies. WOMEN AND THE ISLAMIC STATE The Ira ni an Revolution of 1979 was a nationwide pop u lar movement where diverse groups and classes— modern and traditional, religious and secular, 2 middle- class and poor, male and female— massively participated. Apart from a few obvious cases (such as the clergy and royalist upper classes) as winners and losers, debate still continues as to which social groups, and in what 3 respects, really benefi ted from it. In general, women are regarded to be on the losing side. Perhaps no social group felt so immediately and pervasively the brunt of the Islamic Revolution as the middle class, especially secular women. Only months into the life of the Islamic regime, new, misogynous policies angered women who only recently had marched against the Shah. The new regime overturned the less male- biased Family Protection Laws of 1967; over- night, women lost their right to be judges, to initiate divorce, to assume child -1— custody, and to travel abroad without permission from a male guardian. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 9 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 98 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

113 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 99 Polygamy was reintroduced and all women, irrespective of faith, were forced 4 to wear the veil in public. In the early years, social control and discrimina- tory quotas against women in education and employment compelled many women to stay at home, seek early retirement, or go into informal and family 5 business. The initial reaction to these drastic policies came from secular women. Thousands demonstrated in Tehran on March 8, 1979, vilifying Ayatollah Khomeini’s imposition of the hijab, or veiling. Even though Khomeini re- treated temporarily, the decree was gradually enforced. Shocked by the on- slaught on their liberty, secular women or ga nized dozens of albeit- desperate liated with sectarian left ist trends for whom the gen- organizations mostly affi 6 der question was subordinated to the class emancipatory project. All these groups were put down by the Islamic regime once the war with Iraq began in 1980. Then followed a de cade of repression, demoralization, and fl ight. While secular women in exile continued with feminist education and activism, those in Iran began to emerge from their tormenting abeyance into the world of arts, literature, journalism, and scholarship only at war’s end. Although traditionalist clerics favored keeping women at home, away from “moral dangers,” others, however, compelled by the remarkable presence of women in the revolution, adopted a discourse that exalted Muslim women as both guardians of the family and active public agents. This broad discursive framework guided a spectrum of “Muslim women activists.” Inspired by the writings of Ali Shariati and Morteza Motahhari, they set out to off er an en- 7 dogenous, though abstract, “model of Muslim women,” in the image of the Prophet’s daughter Fatima and his granddaughter Zeinab, who were simulta- 8 neously “true” homemakers and public persons. Out of dozens of Islamic groups and organizations, the Women’s Association of the Islamic Revolution (WAIR) gathered prominent Islamist women, including Azam Taleqani, Fe- reshte Hashemi, Shahin Tabatabaii, Zahra Rahnavard, and Gawhar Dast- gheib. Most were members of prominent clerical families and held that the (socialist) East treated the woman as a mere “working machine,” and the (capitalist) West as a “sex object,” while only Islam regarded women as “true 9 humans.” Instead of equality, these activists advocated the complementary nature of men and women. Some justifi ed polygamy on the grounds that it protected widows and orphans. Although some objected to forced veiling and the abrogation of the Family Law, they stopped short of any concrete protest —-1 but contended that wearing the veil should be enforced through education, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 9 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 99 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

114 100 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS not by coercion. Most refused to acknowledge, let alone communicate with, secular western feminists, whom they saw as “provoking women against men” 10 and questioning religious principles and the sanctity of shari ̔a. Indeed, alarmed by the danger of gender debates, Shahla Habibi (President Rafsan- jani’s advisor on women’s issues) committed herself “against overstating women’s oppression” and identity politics. Instead, she placed emphasis on 11 the “family [as] the heart of the society, and women the heart of family.” 12 Thus, daycare centers became “harmful for children,” even though their closure would throw many women out of work. Muslim women activists ac- cepted “tradition” (Qur ̓an, hadith, fi qh, and ) as an adequate guide to ijtihad 13 ensure women’s dignity and well- being. “In an Islamic state led by the rule of a supreme jurist ( velayat- i faqih ) there would be no need for special organiza- tions to defend women’s rights,” argued Maryam Behroozi, a woman and 14 member of Parliament. While the moderates agreed with “women’s freedom to study, to choose suitable jobs, and have access to various social and admin- 15 istrative fi elds,” the more conservative Islamists (such as the parliamentari- ans Marzieh Dabbagh, Rejaii, Dastgheib, and Behroozi) viewed gender divi- 16 sion in occupations, tasks, and activities as a divine order. In their paradigm, women, as Muslims, had more obligations than rights. With the onset of the war with Iraq (1980– 88) debate about women’s status was suppressed. The authorities continued to project women as mothers and wives, who were to produce manpower for the war, for the glory of Islam and the nation. But by the late 1980s dissent simmered in women’s “politics of nagging.” Women complained in public daily, in taxis, buses, bakery queues, grocery shops, and in government offi ces, about repression, the war economy, the war itself. In so doing, they formed a court of irrepressible public opinion that could not be ignored. A certain iconic moment shattered the illusion of the “model of Muslim women,” when on national radio a young woman expressed her preference for Osheen, a character in a Japa nese tele vi sion series, over Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter. Only then did authorities realize how out of touch they had become regarding women’s lives in Ira ni an society. Some ten years into the Islamic republic, Azam Taleqani admitted bitterly that “poverty and polygamy are the only things that poor women have obtained from the 17 revolution.” War and repression had surely muted women’s voices but had not altered their conviction to assert themselves through the practices of everyday life, -1— by resisting forced Islamization, pursuing education, seeking employment, 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 100 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

115 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 101 yearning for arts and music, practicing sports, and socializing their children ort had already placed according to these pursuits. Mobilization for the war eff them in the public arena as “model Muslim women,” making them conscious of their power. Beyond illusions imposed by men, there were also facts. In a mere twenty years, women’s unpre ce dented interest in education had more 18 than doubled their literacy rate: in 1997 it stood at 74 percent. By 1998, more girls than boys were entering universities, a fact that worried some offi cials, nd men with higher or who feared that educated women might not be able to fi ered not only educa- equal status to marry. But for young women college off tion, but a place to socialize, gain status, and have a better chance for jobs and more desirable partners. While for some the sheer fi nancial necessity left no choice but to seek em- 19 ployment in the cash economy, most middle- class and well- to- do women chose working outside the home in order to be present in the public realm. Aft er an overall decline in female employment, largely in industry, of 40 per- cent between 1976 and 1986, the share of women at work in cities rose from 8.8 percent in 1976 to 11.3 percent in 1996. This excluded those who worked 20 in informal occupations, family businesses, or part- time jobs. By the mid- 1990s, half of the positions in the government sector and over 40 percent in education were held by women. Professional women, notably writers and art- ists, reemerged from domestic exile; at the fi rst Book Fair of Women Publish- ers in Tehran, in 1997, some forty- six publishers displayed seven hundred ti- tles by women authors. Over a dozen female fi lmmakers were regularly engaged in their highly competitive fi eld, and more women than men won 21 awards at the 1995 Ira ni an Film Festival. But few of their internationally ac- claimed productions helped elevate the underdog image of Ira ni an Muslim women in the world. The economic conditions of families made house wives more publicly vis- ible than ever before. Growing economic hardship since the late 1980s forced middle- class men to take multiple jobs and work longer hours, so that “they were never home.” Consequently, all domestic and outside chores (taking children to school, dealing with the civil ser vice, banking, shopping, or fi xing ed exclu- the car) that had previously been shared by husbands and wives shift 22 sively to women. A study confi rmed that women in Tehran, notably house wives, spent on average two hours per day in public places, at times until ten at night, 23 traveling by taxi, bus, and metro. This public presence gave women self- —-1 confi dence, new social skills, and city knowledge and encouraged many to —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 101 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

116 102 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS return to school or to volunteer for NGOs or charities. One impressive exam- ple of voluntarism was the Ministry of Health’s mobilization of some 25,000 women in Tehran in the early 1990s to educate urban lower- class families about hygiene and birth control; mounting population growth (3.9 percent between 1980 and 1985 and 3.4 percent between 1985 and 1990) had caused the 24 regime great po liti cal anxiety, and these women contributed to decreasing 25 the rate to a low of 1.7 percent between 1990 and 1995. Women did not give up on sports, even if a woman’s body, and sports along with it, had been at the center of the regime’s moral crusade. The hard- ship of sweating under a long dress and veil did not deter many women from jogging, cycling, or target shooting, or from playing tennis, basketball, or even climbing Mount Everest. Nor did women avoid participating in national and 26 international— albeit exclusively female or Muslim— tournaments. They also defi ed the state policy banning women from attending male competi- 27 tions; some disguised themselves in male attire, while the more assertive simply forced their way in. In 1998 hundreds of women stormed into a mas- sive stadium full of jubilant young men celebrating a national soccer team victory. From then on women were assigned to special sections in the stadium to attend events. Their demand to play soccer in public bore fruit in 2000 when 28 the fi rst women’s soccer team was formally recognized. Faezeh Rafsanjani, the president’s daughter, played a crucial role in promoting and institutional- rst College of Women’s Physical Education had izing women’s sports. The fi already been established in 1994 to train school sports staff . While the new moral order and imposition of the veil had a repressive ef- fect on secular and non- Muslim women, it brought some degree of mobility to their socially conservative counterparts: traditional men felt at ease allowing 29 their daughters or wives to attend schools or appear at public events. More- over, the regime’s mobilization of lower classes for the war eff ort, street rallies, and Friday prayer sermons dramatically increased the public presence of women who would have otherwise remained in the confi nes of their unyielding dwell- ings. Meanwhile, the women who felt stifl ed by the coercive moralizing of the government resisted patiently and fi ercely. Offi cials invariably complained , or young women neglecting to properly wear the head- about bad- hijabi cover. With the jail penalty (between ten days and two months) for improper hijab, showing inches of hair sparked daily street battles between defi ant cial and semi- offi cial morals- enforcing women and the agents of multiple offi -1— organizations such as Sarallah, Amre beh Ma ̓ruf, Nahye as Monker, and 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 102 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

117 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 103 Edareh Amaken. During a four- month period of 1990 in Tehran, 607 women were arrested, 6,589 were forced to submit written affi davits, and 46,000 re- 30 ceived warnings. Nevertheless, by the late 1990s, the bad- hijabi became an established practice. Women’s daily routines and re sis tance to the Islamic government did not mean their departure from religiosity. Indeed, most displayed religious devo- 31 tion, and many were willing to wear light head- covers in the absence of force. Yet they insisted on exerting individual choice and entitlement, which chal- lenged both the egalitarian claims of the Islamic state and the premises of orthodox Islam. Women wanted to play sports, work in desirable jobs, study, listen to or play music, marry whom they wished, and reject the grave gender in e qual ity. “Why are we to be acknowledged only with reference to men?” wrote one woman in a magazine. “Why do we have to get permission from Edareh Amaken [morals police] to get a hotel room, whereas men do not need 32 such authorization?” These seemingly mundane desires and demands, how- ever, were deemed to redefi ne the status of women under the Islamic republic, because each step forward would encourage demands to remove more re- strictions. The eff ect could snowball. How could this general dilemma be resolved? The women’s magazines , Payam- e Hajar , and Payam- e Zan Zan- e Ruz were the fi rst to refl ect upon such dilemmas. At the state level, the Social and Cultural Council of Women and the Bureau of Women’s Aff airs were estab- lished in 1988 and 1992, respectively, to address such issues and to devise con- crete policies. Even Islamists, such as Ms. Rejaii, wife of a former prime min- ister, expressed reservations about the “model of Muslim women,” attacking 33 “narrow- minded” anti- female ideas and obsession with the veil. Interestingly, many of these women worked in public offi ce, including Parliament, and had been given a taste of discrimination by their traditionalist male colleagues. The Women’s Association of the Islamic Revolution was shut down and its Zan- e views attacked; the Islamic Republic Party incorporated the magazines Ruz and Rah- e Zeinab ; and once her parliamentary term ended, the promi- nent female Islamist Azam Taleqani fell out of the government’s graces. In the end, the rather abstract philosophical approach of Islamist women proved insuffi cient to accommodate women’s desire for individual choice within an Islamist framework. Post- Islamist feminists, however, emerged to take up the challenge. —-1 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 103 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

118 104 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS A POST- ISLAMIST FEMINISM? In a departure from the Islamist women activists, post- Islamist feminism ar- ticulated a blend of piety and choice, religiosity and rights. It set out a strategy for change through discussion, education, and mobilization in a discursive frame that combined religious and secular idioms. With a clear feminist agenda, the post- Islamist strategy derived not from an abstract model but from the reality of women’s daily lives. Activists held Islam in its totality as a system that could accommodate women’s rights only if it was seen through the femi- nist lens. These feminists valued women’s autonomy and choice, emphasizing gender equality in all domains. For them, feminism, irrespective of its origin (secular, religious, or western) dealt with women’s subordination in general. The West was no longer a monolithic entity imbued with immorality and de- cadence (a view held by secular revolutionary and Islamist women); it was also home to democracy and science, to feminists and exiled Ira ni an women with whom they wished to establish dialogue. This position transcended the di- chotomy of “Islamic” versus “secular” women. Post- Islamist feminists were diff erent from such Islamist women activists as the Egyptian Heba Rauf, who were primarily Islamist but happened to be women and raised women’s is- sues. Post- Islamist feminists were feminists fi rst and foremost, who utilized Islamic discourse to push for gender equality within the constraints of the Islamic republic. They did not limit their intellectual sources only to Islam 34 but also benefi ted from secular feminism. The women’s magazines Far- zaneh , Zan , and Zanan spearheaded this trend by running articles on, for instance, how to improve one’s sex life, cooking, women’s arts in feminist critical discourse, deconstruction of patriarchal Persian literature, and legal religious discussions, written by Muslim, secular, Ira ni an and western au- thors, including Virginia Woolf, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Simone de Beau- 35 voir, and Susan Faludi. Zanan appealed in par tic u lar to educated young 36 urban women. The major challenge to post- Islamist feminism was to demonstrate that the claims for women’s rights were not necessarily alien to Ira ni an culture or 37 Islam. But, as secular feminists wondered, would operating within the Islamic discourse not constrain endeavors for gender equality when “all Muslims, from the very orthodox to the most radical reformers, accept the 38 Qur ̓an as the literal word of Allah, unchanging and unchangeable”? Post- -1— Islamist feminists responded by undertaking women- centered interpreta- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 104 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

119 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 105 tions of the sacred texts in a fashion similar to that of early Eu ro pe an femi- nists such as Hildegard of Bingen (1098– 1179), Christine de Pizan (1365– 1430), Isotta Nogarola (1418– 66), or Anna Maria von Schurman (1607– 78), to name only a few, who deconstructed the Bible- driven perceptions about the “sin- 39 ful” and “inferior” disposition of Eve/women. Zanan set out to deconstruct the “patriarchal readings” of the scriptures, off ering gender- sensitive percep- tions that would allow women to be equal with men, to take on social and po liti cal positions as judges, presidents, religious sources of emulation marja ̓ ( faqih ). “There are no defi ciencies in Islam [with ), or Islamic jurists ( regard to women]. Problems lie in po liti cal and patriarchal perceptions,” 40 they contended. Within this emerging “feminist theology,” interpreters questioned misogynist legislation and the literal reading of Qur ̓anic verse; they emphasized instead the “general spirit” of Islam, which, they argued, was in favor of women. If in his twenty- three years of struggle the Prophet of Islam changed many antiwomen practices of his time, post- Islamist femi- nists were to extend this tradition of emancipation to modern times. Meth- odologically grounded on hermeneutics, philology, and historicism, women interpreters transcended literal meanings in favor of interpretive and his- torical deductions. To refute the “innate superiority of men” that orthodox readings deduced from Qur ̓anic verses (such as Surah 4:34 Nisa, where men are favored over women), writers shift ed the basis of hierarchy from Zanan sex to piety by invoking the gender- free verse: “The noblest among you in the sight of God is the most God- fearing of you” (S. 49:13). Accordingly, child custody was not automatically the right of men (as the shari ̔a seems to au- thorize) but was determined by the well- being of children, which Islam 41 stresses highly. Against a 1998 parliamentary bill that called for the separa- tion of men and women in medical treatment, Zanan argued not only that the Qur ̓an ruled against any forced guidance in general (because people are responsible for their choices, good or evil), but also that in Islamic theology religion exists to serve humans rather than the other way around. Instead of obligation, it concluded, the bill should recognize the patient’s choice over 42 his medical treatment. Building on linguistic analyses, post- Islamist feminists deconstructed the verse “al- rejal qawwamoun ala- nisa” (Nisa, 4:34), on which many of the mi- sogynist deductions are based. Feminist theologians attributed the word qa- not to the Arabic root “qym,” meaning “guardianship over other,” but to wam —-1 43 “qwm,” signifying “rising up,” “fulfi lling needs,” or “protecting.” Thus, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 0 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 105 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

120 106 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS rather than meaning “men exert guardianship over women,” the verse could ll the needs of women.” In the same fashion, they imply “men protect or fulfi stated the verb in the Qur ̓an should be understood not simply as “to darb 44 beat,” but also “to put an end to” or “to go along with.” Consequently, the divorce to men alone or deny such a right Qur ̓an did not authorize the right to 45 to a woman. Indeed, the gender- neutrality of the Persian language, as re- ected in the constitution of the Islamic Republic, off ered much discursive fl 46 opportunity for women to campaign for equal rights. For instance, eligibility conditions for the country’s presidency, such as “rejal- e mazhabi” (religious personalities) or “faqih- e adel” ( just jurist), can apply to men and women. both While in Arabic the word rajol was generally accepted as meaning “a man,” in Persian, they contended, it referred to (po liti cal) “personality” in general, thus 47 arguing women were also eligible to run for president. The major novelty of these gender- sensitive theological debates was that, beyond a few enlightened 48 clerics, women themselves were waging them, and they were doing so in the pages of the pop u lar daily press. The new women’s activism alarmed the clerical establishment, ordinary men, and conservative women. A male pathologist commented with dismay how “the freedom of women in Iran has been misconceived. . . . In the past few years some women who apparently became protagonists in the struggle for equal right have gone astray. They talked so much about men’s domina- 49 tion that people became enemies, and this was a blow to our society.” Aya- tollah Fazel Lankarani of the Qom Seminary warned the activists “not to question Islam’s principles by your intellectualism. . . . Who says there is no diff erence between men and women?” he challenged. “Who are you to express 50 opinions [ . . . ] before God and his prophet?” The Friday prayer leader in Rasht denounced women who “questioned religious authorities on hijab and shari ̔a,” warning them “not to cross the red line, not to dismiss the Qur ̓an 51 and Islam.” Others, like Ayatollah Mazaheri, were outraged by the activists’ demand that the Ira ni an government endorse the UN charter against dis- crimination against women, because this would entail the western domina- 52 tion of the nation. Islamist women in Majlis (Monireh Nobakht and Marz- ieh Vahid Dastjerdi) proposed to curtail feminist debates in the press and public, because they “create confl ict between women and men” and under- 53 mine shari ̔a and fundamentals of the religion. Such attacks became intel- women bad- hijab lectual justifi cations for hard- line mob and media to harass -1— on the streets, denounce women’s sports and recreation, and fi ght against the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 106 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

121 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 107 54 Zanan was taken to return of “de cadence, fashion, and individual taste.” court in 1998 on charges of inciting women against men and “spreading ho- 55 mosexuality.” The cleric Mohsen Saidzadeh, whose women- centered essays on theology and Islamic law had dismayed the conservative clerics, was jailed 56 in June 1998. Despite all this pressure, the “nonmovement” made considerable inroads, empowering women through education, employment, and family law, and raised self- esteem. The opportunity of equal education with men made a cial restrictive quotas that favored men. Polygamy comeback following the offi was seriously curtailed, men’s right to divorce restricted, and religiously- sanctioned or temporary marriage, was demonized. At its height in mut ̓a, 57 2002 (1381), only 271, or one out of 1,000 marriages, were “temporary.” In cases where husbands initiated divorce proceedings, women won a fi nancial reward equal to the value of their involuntary house work during marriage, even though applying such rulings proved to be diffi cult. New laws authorized nancial rewards to widowed working women, increased maternity leave to fi four months, reestablished nurseries for the children of working women, and decreased women’s working hours to 75 percent of the time required of men. New legislation also made bride price payable in the current value, allowed early retirement aft er twenty years of work, off ered fi nancial protection for women and children deprived of male support, obliged the government to provide women’s sport facilities, and authorized single women over twenty- 58 eight years old to study abroad without a male guardian. In 1998, a pi lot 59 project to prevent wife abuse was launched. Child custody was intensely de- bated, while the struggle for women to be judges led to their appointment as judicial counselors in lower courts and co- judges in high courts. In 1997, fi f- 60 teen female deputies sat in the Women’s Aff airs Commission of Parliament. These struggles, meanwhile, led to changes in power relations between women and men within the family and society. Female suicide and the rising divorce rate (27 percent in 2002, 80 percent of which were divorces initiated by women) were seen as what an Ira ni an sociologist called the “painful modern- 61 ization of our society.” Meanwhile, opinion polls on women’s public role showed that 80 percent of respondents (men and women) were in favor of female gov- 62 ernment ministers, while 62 percent did not oppose a female president. The prevailing perception of Ira ni an women as helpless subjects trapped in the solitude of domesticity and hidden under the long black chador proved to be —-1 an oversimplifi cation. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 107 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

122 108 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS A NONMOVEMENT? This is not to overstate the status of Ira ni an women in the Islamic republic. Indeed, as late as 1998, feminist lawyer Mehrangiz Kar warned against read- ing too much into what women had achieved. She listed a dozen areas in Ira- 63 ni an law where fl agrant gender inequalities persisted, as they did in most po liti cal, legal, and family institutions imbued with patriarchal relations. In- equalities remained in men’s right to divorce, child custody, polygamy, and sexual submission, and the amount of a man’s blood money was still twice that of woman’s. Yet it is also true that the daily struggles of women in the public domain not only changed aspects of their lives, but also advanced a more demo cratic interpretation of Islam. Women’s most signifi cant achieve- ment was subverting the conventional gender divide of public men and pri- vate women. Against much re sis tance, Ira ni an women imposed themselves as public players. The paradoxical status of women under the Islamic republic perplexed many observers, and activists themselves, trying to grasp the nature of wom- en’s activism. Had Ira ni an women forged a “social movement” of their own? Many commented in the negative, on the grounds that women activists were few, dispersed, and unclear about a strategy for change, and did not engage in 64 the0retical work. Moreover, this nonmovement lacked known leaders identi- 65 fi For these com- ed as “feminists” to mobilize the mass of ordinary women. mentators, women’s sporadic activism represented the existence of not a so- 66 cial movement but a “social problem.” In contrast, activists unequivocally 67 characterized women’s struggles in terms of a social movement, even though 68 some uttered the language of “movement” in qualifi ed terms, phrasing it as 69 a “silent,” “decentralized,” or “leaderless movement.” They charged those denying the “movement” character of the women’s activities with trying to subordinate gender issues to the larger reformist, demo cratic, or class politics. Even if an or ga nized movement might seem far- fetched, they suggested, women did express a shared feeling, “hamdeli,” about their inferior position 70 in society and wished to do something about it. Clearly, the hegemony of a westo- centric model of “social movements” confi ned these conceptual imaginations to two opposing positions— either there was a women’s movement or there was not— as if alternative forms of struggles beyond the conventional contentious politics were unthinkable. Af- -1— saneh Najmabadi’s argument that the very question (of whether there existed 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 108 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

123 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 109 such a thing as a women’s social movement) was irrelevant and even harmful, because it privileged one form of struggle over others, carried much weight. Yet the objection did not resolve the question of what it really was. How do we characterize such activisms; how to determine the logic of their operation? If Ira ni an women failed to develop a movement of their own, then how did the fragmented yet collective and nondeliberate practices lead to some tangible outcome? Ira ni an women’s activism readily conjures up what James Scott has fa- mously phrased “everyday forms of re sis tance,” by which he describes the struggles of the Javanese poor peasants to withstand the encroachment of the superordinate classes by such discreet, illicit, and individualistic actions as 71 foot dragging, dissimulation, false compliance, slander, or sabotage. Looked at from this perspective, Ira ni an women could be said to subvert or resist, in their everyday practices, the state policies that tend to undermine women’s rights. There was certainly a strong element of “re sis tance” in both discourse and actions of women protagonists. Yet Ira ni an women’s struggles were nei- ther merely “defensive,” hidden, silent, nor illegal and merely individualistic. Rather, they were also collective and progressively encroaching, in the sense that actors would capture trenches from the patriarchal legal structure, public institutions, and family to move forward, so that each gain would act as a stepping- stone for a further claim. Protagonists, in addition, were involved in some degree of ideological elaboration and discursive campaign. Indeed, women’s involvement in hundreds of NGOs, solidarity networks, and dis- courses by the late 1990s pointed to some degree of or ga nized activism. Women’s groups held rallies, participated in international women’s meetings, lobbied politicians and clerical leaders, and campaigned in the Majlis. Women’s Weeks, book fairs, fi lm festivals, and sporting events were sites of their mobi- lization. In 1995 in de pen dent activists, together with moderate offi cials such as Shahla Habibi, coordinated a Women’s Week Festival during which they held sixty- two seminars, three thousand celebrations, 230 exhibits, and 161 72 contests. Over two dozen women’s magazines (such as Zanan , Farzaneh , , Hoquq- e Zan Kitab- e Zan- e Rouz , Neda , Rayhaneh , Payam- e Hajar , Mahtab , 73 Zan Jens- e Dovvom , and ) and an increasing number of websites (such as bad- jens and zanan- e iran ) communicated ideas, advertised events, and estab- lished solidarity networks. Between 1990 and 2002, thirty- six new women’s journals were published. Feminist ideas permeated universities, with female —-1 student groups publishing newsletters on gender issues, and by the late 1990s —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 109 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

124 110 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS four Ira ni an universities had established women’s studies programs, though 74 much to be desired. their operation left Can this kind of activism then be characterized in terms of the “new social movements,” which are suggested to focus on reclaiming individuals’ identity from the colonization of the lifeworld by the state and the market in post- industrial societies? It is true, Iran’s women’s activities do seem to resonate with a “new social movement” in the sense of fragmented activisms devoid of structured or ga ni za tion, coherent ideology, and clear- cut leadership, but which galvanizes collective sentiments and identities. Yet this perspective, or what Alberto Melucci phrases as “collective action without collective actors,” helps us little to account for the par tic u lar ways in which women’s identities were forged, actions taken, and advances made. The new social movements, even with dispersed activities, multiclass actors, and unclear leadership, still rely on overt, deliberate, and collective mobilization— lobbying, street protests, po- liti cal contention, and discursive campaigns— something that did not feature prominently among the Ira ni an women. The dynamics of claim making among them followed a diff erent logic and course. Iran’s women’s activism signifi ed largely a “nonmovement,” embodying an aggregate of dispersed collective sentiments, claim making, and everyday y, assertion of women’s indi- practices involved in diverse gender issues, chiefl vidualities. Collective identities were formed less in women’s distinct insti- tutions than in (albeit controlled) public spaces: workplaces, universities, bus stops, rationing lines, shopping markets, neighborhoods, informal gatherings, and mosques. Beyond some conscious network building, “passive networks” served as the most important medium for the construction of collective iden- tities. Passive networks signifi ed instantaneous and unspoken communica- tion between atomized individuals established through gaze in public space by tacit recognition of commonalities expressed in style, behavior, or con- 75 cerns. Thus, for instance, nonconformist women with similar “improper” outfi ts, who might not even know or meet one another, would spontaneously feel empathy and affi nity; they would share a common threat from the morals police and solidarity with one another. en Occasions of intense po liti cal tension, threat, or opportunity would oft turn women’s passive networks into communicative actions. For instance, the house wives or mothers of war victims, since they lacked institutional settings en take their grievances into the streets while to express discontent, would oft -1— standing in long rationing lines at bakeries or butcher shops, or at bus stops, 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 110 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

125 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 111 where they perfected the irrepressible practice of “public nagging.” They de- liberately deployed the one gender- based comparative advantage, maternal impunity, or their power as mothers and homemakers, to protest and yet re- main immune from backlash. While the protests of men and the young were oft en suppressed, women’s maternal status off ered them protection. The wives of war victims compounded this “maternal impunity” with their po liti cal capital as the family of martyrs, to launch successful campaigns against the patriarchal interpretation of shari ̔a that granted the custody of their now- fatherless children to their grandfathers. Yet public protestation of this kind constituted only an insignifi cant as- pect of women’s general activities. Most women, apart from activist groups, rarely articulated shared demands about women’s rights and gender equality; at best, they did so individually and usually aft er they had encountered legal or institutional obstacles. For the most part, they went ahead on their own to claim them directly in the domains that they could: in educational institutions, workplaces, sport centers, or courts. Theirs, then, was not, at least until early 2000, a conventional social movement so oft en associated with solid or ga ni- za tion, strategizing, nonroutine collective action with banners and marches. Rather, Iran’s women’s activism represented a , or movement by consequence a “nonmovement”— that is, dispersed collective endeavors embodied in the mundane practices of everyday life, but ones that would lead to progressive eff ects beyond their immediate intent. This nonmovement operated through an incremental and stru ctural pro cess of claim making— similar to “quiet en- croachment,” but intimately attached to the imperative of women’s per sis tent public presence. In this structural encroachment every claim justifi ed the next, creating a cycle of opportunities for further claims, ultimately leading to more gender equality and individual entitlements. Thus, the eff ective power of women’s activism fi rst lay in its being based on ordinary, everyday, and so irrepressible, practices; and second, it benefi ted from an incremental encroach- 76 ment onto the power base of patriarchal structures. Against Islamist gender bias, the mere public presence of women was an achievement, but it also acted as a springboard for women to encroach on or ort and in negotiate with patriarchal power. Women got involved in the war eff voluntary work, and they sought paid jobs; they pursued education and sports, jogged and cycled, and participated in world championships; they worked as lmmakers, and bus or taxi drivers, and ran for high professionals, novelists, fi —-1 public offi ce. And these very public roles beset the social and legal imperatives —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 111 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

126 112 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS that had to be addressed— restrictive laws and customs needed to be altered to accommodate the requisites of public women within the prevailing patriar- chal system. College education, for example, oft en required young women to live in de pen dent from their families, something that would otherwise be deemed inappropriate. Women’s public activity raised the issue of their hijab (of its compatibility with the nature of a woman’s work), association with 77 men, sexual tensions, and equality with men in society. Why should women not be elected president or supreme leader? If women could act as high offi - cials, would they still need to obtain their husbands’ permission to attend a foreign conference? Women’s public presence would in addition challenge male superiority in personal status laws, entitling women to demand equal rights in divorce, inheritance, blood money, and child custody. When more women than men enter and graduate from universities, women are likely (though not necessarily) to occupy positions supervising men who would have to accept if not internalize their authority. These pro cesses contributed to tilt- 78 ing gender- power relations in public and in house holds. In their day- to- day struggles, the fragmented actors pushed for their claims, not as deliberate acts of defi ance, but as logical and natural venues to express individuality and to better their life chances. Women did not get in- volved in car racing or mountain climbing because they wished to defy the patriarchal attitudes or religious state; they did so because they found fulfi ll- ment in such activities even though in the context of the Islamic republic they appeared defi ant. The crucial point is that despite much constraint and pres- sure, women did not give up but kept on pursuing those interests, which in turn led to serious normative and legal consequences. For they compelled patriarchal and po liti cal authority to acknowledge women’s role in society, and thus their rights. In sum, what underlined Iran’s women’s activism was not collective pro- test, but collective presence. The women’s nonmovement drew its power not from the threat of disruption and uncertainty— as in the case of contentious politics; rather, it subsisted on the power of presence — the ability to assert col- lective will in spite of all odds, by circumventing constraints, utilizing what exists, and discovering new spaces of freedom to make oneself heard, seen, felt, and realized. In this nonmovement, women did not usually take extraor- dinary mea sures to compel authorities to make concessions; in a sense, the very ordinary practices that they strived for (e.g., studying, working, jogging, ce) accounted for the actual initiating divorce, or running for po liti cal offi -1— gains. Not only did the element of ordinariness make the movement virtually 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 112 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

127 FEMINISM OF EVERYDAY LIFE 113 irrepressible, it also allowed women to gain ground incrementally without seeming to constitute a threat. Adversaries did oft en recognize the “danger,” even though they could do little to stop the momentum. Indeed, it was the “danger” of “incremental en- croachment” that alarmed the conservative clergy, who had some thirty- fi ve years earlier expressed opposition to the Shah’s granting voting rights to women in local elections. “Voting rights for women, in addition to its own troubles, would lead to their participation in the parliamentary elections; then this would lead to equality of men and women in divorce, in being judges, and the like. . . . No doubt these practices would stand against our religious 79 principles.” The women’s nonmovement could not fully operate only at a practical level. It was bound to move into the realm of intellectual and ideological strug- gles. Women’s incremental practices needed to be backed up by careful argu- mentation and discursive campaign. Women activists had to address the legal and theological contradictions that their actual encroachment had exposed. To this end activists deployed sophisticated legal, theological, and theoretical articulations to take advantage of the opportunity that their public presence off ered them. Specialized publications and women lobbyists in the Majlis played a crucial role in such discursive campaigns, the ammunition for which they drew from alternative legal and theological interpretations. How was it that women became visible despite surveillance? Women’s drive for a public presence was fueled by the memory of their prerevolution status, economic necessity, and the globalization of women’s struggles. But the more immediate factor was the discursive opportunity that women’s own struggles had already generated. Their massive participation in the revolution of 1979 had compelled many religious leaders, chiefl y Ayatollah Khomeini, to publicly acknowledge women’s social and po liti cal agency. Khomeini’s appeal to women voters during the fi rst referendum of the Islamic republic estab- lished their public power. “Women do more for the [revolutionary] movement 80 than men; their participation doubles that of men,” he admitted. He con- tinued, “That Muslim women are to be locked up in their homes is an utterly false idea that some attribute to Islam. Even during early Islam, women were 81 active in the armies and war fronts.” Later, Muslim feminists would invoke Khomeini’s statements to defy conservative clerics who wished to drive them back into the private realm. In the end, women’s pervasive publicness, their —-1 power of presence, was bound to challenge many of patriarchal structures of —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 113 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

128 114 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS the Islamic state and gender relations, establishing for them a new autono- mous identity. This in turn framed women’s demands for equality and their 82 insubordination to many “traditional” roles. Speaking of such nonmovements, the collective action of the noncollective actors, in this manner is not meant to downplay the signifi cance of or ga nized and sustained women’s social movements; nor is it at the same time to devalue the strategy of nonmovements in comparison to the conventional social move- ments. My intention, rather, has been to highlight the mode of operation of a par tic u lar mobilization under social and po liti cal constraints. At any rate, nonmovements may well evolve into contentious collective challenge in op- portune times; and the Ira ni an women activists have oft en tried to utilize such strategy by or ga niz ing social protests, rallies, and more impressively, the cam- paign of one million signatures. In fact, by the middle of the fi rst de cade of this century, Iran’s women’s nonmovement seemed to develop into a nascent social movement, when activists pushed for more intense self- refl ection, greater networking and or ga ni za tion, and wider deliberate mobilization. This movement played a remarkable part in mobilizing scores of women in the presi- dential elections of June 2009 and in the subsequent street protests that came to galvanize Iran’s Green Movement for civil and political rights. These tendencies, notably activists’ attempts to articulate, think about, discuss, and conceptualize their activism, distinguished it from nonmovements of the urban poor or glo- balizing youth. Yet so long as such or ga nized, sustained, and easily identifi able exible, social movements face state repression, nonmovements— these elusive, fl dispersed, and yet encroaching collective endeavors— remain a critical option. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 1 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 114 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 1

129 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 6 there seems to be a great deal of both alarm and expectation about the po liti- cal weight of Muslim youth in the Middle East. While many express anxiety over the seeming desire of the young in the Arab world to act as foot soldiers of radical Islam, others tend to expect youth (as in Iran or Saudi Arabia) to 1 push for demo cratic transformation in the region. Thus, youths are projected to act as po liti cal agents, social transformers, whether for or against Islamism. Indeed, the recent history of the region is witness to the po liti cal mobilization of the young, as scores of Muslim youth have been involved in radical Islamist movements, from Saudi Arabia to Egypt to Morocco, or have defi ed the moral and po liti cal authority of the doctrinal regimes in the region, such as in the Islamic Republic of Iran. What do these events and involvements tell us about youth politics in general and “youth movements” in par tic u lar? Do they point to the necessarily transformative role of the young? Are youth movements revolutionary or ultimately demo cratizing in orientation? How can the preva- lent “social movement theory” help us understand the nature of youth politics broadly, and that of the Muslim Middle East specifi cally? While studies on youth- related themes such as AIDS, exclusion, vio- lence, or religious radicalism have fl ourished in recent years, “youth” as an analytical category appears in them for the most part incidentally. Thus, many studies on “youth religious radicalism,” for example, are primarily about religious radicalism per se, where the young people (like others) only Adapted from Asef Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- —-1 Islamist Turn (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 59– 65, 161– 64. —0 —+1 115 5 4 4 - 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 1 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 115 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

130 116 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS happen erent from an approach that takes “youth” to be involved. This is diff as the point of departure, as the central category, to examine religious radi- calism. On the other hand, youth as a social category has curiously been absent from the prevalent social movement debates. In general, scholarly at- tempts to conceptualize the meanings and modalities of youth movements remain rare. At best, it is assumed that such conceptual tools as ideology, or- ga ni za tion, mobilization, framing, and the like would be adequate to assess youth as a collective body. Consequently, youth activisms, those which do not fall into the frame of classical social movements, have fallen into the realm, and are viewed largely from the prism, of “social problems” or subcultures. Whereas historical studies and journalistic accounts do talk about such col- lectives as youth movements (referring, for instance, to po liti cal protests of the 1960s or the subcultures of hippies or punks), they presume a priori that youth movements are those in which young people play the central role. Thus, student activism, antiwar mobilization, and counterculture trends of the 1960s in Eu rope and the United States, or the youth chapters of certain po liti- cal parties and movements such as Communist youth, are taken to manifest 2 diff erent forms of youth movements. My approach diff ers from these. I would like to suggest that a discussion of the experience of youth in the Muslim Middle East, where moral and po liti cal authority impose a high de- gree of social control over the young, can off er valuable insight into conceptu- alizing youth and youth movements. By comparing youth activisms in the Muslim Middle East, I suggest we can productively construct “youth” as a use- ful analytical category, which can then open the way to understanding the meaning of a youth movement. I propose that rather than being defi ned in terms of the centrality of the young, youth movements are ultimately about claiming or reclaiming youthfulness. And “youthfulness” signifi es par tic u lar habitus or behavioral and cognitive dispositions that are associated with the fact of being “young”— that is, a distinct social location between childhood and adulthood, where the youngster in a relative autonomy is neither totally dependent (on adults) nor in de pen dent, and is free from being responsible for others. Understood as such, the po liti cal agency of youth movements, their transformative and demo cratizing potential, depends on the capacity of the adversaries, the moral and po liti cal authorities, to accommodate and contain youthful claims. Otherwise, youth may remain as conservative as any other social groups. Yet, given the prevalence of the doctrinal religious regimes in -1— the Middle East whose legitimizing ideologies are unable to accommodate the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 116 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

131 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 117 youth habitus, youth movements possess a great transformative and demo- cratizing promise. YOUNG PEOPLE, YOUTH, AND YOUTH MOVEMENTS The idea of youths as a revolutionary class is not new. The widespread mobili- zation of young people in Eu rope and the United States during the capitalist boom of the 1960s convinced many observers that youths (then active in uni- versities, in antiwar movements, and in producing alternative lifestyles) were the new revolutionary force of social transformation in western societies. For Herbert Marcuse in the United States, and Andre Gorz in France, youths and students had taken the place of the proletariat as the major agent of po liti cal 3 change. In this vein, youth movements have oft en been equated and used in- terchangeably either with student movements or with youth chapters or branches 4 of this or that po liti cal party or movement. Thus, the youth section of the Fascist Party in Germany is described as the German youth movement. Or the youth or ga ni za tion of the Iraqi Ba ̓th Party is assumed to be the youth 5 movement in Iraq. I would suggest that a youth movement is neither the same as student activ- ism nor an appendage of po liti cal movements; nor is it necessarily a revolution- ned not simply by the identity of their actors ary agent. First, movements are defi (even though this factor aff ects very much the character of a movement), but primarily by the nature of their claims and grievances. Although in reality stu- dents are usually young, and young people are oft en students, they represent two diff erent categories. “Student movements” embody the collective struggles of a student body to defend or extend “student rights”— decent education, fair 6 exams, aff ordable fees, or accountable educational management. On the other hand, activism of young people in po liti cal organizations does not necessarily make them agents of a youth movement. Rather, it indicates youth support for, and their mobilization by, a par tic u lar po liti cal objective (e.g., democracy, Ba ̓thism, or fascism). Of course, some youth concerns may be expressed in and merge into certain po liti cal movements, as in German Fascism, which represented aspects of a German youth movement, or in the current pietism of ects the individuality (e.g., through Muslims in France, which partially refl putting on headscarves) of Muslim girls. However, this possibility should not be confused with the situation where young people happen to support a given —-1 p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r m o v e m e n t . —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 117 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

132 118 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS But is the po liti cal ideal of the young necessarily revolutionary? By no means. Indeed, the po liti cal conservatism of many young people in the West aft er the 1960s, which compelled Marcuse to retreat from his earlier position, shattered the myth of youths as a revolutionary class. If anything, the po liti- cal or transformative potential of youth movements is relative to the degree of social control their adversaries impose on them. For instance, a po liti cal regime, such as that in present- day Iran or Saudi Arabia, that makes it its business to scrutinize individual behavior and lifestyle is likely to face youth dissent. Otherwise, youth movements per se may pose little challenge to au- thoritarian states unless they think and act po liti cally. Because a youth move- ment is essentially about claiming youthfulness , it embodies the collective chal- lenge whose central goal consists of defending and extending the youth habitus, by which I mean a series of dispositions, ways of being, feeling, and carry ing oneself (e.g., a greater tendency for experimentation, adventurism, idealism, autonomy, mobility, and change) that are associated with the so cio log i cal fact of “being young.” Countering or curtailing this habitus, youthfulness, is likely to generate collective dissent. But, as the experience of today’s Saudi Arabia shows, the mere presence of the young people subject to moral and po liti cal discipline does not necessarily render them carriers of a youth movement, because young persons (as age category) are unable to forge a collective challenge to the moral and po liti cal authority without fi rst turning into youth as a social category, that is, turning into social actors. When I was growing up in a small village in central Iran during the 1960s, I of course had my friends and peers, with whom I talked, played, cooperated, and fought. However, at that point we were not “youth,” strictly speaking; we were simply young persons, just members of an age cohort. In the village, most young people actually had little opportunity to experience “youthfulness,” as they rapidly moved from childhood, a period of vulnera- bility and dependence, to adulthood, the world of work, parenting, and re- sponsibility. Many youngsters never went to school. There was little “relative autonomy,” especially for most young girls, who were rapidly transferred from their father’s authority to that of the husband and were eff ectively trained into their roles as house wives long before puberty (that boys were usually exempted from such responsibility indicates how gender intervenes in the formation of youth). It is partially in this light that Bourdieu has famously contended that youth -1— is “nothing but a word,” suggesting that talking about youth as a social unit 0— +1— 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 1 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 118 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

133 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 119 7 How can we imagine youth as a single is itself a manipulation of the young. category, he argues, when the youngsters of diff erent classes (rich and the poor) have little in common? Indeed, I must add, the diff erences in the life- worlds of male and female youngsters have been even more remarkable. Yet Bourdieu’s contention pertains primarily to the pre- schooling situation, when young persons experience radically diff erent lifeworlds. But as he himself acknowledges, in modern times mass schooling has changed all this. It has produced youthfulness on a massive national, as well as global, scale. Youth as a social category, as collective agents, are an essentially modern, indeed urban, phenomenon. It is in modern cities that “young persons” turn into “youth,” by experiencing and developing a par tic u lar consciousness about being young, about youthfulness. Schooling, prevalent in urban areas, serves as a key factor in producing and prolonging the period of youth, while it cul- tivates status, expectations, and, possibly, critical awaren ess. Cities, as loci of diversity, creativity, and anonymity, present opportunities for young people er venues to ex- to explore alternative role models and choices, and they off press individuality. Mass media, urban spaces, public parks, youth centers, shopping malls, cultural complexes, and local street corners provide arenas for the formation and expression of collective identities. The fragmented mass of young individuals might share common attributes in expressing common anxieties, in demanding individual liberty, and in constructing and assert- ing subverting identities. Individuals may bond and construct identities through such deliberate associations and networks as schools, street corners, peer groups, and youth magazines. However, identities are formed mostly through “passive networks,” the nondeliberate and instantaneous communica- tions among atomized individuals that are established by the tacit recognition of their commonalities and that are mediated directly through the gaze in pub- 8 lic space, or indirectly through the mass media. As present agents in the pub- lic space, the young recognize shared identity by noticing (seeing) collective symbols inscribed, for instance, in styles (T-shirts, blue jeans, hairstyle), types of activities (attending par tic u lar concerts and music stores, and hanging around shopping malls), and places (stadiums, hiking trails, street corners). When young persons develop a par tic u lar consciousness about themselves as youth and begin to defend or extend their youth habitus, their youthfulness in a collective fashion, a youth movement can be said to have developed. Where po- —-1 litical repression curtails organized activism, youth may form nonmovements. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 1 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 119 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

134 120 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS Unlike student movements, which require a good degree of or ga ni za tion and strategy building, youth “nonmovements” may augment change by their very public presence. With their central preoccupation with “cultural produc- tion” or lifestyles, the young may fashion new social norms, religious prac- tices, cultural codes, and values, without needing structured or ga ni za tion, leadership, or ideologies. This is because youth nonmovements are, I would suggest, characterized less by what the young do (networking, or ga niz ing, de- ploying resources, mobilizing) than by how they are (in behav iors, outfi ts, ways of speaking and walking, in private and public spaces). The identity of a youth nonmovement is based not as much on collective doing as on collective being ; and the forms of their expression are less collective protest than col- lective presence . The power of Muslim youth in the Middle East lies precisely in the ability of their atomized agents to challenge the po liti cal and moral authorities by the per sis tence of their merely alternative presence. Even though youth (non)movements are by defi nition concerned with the claims of youthfulness, nevertheless they can and do act as a harbinger of social change and demo cratic transformation under those doctrinal regimes whose legiti- mizing ideologies are too narrow to accommodate youthful claims of the Mus- lim youth. In Iran, where moral and po liti cal authority converged, draconian social control gave rise to a unique youth identity and collective defi ance. Young people both became central to and were further mobilized by the post- Islamist reform movement. The assertion of youthful aspirations, the defense of their habitus, lay at the heart of their confl ict with moral and po liti cal authority. With the state being the target of their struggles, Ira ni an youths engendered one of the most remarkable youth nonmovements in the Muslim world. The struggle to reclaim youthfulness melded with the struggle to attain demo cratic ideals. In contrast, Egyptian youth, operating under the constraints of “passive revolution,” opted for the strategy of “accommodating innovation,” attempting to adjust their youthful claims within existing po liti cal, economic, and moral norms. In the pro cess, they redefi ned dominant norms and institutions, blended divine and diversion, and engendered more inclusive religious mores. Yet this subculture took shape within, and neither against nor outside, the existing re- gime of moral and po liti cal power. Egyptian youth remained distant from both being a movement and involvement in po liti cal activism until the late er some venues for a 2000s, when a new Web- based opportunity seemed to off -1— collective mobilization. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 120 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

135 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 121 IRAN’S “THIRD GENERATION” 9 The spectacular activism of young people in the Islamic Revolution, the war with Iraq, and in the new revolutionary institutions earned them a new, ex- alted position, altering their image from “young troublemakers” to “heroes and martyrs.” This was the image of the “spectacular male youth” drawn so cio- log i cally from lower- and middle- class families. At the same time, the young were seen as highly vulnerable to corrupting ideas and therefore needing pro- tection and surveillance. To reproduce an ideal “Muslim man,” the Islamic regime launched in 1980 the “cultural revolution” program to Islamize educa- tional culture and curricula. Universities were shut down for two years, Is- lamic associations were set up in schools, and all public places came under the watchful gaze of morals police and proregime vigilantes. What sustained this regime of surveillance for a de cade were revolution- ary fervor, preoccupation with war, and the repression of dissent. Young men were either on the war front or fl eeing the country, preferring the humiliation of exile to “heroic martyrdom” in a “meaningless” battle. Although adoles- cents sought refuge in schools, oft en by deliberately failing exams to postpone graduation, they lived in anxiety, gloom, and depression. One out of every ered from a behavioral disorder. Girls in par- three high school students suff 10 tic u lar were more susceptible to stress, fear, and depression. The poetic re- fl ections of a young girl talking to herself capture the depth of her inner gloom as she witnesses the gradual erosion of her youth: My father never recognizes me on the street. He says “all of you look like mourners.” Yes, we dress in black, head to toe in black. Sometimes, I get scared by the thought of my father not recognizing me in this dark colorlessness . . . I stare at the mirror, And I see an old woman. Am I still sleepy? Oh . . . I feel aged and unhappy. Why should I be so diff erent from other 20- year- olds? They liken my joy to sin, —-1 They close my eyes to happiness, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 121 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

136 122 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS They stop me from taking my own steps . . . Oh . . . I feel like an old woman. . . . No, no, I want to be young, Want to love, To dress in white, be joyful, have fun, ll my dreams. . . . And move to fulfi I look at myself in the mirror. 11 I look so worn out and aged . . . Few offi cials noticed this inner despair in youngsters’ lives. Blinded by their own constructed image and by their doctrinal animosity toward joy, Is- lamist leaders failed to read the inner minds and hearts of this rapidly grow- ing segment of the population. The shocking truth emerged only in the post- war years when some offi cials noticed “strange behavior” among the young. With the war over and postwar reconstruction under way, the young began to publicly express their selfh ood, both individually and collectively. The media carried stories about the “degenerate behavior” of Ira ni an youth. Boys were discovered disguised as women walking on the streets in a southern city. Tomboy girls wore male attire to escape harassment of morals police. College 12 students refused to take religious studies courses, and “authorities in an Ira- ni an holy Muslim city launched a crackdown on pop music, arresting dozens 13 of youths for playing loud music on their car stereos.” Other reports spoke of groups of young males dancing in the streets next to self- fl agellation cere- monies on the highly charged mourning day of ‘Ashura.’ Young drivers had fun by crashing their cars into each other, or by playing a form of the game of ed to the steering wheel and trying to escape “chicken”: racing while handcuff 14 ying off a cliff . before fl Drug addiction soared among schoolchildren. The average age of prostitutes declined from twenty- seven to twenty, expanding 15 the industry by 635 percent in 1998. Yet alongside individual rebellion, the young took every opportunity to assert open and clandestine subcultures, defying the moral and po liti cal authority. The severe restriction of music did not deter them. When the re- formist mayor of Tehran, Gholam Hussein Karbaschi, established numerous cultural centers in South Tehran, young people comprised 75 percent of those who rushed to fi ll classical- music classes and concert halls. Smuggled audio lled big- city main streets, and video recordings of exiled Ira ni an singers fi -1— while MTV- type music videos found widespread popularity. The young blared 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 122 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

137 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 123 loud music from speedy cars, to the dismay of Islamists, while across the capi- tal, underground pop and rock bands thrived at covert late- night parties. Teenagers enjoyed not only the music but its subculture and fashion— tight or baggy pants, vulgar En glish slang, tattoos— acquired through smuggled vid- 16 eos. Rap and heavy metal music in par tic u lar became pop u lar. By 1999, mu- sic subcultures had become so widespread that the reformist Ministry of Culture was compelled to recognize and even or ga nize the fi rst concert of “pop music” in the Islamic republic. Some teens ran away from home to join rock bands, attracted by a sense of belonging, though many were incarcerated by the morals police. Indeed, runaway teenagers became a major social problem. In 2000, Tehran was reportedly faced with an “escalating crisis of runaway girls fre- quently becoming victims of prostitution rings and human traffi cking.” Be- tween 1997 and 1998 the number of reported runaway teenagers tripled. In Tehran alone nine hundred girls ran away in 2000, and four thousand in 17 18 2002, when the nationwide number was reportedly sixty thousand. Asser- tion of individuality— freedom to have a male partner (42 percent) and free- 19 “I want to leave dom from family surveillance— seemed to be the main cause. Iran,” lamented a young female who had been arrested for leaving home. “I don’t like Iran at all. I feel I am in prison here even when I am sitting in the park.” Although dating openly had become a prime casualty of Islamic moral code, the young devised ways to resist. Well- to- do young boys and girls made contacts not only at private parties and underground music concerts, but also in public parks, shopping malls, and restaurants, oft en discreetly arranged by cell phone. In such “distanciated dating,” girls and boys stood apart but eyed each other from a distance, chatted, fl irted, and expressed love through elec- tronic waves. To seek privacy and yet appear legitimate, young couples hired taxis to drive them around the city in anonymity, while they sat back for hours to romance or take delight in their companionship. The popularity of Valentine’s Day revealed an abundance of “forbidden love” and relationships in which sex, it seemed, was not excluded. In fact, scattered evidence indicated widespread premarital sex among Iran’s Muslim youths, despite the high risk of harsh penalties. An academic claimed that one out of three unmarried girls, and 60 percent in North Tehran, had had sexual relations. Out of 130 cases of 20 AIDS cases reported in hospitals, 90 were unmarried women. cial of An offi —-1 Tehran municipality reported “each month at least 10 or 12 aborted fetuses are —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 123 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

138 124 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS 21 found in the garbage.” Although public information did not exist, research- ers and medical professionals were alarmed by the extent of unwanted preg- cially spoke of the fact that “not one week passes by nancies. Doctors unoffi 22 without at least two or three young girls coming in for abortion.” Report- edly, some 60 percent of patients requesting abortions were unmarried young 23 girls. cials in Tehran referred to a The United Nations Population Fund offi survey on “morality” (meaning sexuality) among young people, but the re- 24 sults were so “terrible” that they had to be destroyed. Attention to self, physi- cal appearance, clothing, fashion, and plastic surgery became widespread trends among young females. Clearly, sexuality among the young posed a major challenge to the Islamic state, testing the capacity of Islamism to integrate youths, whose sensibilities were inherently subversive to it. In the early 1990s, President Rafsanjani came up with the idea of “temporary marriage” as an “Islamic” solution to the cri- sis. It meant controlling sexual encounters through fi xed short- term (as short as a few hours) relationships called “marriage.” Ayatollah Ha ̓eri Shirazi pro- posed “legitimate courtship” (without sex), an openly recognized relationship 25 approved by parents or relatives. Others called for some kind of offi cial docu- ment confi rming the legitimacy of such relationships, meaning something 26 like temporary marriage in which the couple would not live together. And in 2000, conservative Islamists put forward the idea of a Chastity House, where men seeking sex were to “temporarily marry” prostitutes to “legitimize” their encounters. The desperate cultural politics of young people shattered Islamists’ image of them as self- sacrifi cing individuals devoted to martyrdom and moral codes. By challenging the regime’s moral and po liti cal authority, the young subverted the production of “Muslim youth.” Anxiety over the increasing bad- hijabi (laxity in veil wearing) among school and university girls haunted offi cials. “We are encountering a serious cultural onslaught. What is to be done?” they 27 lamented. Over 85 percent of young people in 1995 spent their leisure time watching tele vi sion, but only 6 percent of them watched religious programs; of the 58 percent who read books, less then 8 percent were interested in reli- 28 gious literature. A staggering 80 percent of the nation’s youth were indiff er- 29 ent or opposed to the clergy, religious obligations, and religious leadership, 30 - while 86 percent of students refrained from saying their daily prayers. Offi cial surveys confi rmed the deep mistrust separating the young from the state -1— and what ever it stood for. The vast majority (80 percent) lacked confi dence in 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 124 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

139 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 125 31 politicians, and most (over 70 percent) saw the government as being respon- sible for their problems. Yet this distrust of the Islamist authorities did not mean that the young abandoned religion. Indeed, they expressed a “high religiosity” in terms of 32 fundamental religious “beliefs” and “feelings,” with some 90 percent believ- 33 ing in God and the idea of religion, according to a study. But youth remained erent to religious practices; religious belief and knowledge seemed largely indiff to have little impact on their daily lives. God existed but did not prevent them from drinking alcohol or dating the opposite sex. To them, religion was a more philosophical and cultural reality than it was moral and doctrinal. While most refused to attend mosque ceremonies, they fl ocked to public and private lec- tures given by the “religious intellectuals,” which spread during the mid- 1990s. Like their Egyptian counterparts, the globalized Ira ni an youth reinvented their religiosity, blending the transcendental with the secular, faith with free- dom, divine with diversion. In an ingenious subversive accommodation , many youngsters utilized the prevailing norms and institutions, especially religious rituals, to accommo- date their youthful claims, but in doing so they creatively redefi ned and sub- verted the constraints of those codes and norms. This strategy was best expressed in the way the North Tehrani youths treated the highly charged ritual of Muharram, which commemorates the death of Imam Hussein, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad. By inventing “Hussein parties,” the young turned this highly austere occasion of mourning into an eve ning of glamour, fun, and sociability. Boys and girls dressed in their best, strolled through the streets, joined parades of mourners, and used the occasion to stay out until 34 irt, exchange phone numbers, and secretly arrange dates. dawn to socialize, fl In a similar spirit, they reinvented the “sham- e ghariban” (the eleventh night of the month of Muharram), the most dreary and sorrowful Shi ̔i ritual in Is- lamic Iran, as a blissful night of sociability and diversion. Groups of fi ft y to sixty girls and boys carried candles through the streets to large squares, where they sat on the ground in circles, oft en leaning on one another in the romantic nowhe (sad rel ig ious aura of dim candlelight, and listened to the melancholic songs) while chatting, meditating, romancing, or talking politics in hushed 35 tones until dawn. These rituals of re sis tance did not go unpunished by violent vigilante es, or bands of “fundamentalist” youth who attacked the participants baseeji —-1 and disrupted their assemblies and in so doing turned their “subversive —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 125 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

140 126 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS accommodation” into po liti cal defi ance. The cultural became overtly po liti cal. In January 1995, a hundred thousand young spectators of a Tehran soccer match went on a rampage following a disagreement on the result of the compe- tition. Riots destroyed part of the stadium and led to a mass protest of youths 36 chanting: “Death to this barbaric regime”; “Death to the Pasdaran.” In 2004, over fi ve thousand youths battled with violent vigilante groups in North Teh- ran; and much earlier, the city of Tabriz had witnessed thousands of young basiji bands for objecting to the “improper behavior” spectators raging against of a few individuals in the crowd. Even more than collective grief and violence, collective joy became a medium of subversion. For the mass expression of ed puritan principles of grief and gloom but circum- “happiness” not only defi vented its aura of repression. The success of Iran’s national soccer team in Australia in November 1997 and at the World Cup in Paris against the United States in June 1998 sent hordes of young boys and girls into the streets in every ve hours security major city to cheer, dance, and sound their car horns. For fi 37 forces lost control, stood aside, and watched the crowd in its blissful ecstasy. In the city of Karadj, the crowd overwhelmed the basijies by chanting, “ Basiji ance. Hours must dance!” But even defeat was a pretext to show collective defi er Iran’s team lost to Bahrain in 2001, hundreds of thousands took to the aft y- four dif- streets, expressing deep- felt anger at the Islamist authorities. In fi ft ferent areas of Tehran, young people marched, shouted po liti cal slogans, threw c rocks and handmade explosives at police, vandalized police cars, broke traffi lights, and lit candles in a sign of mourning for the defeat. Other cities, Karadj, Qom, Shiraz, Kashan, Isfahan, and Islamabad, also witnessed similar protests. 38 Only aft er eight hundred arrests did protestors go home. But perhaps noth- ing was more symbolic about the young’s defi ance than setting off fi reworks to celebrate Nowruz, the coming of the Ira ni an New Year. The Islamic state had recrack- outlawed this ancient Persian tradition. But by setting off millions of fi ers, youngsters turned urban neighborhoods into explosive battle zones, scorn- 39 ing the offi cial ban on the ritual and the collective joy that went with it. The recrackers,” as one daily put it, symbolized outrage against offi “mystery of fi - 40 cialdom that the young saw as having forbidden joy and jolliness. ict between reform- The younger generation’s defi ance deepened the confl ists and conservatives in government. Reformists blamed the youth unrest on the conservatives’ overbearing moral pressure and the “suppression of joy.” Launching a public debate on the necessity of leisure, the reformists called for -1— 41 tolerance and understanding. In so doing, the reformists supplied the young 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 2 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 126 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

141 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 127 with a platform, po liti cal support, and moral courage. Backed by reformist friends at the top, the young further pushed for their claims, not only through defi ft y youth ance, but also by engagement in civic activism. In 2001, some fi 42 NGOs were registered in Tehran, and four hundred in the country. Within two years they reached 1,100, of which 850 participated in the fi rst national 43 congress of youth NGOs in 2003. Still thousands more fl ourished informally throughout the country, working in cultural, artistic, charity, developmental, and intellectual domains. They or ga nized lectures and concerts, did charity work, and coordinated bazaars, at times with remarkable innovation. On one occasion, a group of youths presented President Khatami with a plan for al- ternative young cabinet members to form a “government of youths.” But re- claiming public space to assert their youthful sensibilities remained the major concern of those whose globalized subcultures (expressed in sexuality, gender roles, and lifestyle) were distancing them even from post- Islamists’ commit- 44 ment to largely traditional moral conventions. Youth’s behavior infuriated conservative puritans, who clamored against what they considered a “cultural invasion,” “hooliganism,” and “anti- Islamic sentiments,” blaming them on 45 Khatami’s “failure to ameliorate unemployment, poverty and corruption.” Thus, they launched new crackdowns on events, gatherings, places, and behav- iors that were seen to cause “immorality, “depravity,” and “indecency”; they dispatched special units with groups of uniformed men who carried machine 46 guns and hand grenades to reassert the republic’s moral order. This simultaneous condition of both suppression (of youthfulness by the politico- moral authority) and opportunity (valorization and encouragement of the young) off ered these youth a spectacular sense of self and the possibility to act collectively, a status their Egyptian or Saudi counterparts largely lacked. But there was more to the emergence of a national Ira ni an youth movement than politics. Sweeping social change since the early 1980s had helped form “youth” as a social category. Demographically, by 1996 Iran had experienced a dramatic rise in its number of young people, with two- thirds under the age of thirty. Of these, a staggering twenty million, one- third of the population, were students (an increase of 266 percent since 1976). Most lived in cities, ex- posed to diverse lifestyles with spaces for relative autonomy, extrakinship identities, and social interactions on a broad scale. In the meantime, as urban- ity was permeating the countryside, an “urbanized” generation of rural youth was in the making. The spread of Open University branches throughout the —-1 country, for instance, meant that on average every village had two university —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 127 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

142 128 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS graduates, a very rare phenomenon in the 1970s. Rural youth began to acquire legitimacy based on competence and merit and became major decision mak- ers, which the dominance of se niority had previously made unthinkable. With sweeping social changes in the countryside and expanding communica- tion technologies that facilitated the fl ow of young people, ideas, and life- styles, social barriers separating rural and urban youth began to crumble, giv- ing the country’s young a broader, national constituency. Meanwhile, the weakening of parental authority over the young (resulting from the state’s valorization of youth) and the reinforcement of child- centeredness in the fam- ily (an outcome of rising literacy among women and mothers) contributed to 47 the individuation of the young and their militancy. By the mid- 1990s, Iran’s postrevolutionary young had become “youth,” a social agent. But theirs was not a conventional social movement, an or ga nized and sustained collective challenge with articulated ideology or a recognizable leadership. Rather, theirs was a nonmovement, the “collective conscience” of the noncollective actors, whose principal expression lay in the politics of presence , tied closely to the young’s everyday cultural struggles and normative subver- sion. This fragmented mass of individuals and subgroups shared common at- tributes in expressing common anxieties, in demanding individual liberty, and in constructing and asserting their collective identities. The individual young- sters were tied together not only within dispersed subgroups (youth magazines, NGOs, peer groups, and street- corner associations), but more commonly through “passive networks”: those nondeliberate communications formed by the young- sters tacitly recognizing their commonalities through sight and sound in public spaces, by identifying shared symbols displayed in styles (T-shirts, blue jeans, hair), types of activities (attending par tic u lar concerts and music stores), and places (sport stadiums, shopping malls, hiking tracks), and by the sound of their music or fi recrackers. Thus, the birth of youth as a social category of national scale, operating in uniquely simultaneous conditions of both repression and op- portunity, drove the Ira ni an youths to reclaim their youthfulness in a battle in which the state became the target. Reclaiming youth habitus from state control and moral authority defi ned Iran’s youth nonmovement. POLITICS OF EGYPTIAN YOUTHS: “ACCOMMODATING INNOVATION” “Youth” as a social category also developed in Egypt. Quite similar to Iran, in -1— 1996 about half of Egypt’s sixty million people were under twenty, and 64 per- 0— +1— 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 2 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 128 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

143 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 129 48 Although the total student population in 1996 (11.6 million) cent under thirty. was only just over half of Iran’s, Egypt had the same number of college stu- 49 dents (1.1 million). Similarly, the peculiarity of the Egyptian countryside (with comparatively large villages concentrated along the Nile Valley and Delta and in close proximity to each other and large cities) contributed to their grow- ing urbanity during the 1980s and 1990s. The abundance of electricity; new means of communication; commercialization; the fl ow of people, goods, and information; and increasing occupational specialization marked the shift ing 50 social structure of post- open- door rural settings. The spread of mass school- ing provided the raw materials to produce educated youth. And urban institu- tions such as college campuses, coff ee shops, shopping malls, concert venues, festivals of saints, and street corners provided spaces for social interaction, ac- tive and passive networks, and the construction of youth identities. In brief, the young as social actors had emerged in both Iran and Egypt in a more or less similar pattern. But the simultaneous pro cesses of urbanization, Islamization, and global- ization had fragmented the young generation in Egypt. Alongside actively pious and provincial adolescents had emerged new generations of globalized youths who had been increasingly exposed to the global cultural fl ows. Clearly, diff erent class and gender experiences had given rise to multiple youth identi- ties. Whereas harsher social control in the Islamic republic had pushed male and female youth to develop similar aspirations, gender distinction in Egypt remained more enunciated. For example, the diff erence in social aspirations between adolescent boys and girls in Egypt was so pronounced that observers spoke of “more separate male and female cultures than a single youth culture.” Especially crucial were male perceptions of women, which seriously threat- ened their identity as youths’ shared habitus. Rarely would men (in Egypt 51 only 4 percent) marry a woman who had premarital sex. “No one goes out with a girl and marries her. Ninety- nine percent of men would not marry a girl they ever touched,” stated a university student in Egypt. And the girls felt this bitter truth. “This is what we hate about the boys; they rarely marry the 52 girl they go out with.” But in both Iran and Egypt, the mainstream young attempted to assert their habitus, to exert their individuality, aspired for change, and created youth subculture. They did so by recognizing the existing moral and po liti cal con- straints and trying to make the best out of the existing institutions. However, —-1 compared to their Ira ni an counterparts, Egyptian youth remained demobilized —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 2 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 129 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

144 130 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS in the po liti cal and civic domains. While they showed interest in participating po liti cally, they lacked the means to do so. Unlike in Iran, where ageism was breaking down and youth was remarkably valorized, the elders and po liti cal elites in Egypt did not trust the young in the po liti cal arena. Egyptian politics, both governmental and oppositional, continued to remain in the grip of very 53 old men, with an average age of seventy- seven in 2002. Meanwhile, the young distrusted party politics, which happened to be the only legitimate 54 channel for activism. A survey by the Ahram Center for Po liti cal and Strate- gic Studies revealed that 67 percent of young people were not registered to 55 vote. Lack of trust in electoral games pushed the young further away from poli- tics, and restrictions on campus activism put a damper on youth po liti cal mo- bilization. The mobilization of middle- and lower- middle- class youth in the Islamist movement during the 1980s did not repeat itself in other po liti cal fi elds. In the late 1990s po liti cal activity on campuses was paltry, as state security in- tervened to prevent Islamist, left ist, and Nasserist candidates from running for student unions. Only Israel’s reoccupati on of the Palestinian Territories in 56 early 2000 galvanized social and po liti cal mobilization. The remarkable in- volvement of Egyptian youths in collecting food and medicine for Palestin- ians was indeed a watershed in youth voluntarism, but it was the result of the unique po liti cal and moral aura of the siege of Palestinians by Likud’s repres- sive incursions. Otherwise, the young showed slight interest in public ser vice or voluntarism. Even the youths of elite families, whose social and fi nancial resources oft en make them the prime source of donations, remained indiff er- ent. Of twenty hand- picked students of Egyptian universities, only one had 57 engaged in any volunteer activities. Genuine youth initiatives such as Fathi Kheir NGO were exceptions. The prevailing notion was that the state, not citizens, was to take charge of social provisions. Clearly, the young were bearing the brunt of Egypt’s “passive revolution,” in which the “seculareligious” state had appropriated the initiative for change through a remarkable blend of concession and control. Egyptian youth were not under the same moral and po liti cal control as their counterparts in Iran or Saudi Arabia. Depending on their social and economic capacities, they were able to listen to their music, follow their fashions, pursue dating games, ordable fun, and be part of global trends so long as they recognized have aff their limits, beyond which their activities would collide with the moral au- -1— thority and the state. Youths were to be integrated and guided by the state. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 130 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

145 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 131 c advance- To do so, the state would provide the young with “scientifi ment” or technical education to catch up and compete in the world, and at the same time guide them into religious piety in order to withstand both for- 58 eign cultural infl uences and home- grown po liti cal Islam. Indeed, the 1999 presidential decree to rename the Supreme Council of Youths (established in 1965) the Ministry of Youths and Sports displayed offi cial anxiety over the 59 “youth problem.” Their protection from po liti cal and moral ills had be- come a matter of “national security.” The Ministry of Youth with its control of four thousand Youth Centers was to help materialize these objectives. Government loans were to enable the young to settle down and marry by 60 purchasing fl ats, to provide access to ICT, and to acquire technical training 61 through NGOs. Meanwhile, the Youth Centers, some kind of state- controlled NGOs, would or ga nize summer camps, debates, entertainment, training pro- grams, religious education caravans, and sporting events. But the deplorable state of most of these centers, their poor amenities, garbage- infested athletic fi elds, poor libraries, and the state’s control rendered them inadequate to carry out this enormous task. Oft en, only lower- class youngsters, almost all of them male, attended the centers. Many remained “youth centers without 62 youths,” as an offi cial weekly put. If the televised annual “dialogue” of the president with “Egyptian youths” was any indication, a deep distrust sepa- 63 rated youths from the state. The young took solace in nonstate spaces that infringed only marginally on po liti cal and moral authorities. They resorted to the cultural politics of everyday life, where they could reassert their youth- ful claims. For over a de cade, young Egyptians were seen in the image of Islamist militants waging guerrilla war, penetrating college campuses, or memorizing the Qur ̓an in the backstreet mosques of sprawling slums. Moral authorities, parents, and foreign observers expected them to be characteristically pious, strict, and dedicated to the moral discipline of Islam. Yet in their daily lives, the mainstream young defi ed their constructed image, oft en shocking moral au- thorities by expressing defi ance openly and directly. “The youth of this coun- try are rebelling against the old traditions,” stated a twenty- year- old female student in Cairo. “We are breaking away from your chains; we are not willing to live the lives of the older generations. Women smoking shisha is the least shocking form of rebellion going on. Face the changes and embrace our gen- eration; do not treat us as if we are children. Our generation is more exposed —-1 64 than yours, and this is a simple fact.” —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 131 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

146 132 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS Reports of “satanic youth” in January 1997 demonstrated not only pre- vailing moral panic over the alleged vulnerability of youths to global culture, but those youths’ emerging self- assertion. Every Thursday night hundreds of well- to- do youngsters gathered in an abandoned building to socialize, have fun, and, above all, dance to heavy metal music. Six weeks of sensational me- dia coverage and the arrest of dozens accused of “satanism” (later released for lack of evidence) proved the existence of underground subcultures that few er the adults had noticed. The music subculture, however, did not die out aft satanist myth. It reappeared in the form of raving. Egyptian raves began with small bands and small crowds, but aft er 1998 professional or ga ni za tion and commercialization helped them grow rapidly. They encompassed music genres from around the world, including Egyptian pop, and catered to young elites of 65 “glamour, high fashion and lifestyle.” For many, the rave became “a com- munity which you have grown to know, at least recognize, centered around a 66 common interest in the music.” The Egyptian rave was largely sex- free, but it did involve alcohol and (unoffi cially) drugs (in the form of Ecstasy). Indeed, studies indicated that experimentation with alcohol went beyond the well- to- do young. One out of every three students in the cities had drunk alcohol, 67 mainly beer. Although only somewhat more than 5 percent admitted experi- menting with drugs (85 percent of whom were cannabis users), the problem became more severe in the early 1990s. Law enforcement professionals warned 68 that the use of Ecstasy in par tic u lar was on the rise. 69 While in general a “culture of silence” prevailed regarding sexuality, premarital sex seemed to be widespread among Muslim youth, despite nor- mative and religious prohibition. In an approximate but indicative survey of one hundred high school and college girls in various Cairo districts, 8 percent said they had had sexual intercourse, 37 percent had experienced sex without intercourse, 23 percent had kissed, and 20 percent had only held hands. In a survey of 100 school and college male students in Cairo, 73 percent said they would not mind having premarital sex as long as they would not marry their 70 partners. A more comprehensive study found “substantial rates of premari- 71 tal sex among university students.” In AIDS education classes, students posed 72 questions about specifi c sexual practices that surprised health educators. Although comprehensive surveys did not exist, the use of pornography by 73 males appeared to be quite widespread. Ninety out of one hundred respon- dents said they masturbated regularly, and 70 percent of those ninety thought -1— 74 they were doing something religiously and physically wrong. Beyond infl u- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 3 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 132 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

147 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 133 ences from satellite dishes, illicit videos, and later the Internet, the changing structure of house holds seemed to facilitate youth sexual practices. The father fi gure, once so important, was changing even in villages. One out of three fami- lies was fatherless, resulting from divorce, abandonment, and mostly (20 to 25 percent) fathers working abroad; children might use the home for romance 75 when their mothers went out. Otherwise, lower- class Cairo couples found romantic solace on the benches of inconspicuous metro stations, where they 76 sat and talked or romanced while pretending to wait for trains. Most of these young people were religious. They oft en prayed, fasted, and expressed fear of God. A few heavy metal “satanists” whom I interviewed con- sidered themselves devout Muslims but also enjoyed rock music, drinking al- cohol, and romance. The mainstream young combined prayer, partying, and pornography, faith and fun. Notice how, for instance, a lower- class young man working in Dahab, a tourist resort where many foreign women visit, blended God, women, and police in pursuit of his mundane and spiritual needs: “I used to pray before I came to Dahab. My relationship to God was very strong and very spiritual. Now, my relationship to God is very strange. I always ask him to provide me with a woman, and when I have a partner, I ask 77 him to protect me from the police.” This might sound like a contradiction, but it expresses more a consolation and an accommodation. The young enjoyed dancing, raving, having illicit relationships, and fun but found solace and comfort in their prayers and faith. “I do both good and bad things, not just bad things. The good things erase the 78 bad things,” said a law student in Cairo. A twenty- fi ve- year- old religious man who drank alcohol and “tried everything” also smoked “pot in a group sometimes to prove [their] manhood.” He prayed regularly, hoping that God forgave his ongoing misdeeds. Such a state of liminality, this “creative inbe- tweeness,” illustrates how the young attempted to redefi ne and reimagine their Islam in order to accommodate their youthful desires for individuality, change, fun, and “sin” within the existing moral order. Not only did they rede- fi ne their religion, they also reinvented notions of youthfulness. “During ado- lescence,” a nineteen- year- old student said, “all young men do the same; there is 79 no halal or haram [right or wrong] at that age.” Similarly, many young girls saw themselves as committed Muslims but still uncovered their hair or wore the veil only during Ramadan or only during fasting hours. Many of those er who enjoyed showing their hair found consolation in deciding to cover it aft —-1 marriage, when their youthful stage was over. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 133 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

148 134 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS To assert their habitus under the prevailing moral and po liti cal con- , a strategy accommodating innovation straints, Egyptian youths resorted to that redefi ned and reinvented prevailing norms and traditional means to ac- commodate their youthful claims. Yet the young did not depart radically 80 from the dominant system but made it work for their interests. The rela- urfi (informal) marriage since the late 1990s tively widespread practice of exemplifi Urfi marriage is a religiously accepted but unoffi - ed this strategy. cial oral contract that requires two witnesses and is carried out in secret. The minister of social aff airs spoke of 17 percent of university female students going through urfi marriage, causing a public uproar over this “danger” to 81 “national security.” Offi cials cited declining social authority, absence of fathers, and the employment of mothers as the cause of this “frightening 82 phenomenon.” Experts pointed to the lack of housing and especially the 83 absence of a “religious supervision” over youth. But in essence, the young utilized this traditional institution to pursue romance within, but not out- side or against, the moral and economic order, to get around the moral con- 84 straints on dating and the economic constraints on formal marriage. With the same logic, lower- class youth resorted to, but also modifi ed the meaning of, such religious occasions as Ramadan (the time of fasting), Eid al- Adha (the festival of sacrifi ce), and the birthdays of saints as occasions of intense sociability and diversion. Indeed the phenomenon of Amr Khaled, Egypt’s most pop u lar young lay preacher, who since the late 1990s spoke about piety and the moralities of everyday life, should be seen in a similar sense of a reinvention of a new reli- 85 gious style by Egypt’s globalizing youth. In a sense, Egyptian cosmopolitan youths fostered a new religious subculture— one that was expressed in a dis- tinctly novel style, taste, language, and message. It resonated in the aversion of these young from patronizing pedagogy and moral authority. These glo- balizing youth displayed many seemingly contradictory orientations; they were religious believers but distrusted po liti cal Islam if they knew anything about it; they swung back and forth from (the pop star) Amr Diab to Amr Khaled, from partying to prayers, and yet they felt the burden of a strong social control by their elders, teachers, and neighbors. As young Egyptians were socialized in a cultural condition and educational tradition that oft en restrained individuality and novelty, they were compelled to assert them in a “social way,” through “fashion.” Thus, through the prism of youth, this reli- -1— gious subculture galvanized around the “phenomenon of Amr Khaled” was 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 134 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

149 RECLAIMING YOUTHFULNESS 135 partly an expression of “fashion” in a Simmelian sense— in the sense of an outlet that accommodates contradictory human tendencies: change and ad- aptation, diff erence and similarity, individuality and social norms. Resorting to this type of piety permitted the elite young to assert their individuality, undertake change, and yet remain committed to collective norms and social 86 equalization. Although innovative, these strategies conformed to the prevailing regime of power, meaning that Egyptian youth stood largely demobilized within so- cial and po liti cal constraints. Egypt’s “passive revolution” had ensured this demobilization by off ering room to exercise a limited degree of innovation, but only within the po liti cal discipline of the “seculareligious” state. It was only toward the end of the fi rst de cade of the twenty- fi rst century that Egyp- tian youth managed to collectively break through the rigid case of the state to mobilize— not in the streets, but on the screens of computers. With the new technological opportunities, e-mail, weblogs, and especially Facebook, some seventy thousand educated youths linked up to produce what came to be known as the April 6 Youth Movement. Utilizing such a venue to campaign against po liti cal repression, economic stagnation, and nepotism, the young activists augmented a new way of doing politics, a step further than what Kifaya move- 87 ment had begun earlier on. For now, we may not be able to judge the po liti- cal effi cacy of such postmodern nonmovements, but they attest to the fact that the subaltern utilize any opportunities to outmaneuver state surveillance and push for change. Yet the point is not to wait for opportunities, but to con- stantly generate them. What, then, of youths as a po liti cal force in the Muslim Middle East? Do youth non/movements possess the capacity to cause po liti cal and demo cratic transformation? If indeed the youth movements, as I have suggested, are ulti- mately about claiming and reclaiming youthfulness, then their transforma- tive and demo cratizing potential would depend on the capacity of the moral and po liti cal authorities to accommodate youthful claims. If their youthful claims are accommodated, youth movements would by defi nition cease to exist, and young people may remain as conservative po liti cally as any other social groups. To act as democratizing agents, the young will need to think and act po liti cally, as the Egyptian April 6 Youth Movement in 2008 illustrates. Yet, because the current doctrinal religious regimes in the Middle East possess limited capacity to contain the increasingly global youth habitus, youth move- —-1 ments retain a considerable transforma tive and demo cratizing promise. Thus, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 135 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

150 136 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS Muslim youth, perhaps similar to their non- Muslim counterparts, remain in constant struggle to assert, claim, and reclaim their youthfulness, by taking advantage of available venues, including resorting to religion or subverting it. Negotiating between their youthfulness and Muslimness, mediated through political and economic conditions, marks a central feature of Muslim youth habitus. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 1 3 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 136 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

151 THE POLITICS OF FUN 7 in december 2002 , on a plane from Aleppo, Syria, I happened to be sitting next to a twenty- year- old Syrian cleric on his way to Cairo to spend some time in Al- Azhar, the seat of Egypt’s offi cial Islam. He asked if he could borrow my Syr- ian newspaper, which he quickly skimmed through until he reached the sports pages. Only aft er the young cleric had thoroughly observed the entire section did I start a conversation with him. He said he loved soccer and prayed that his favorite teams, Bayern Munich and Barcelona, would win their national tour- naments. Music was his other interest, not only that of Um Kulthoum and Fairouz, but also that of the Egyptian pop star Amr Diab. Young mullahs also need to have fun, it occurred to me. Observing this man of religion taking such plea sure in temporal diversions, I could not help wondering why puritan Islamists express such hostility toward fun and joy. One of the ironies of “fundamentalist” Islamism is that it has tenaciously withstood waves of po liti cal challenges but has felt powerless before simple dis- plays of spontaneity and joy and the pursuit of everyday pleasures. It seems as though every occasion of mundane festivity, private parties, and gatherings at bustling street corners, tea houses, shopping malls, and secular celebrations becomes a matter of profound doctrinal anxiety and delegitimation. It is as if these ordinary pursuits would enfeeble the Islamist moral paradigm, just as the erotic taste of chocolate perturbed the tranquillité of the French vil- lage in Joanne Harris’s novel Chocolat . So, why are Islamists so distinctly Public Culture , 19, no. 3 Adapted from Asef Bayat, “Islamism and the Politics of Fun,” —-1 (October 2007), pp. 433– 59. —0 —+1 137 5 4 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 3 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 137 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M -

152 138 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS apprehensive of the expression of “fun”— a preoccupation most people in the world seem to take for granted? By fun , I mean an array of ad hoc, nonroutine, and joyful pursuits— ranging from playing games, joking, dancing, and social drinking, to involve- ment in playful art, music, sex, and sport, to par tic u lar ways of speaking, laughing, appearing, or carry ing oneself— where individuals break free tem- porarily from the disciplined constraints of daily life, normative obligations, and or ga nized power. Fun is a meta phor for the expression of individuality, spontaneity, and lightness, in which joy is the central element. While joy is neither an equivalent nor a defi nition of fun, it remains a key component of it. Not everything joyful is fun, such as routine ways of having meals, even though one can make food fun by injecting joyful creativity in preparing or consum- ing it. Thus, fun oft en points to usually improvised, spontaneous, free- form, changeable, and thus unpredictable expressions and practices. There is a strong tendency in modern times to structure and institutionalize fun in the form of, for instance, participating in or ga nized leisure activities: going to bars, discos, concerts, and the like. However, the inevitable drive for spontaneity and in- vention renders or ga nized fun a tenuous entity. Fun may be expressed by individuals or collectives, in private or public, and take traditional or commoditized forms. Fashion, for instance, represents a collective, commoditized, and systematic expression of fun, yet one that is constantly in fl ing spirit of fun. ux because it responds to the carefree and shift Fun appeals to almost all social groups (the rich and poor, old and young, modern and traditional, men and women), yet youths are the prime practi- tioners of fun, embodying a greater tendency toward experimentation, adven- turism, idealism, and a drive for autonomy, mobility, and change— and thus the main target of anti- fun politics. Perhaps that is why fun is oft en confl ated with and identifi ed by “youth culture.” However, fun in fact constitutes only one, albeit signifi cant, component of youth culture, in the same way that lower- class festivities, such as the activities celebrating the birthdays of saints ( mulids ) in Egypt, are but one aspect of folk culture, and the creations of avant- garde artists one element of a counterculture. But the diff erential habitus of these social groups tends to orient them to diff erent fun practices and therefore to subject them to diff erent degrees of prohibitions and regulations that can be subsumed under the rhetoric of “anti- fun.” For instance, whereas the el der ly ord simple, traditional, and contained diversions, the globalized poor can aff -1— and affl uent youth tend to embrace more spontaneous, erotically charged, and 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 138 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

153 THE POLITICS OF FUN 139 commodifi ed pleasures. This might help explain why globalizing youngsters more than others cause fear and fury among Islamist anti- fun adversaries, especially when much of what these youths practice is informed by western technologies of fun and is framed in terms of “western cultural import.” The fear of fun is not restricted to Islamists and Islam but extends to most religions. It is not even a merely religious concern; secularists, whether revo- lutionary or conservative, have also expressed apprehension of and animosity toward fun. Rather than simply a doctrinal question, “anti- fun- damentalism” cantly with the preservation of is a historical matter, one that has to do signifi power. In other words, at stake is not necessarily the disruption of the moral en claimed, but rather the undermining of the hegemony, the order, as is oft regime of power on which certain strands of moral and po liti cal authority rest. By “moral- political authority,” I refer not only to state or governmental power, but also to the authority of individuals (for instance, shaykhs or cult leaders) and sociopo liti cal movements— those whose legitimacy lies in de- ploying a par tic u lar doctrinal paradigm. The adversaries’ fear of fun revolves ultimately around the fear of exit from the paradigm that frames their mas- tery; it is about anxiety over loss of their “paradigm power.” ISLAMISM AND THE STRUGGLE OVER FUN The history of Islamism has been one of a battle against fun, playfulness, and diversion, with the hostility coming from both the Islamist movements and the Islamic states. In the late 1980s, Islamist students who dominated univer- sity campuses in the south and north of Egypt disrupted concerts and plays, and harassed male and female students who were associating freely with one another or who were simply pursuing pleasures of everyday life. The Islamist student unions banned fi lms, dancing, and pop u lar and classical music, be- 1 cause they were deemed “alien to Islamic culture.” Later, the radical Islamist group al- Gama ̓a al- Islamiyya imposed strict codes of conduct, both on the young and on women in a Cairo neighborhood under its control; it forbade beauty salons and video shops and put an end to joyous music at weddings. Even the moderate Muslim Brothers held “exemplary Islamic weddings” that eliminated joyful music or allowed only the per for mance of inshad , featuring chanting and percussion. Many Islamists in Egypt wished to undo the country’s happy culture of Islam, in par tic u lar its highly festive Ramadan observance, 2 denouncing the festivals of saints’ birthdays for their cheerful semblance. —-1 Morality among the young became a matter of serious concern not only for —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 3 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 139 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

154 140 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS Islamists, but also for the conservative media. The state- owned weekly Al- lamented that coff ee shops and youth hangouts had become Ahram al- Arabi “dens of drugs, booze, sexual movies and urfi [u noffi cial] marriage” and were frequented by “girls who smoke hookahs and wear clothes that are uncalled- 3 for.” The paper called for surveillance to protect “our youth.” The mea sures when advanced by opposition Islamists and conservative media were quite soft compared with the puritan policies of self- declared Islamist states such as Saudi Arabia, Af ghan i stan, and Iran. Saudi Arabia’s state control of leisure and diversion in the name of moral- ity and piety has a longer history. The kingdom has banned dating, cinemas, concert halls, discos, clubs, and theaters. Even the innocent joy of fl ying kites is not tolerated. Yet nowhere was the dark side of puritanism probably more evident than in Taliban Af ghan i stan. During its draconian rule (1996– 2001), the Taliban erased all signs of diversion, fun, secular aesthetics, the pursuit of individuality, and creativity. Music, tele vi sion, painting, and sculpture, not to mention dancing, acting, public jubilance, the expression of beauty, and atten- tion to the self, were harshly suppressed. Women were forced to wear the and men to grow long beards. Thus, when in November 2001 the Af- burkha, ghan capital, Kabul, fell to Northern Alliance forces, many Afghans began their human expression of joy in public. They played music in shops and turned on tele vi sion sets, while some women shed their burkha s and men shaved their beards. But it was in Iran where the expression of fun turned into a site of the most dramatic social polarization, pitting masses of dissenting women and the young against the Islamic state. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, conservative Islamists battled against those who desired to demonstrate public joy. Fun, playfulness, lightness, and laughter were seen as instances of immorality, lax- ity, and waste, while entertainment in general was cast as a “counter- value” ( zedd- e arzesh ). “The most dangerous thing that threatens humanity,” declared Mohammad Taqui Mesbah Yazdi, an Ira ni an conservative cleric, “is for men to forget devotion to God, to establish cultural centers instead of mosques and lm and art rather than prayer and supplica- churches, and to be driven by fi 4 tion.” Unsolicited mixing of the sexes was perceived as one of the greatest diversions and was therefore “extremely dangerous.” It “represents the hell- hole of individuals,” an immoral practice that threatened the spiritual and 5 physical health of society. Gender segregation, therefore, was to act as yet -1— another instrument of social control and discipline. A reader of the Islamist 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 140 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

155 THE POLITICS OF FUN 141 echoed the profound anguish of the conserva- eh- name- ye Sobh weekly Haft tive establishment over the “dishonorable ways in which teenage girls walk in the streets. How will they respond to the blood of our martyrs? I am ashamed , of musical bands in Tehran who go as far as seeing girls wearing short jackets 6 dancing . . . !” Although the purists had confi rmed that there was no fun in Islam, this did not mean that Islamists rejected any concept of plea sure. In contrast to the general hostility of ethical religions toward sexuality, whose temptations were thought to divert man from his mystical quest and whose “essential ir- 7 rationality” threatened self- control and discipline, Ira ni an Islamists recog- ll them, they proposed the “marriage of nized (men’s) carnal desires. To fulfi mot ̓a ), which in the Shi ̔i Islam tradition is contracted for a speci- plea sure” ( 8 ed period of time, ranging from a few hours to years. fi They went as far as planning to establish “institutions” where men and women could meet, in- voking a saying of Imam Sadeq, who had “wished to see every man among 9 you practice a mot ̔a at least once in his life.” This plan, however, was a con- trolled, and indeed a rationalized, pursuit of worldly plea sure and was di- rected essentially toward male passion. Indeed, a 2002 initiative in the Islamic republic to channel some three hundred thousand prostitutes into “chastity houses,” where men in pursuit of sex could temporarily “marry” prostitutes, follows similar logic of both control and legitimation of morality. Islamists were concerned, not about sex, but about the control of sexuality. Yet for Islamists true joy lay in spiritual, mystical, and inner pursuits, in a sort of pious pleasure— of family, bravery, and sacrifi ce. They revered a meta- phorical “drunkenness,” but one that was induced “by divine love,” and cher- ished “amusement,” but only “around prayer.” They trea sured the “joy of pious deeds,” “devotion to the path of velayat [clerical rule],” and good 10 “health” to carry on with the true path. In essence these marked the behav- ioral disposition of the Islamist “ideal man”: heavy, austere, warriorlike, con- ess, and highly emotional— in short, an extraordinary trolled, resolute, selfl personality who stood against the expression of lightness, carefreeness, and 11 spontaneity— in a word, ordinariness. To the extent that such a character plays down or represses humanistic impulses and desires, the nobility of life loses signifi cance and the propensity to celebrate “noble death” or sacrifi ce increases. Thus, the annihilation of self and the “other” in the name of a “higher cause” assumes grand value. Iran’s puritan zealots, or “mourners of —-1 joy” as some described them, deplored with great sorrow the secular delight —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 141 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

156 142 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS associated with Nowruz, Persian New Year, reminiscing with astonishing 12 melancholy about their “unforgettable happy days” on the war fronts. This ce and death, directed toward both self and other, was admiration of sacrifi echoed in myriad slogans that exclusively emphasized “Death to . . . ,” instead 13 of “Long live . . .” The two Islamic months of Muharram and Ramadan, highly charged occasions of martyrdom aft er the revolution, became even cance more dreary and sorrowful. Ayatollah Khomeini recognized the signifi of these rituals by proclaiming, “It is these grievings that have kept Islam alive.” The Islamic Republic’s calendar became a testimony to the offi cial sanction of grief over joy. While the authorities commemorated fully the deaths, or “death days,” of religious and po liti cal fi gures, their birthdays were cial birth- widely ignored (the AH 1380/2001 calendar indicated only three offi days as opposed to ten offi cial death days). Ira ni an zealots were astounded to see joyful practices of pop u lar Islam in other Muslim societies, describing them as jahili (pagan, pre- Islamic) and as a manifestation of “American Is- 14 lam.” “In many Arab countries, Ramadan eve nings have turned into eve- nings of fun, joy, parties and jokes,” lamented a commentator in Iran’s weekly 15 Even the slightest expressions of societal vigor and color disturbed . Jebhe puritan sensibilities. “Just take a look at the town,” bemoaned the weekly , “Western rationalism has dominated our existence. Painlessness Shalamche and plea sure seeking have assumed rational justifi cation. From athletic fi elds 16 to classrooms, it is the god of plea sure that is worshipped.” Shalamche lashed out at the reformist minister of culture for the production of anthems ( so- 17 roud ), which it claimed were “even more joyful than disco songs.” There was even little tolerance for expressions such as clapping, whistling, and joyful cheers. The public castigation of teenage boys for hanging around girls’ schools in the “backstreets of forbidden love” became a stark reminder of a land in which the mighty moral state made it its business to interrogate love, to suppress desire, and to place the most innocent expression of youthfulness under the po liti cal microscope. “It is horrible to be in love in this country,” youngsters oft en lamented. The moral masters made a dangerous venture, a sin, of the otherwise mundane exchange of a modest smile for which the ter- rifi ed teen had made a daylong preparation. “Finding a love letter in a girl’s pocket is like walking in the streets without a hijab,” warned a school superin- 18 tendent. Morals police were dispatched to “cleanse” the public space and bring moral order into the private sphere to the extent of invading private -1— parties. Sorrow, sadness, a somber mood, and dark, austere colors defi ned the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 142 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

157 THE POLITICS OF FUN 143 Islamist public space, media, and religious rituals. In such a state of virtue, the shape and color of clothing, the movement of the body, the sound of one’s voice, the level of laughter, and the intensity of looks all became matters of 19 intense control and discipline. Throughout the 1980s, the country’s preoccupation with war (with Iraq), together with repression and revolutionary fervor, made the overpowering surveillance seem invincible. Yet before long, signs of underground and open defi ance, primarily among the young, placed the quest for fun at the center of the nation’s po liti cal contestation. With the war over and postwar reconstruc- tion under way during the 1990s, the young began publicly to express their selfh ood, both individually and collectively. They pursued music, frequented video clubs, and set up underground pop and rock bands. Against the warn- ings of the authorities, many followed the global tastes, fashion, and dating games, expressing them in shopping malls, public parks, underground private 20 parties, and pursuits that did not exclude premarital sex. The practice of such cultural politics subverted the authorities’ portrayal of Muslim youth as a self- less mass devoid of individuality in the ser vice of stern moral codes; it chal- lenged the ideological edifi ce of the religious state. Yet the young refused to abandon religion as such. Instead, they reinvented their Islam to accommodate their youthful claims. Thus, in an ingenious strategy, what I have called “sub- versive accommodation,” the young utilized the existing legitimate norms and institutions to lodge their youthful desires, but in doing so they subverted and redefi ned the meanings attached to such norms and institutions. In this fashion, the highly charged rituals of mourning could turn into occasions of 21 glamour, sociability, and fun. These stories are not meant to valorize excess, irresponsibility, or socially harmful conducts in the name of fun. The fact is that fun, just like any exer- cise of freedom, has the potential to become a social problem if individual and social responsibilities are not recognized. Excessive individualism, nihilism, drug use, unfettered sexuality, AIDS, and violence would impair not only so- ciety at large, but also and primarily the fun- loving actors themselves. Saudi youngsters’ resort to skidding ( tahfi t ; holding on to a moving car), a dangerous pastime against widespread boredom, has taken a large toll on its practitio- 22 ners. And fomenting ethnoreligious violence in the name of fun by the young recruits of the Muhajir Quami Movement is causing no less than major dam- 23 age to Pakistani society. y on harmless fun, My attention, rather, centers chiefl —-1 that which remains more or less within social expectations and generalized —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 143 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

158 144 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS standards. Excess in controlling fun may also entail excess in practicing it. Reformists in Iran were concerned precisely about such extreme response and disruptions if the conservative puritans continued with their anti- fun policies. Indeed, the battle over fun deepened the confl ict between the reformist and conservative wings of the government. Reformists attributed ensuing unrest to the suppression of joy and the need for happiness; they unleashed a public debate over joy and fun by sponsoring studies, or ga niz ing seminars, and publishing articles supporting the idea that “joy was not a sin, but a deeply human emotion.” Some called for a “defi nition” and even “management” of joy in order to develop a culture of fun and festivity among the people who 24 had been denied that experience and were thus ignorant of the rules. Dozens of seminars debated the meaning of “leisure” and the modalities of “fun among 25 women,” who had been suff ering from depression in larger numbers. Psy- chologists and journalists called for a “love of life,” emphasizing that “living with joy is our right . . . [for] a depressed and austere society cannot have a 26 solid civil foundation.” Proclaiming that “laughter is not deviance,” some reformists lashed out at Islamists who had shunned fun and laughter, human 27 pursuits that invigorate society. In response, the infuriated Islamists clamored against what they consid- 28 ered a “cultural invasion,” “hooliganism,” and “anti- Islamic sentiments.” In August 2001 the conservative judiciary, by means of public fl oggings, be- gan a new crackdown on citizens committing or promoting immorality, de- pravity, and indecency in the public space. The police closed boutiques, cafés, 29 and restaurants that exhibited signs of depravity. Neckties were outlawed, girls wearing loose veils were photographed for police fi les, and men were stripped to the waist and fl ogged for drinking alcohol or being seen with non- 30 familial women. A year later Tehran residents watched new groups of uni- formed men patrol the streets in four- wheel- drive vehicles. Some sixty special units included several hundred men wearing green uniforms and toting ma- chine guns and hand grenades as they drove up and down the streets chasing young drivers listening to loud music, women wearing makeup or loose veils, 31 partygoers, and alcohol drinkers. The crackdowns did little to change the behavior and instead caused a public uproar in which the fundamentals of the Islamic penal code came under further attack, as scores of reform- minded 32 clerics questioned its application in this modern age. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 144 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

159 THE POLITICS OF FUN 145 FUN BEFORE FUNDAMENTALISM AND AFTER Has anti- fun- damentalism been an invariable feature of Islamic history? If not, at what point did fun become a prominent po liti cal concern in Muslim societies? What kind of attitudes toward fun existed before the rise of Is- lamism? Certainly, anti- fun ethics are not just a recent occurrence. Muslim societies have been witness to both a desire for and a battle against fun. How- ever, the dynamics of its politics have been diff erent. Historically, anti- fun sentiments and rulings focused overwhelmingly on “wine, women, and song.” They were framed essentially in terms of “forbidding wrong,” an Islamic in- junction rooted in a number of Qur ̓anic verses that call on Muslims to “com- 33 mand right and forbid wrong.” However, the questions of what is wrong, 34 It is also not certain who forbids, and how to forbid remain contested. whether the Qur ̓anic phrases meant what the ulema (Muslim clerics) later 35 took them to mean. In principle, wrongs included morally reprehensible practices such as dishonest commercial activity and usury, but especially singing, wine drinking, immodesty, and prostitution. The enforcers of moral- ity were overwhelmingly puritanical and assertive ulema who led bands of 36 devotees acting as their foot soldiers. Surveillance, then, came largely from those individual zealots confronting wrongdoers, who in their daily lives re- mained overwhelmingly indiff erent to such puritanical ethics and who contin- ued pursuing their mundane pleasures. “In the fi rst four centuries of Islam,” reports Franz Rosenthal, “the representatives of ascetic piety were compara- tively few, and their voices were not heeded. On the contrary, there existed a 37 pronounced predilection for humor and gaiety which knew few restrictions.” Scholar Michael Cook cites evidence suggesting that in the medieval Muslim world drinking as a social practice was a “normality”— a tradition from which 38 even women were not excluded. Humor, poetry, and music seem to have been even more widespread. The legends of Ash ̓ab, the singer, dancer, and comedian of Medina and Mecca in the ninth century, and the more recent fi gure of the famous Nasreddin Hoca represent historical prototypes of hu- mor in Muslim societies. Indeed, the genre of adab literature in the Middle ) relating to politics, religion, East is replete with jokes and anecdotes ( muzah 39 and everyday life. In Sufi Islam the ecstasy of divine experience was and still is tightly intertwined with poetry, dance, and music. Joyful religious practice to a large extent remains a character of folk Islam. To the dismay of religious —-1 purists, every year millions of Muslim men, women, and children join the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 145 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

160 146 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS festivals to celebrate the birth of revered saints with food, fun, and a mulid 40 fair, oft en for several days and nights. On such occasions, a fusion of piety, aghani diniyya ) in the prayer, and rapture is embedded in religious songs ( spirit similar to that of the joyous culture of the Afro- American group of the Episcopal Church in the United States. In these religious songs, the line sepa- 41 rating secular and sacred is not easy to draw. While in premodern times confl ict over everyday pleasures derived from and was restricted to sporadic intrusions by individual religious purists into people’s public behavior (exceptions include the twelft h- century al- Mohad dynasty in Morocco and the eleventh- century Fatimid caliph Hakim in Egypt), with the advent of modern states, social movements, and the Western- ization of Muslim societies, especially the development of new modes, means, and spaces of sociability, such as radios, tele vi sions, cafés, concert halls, bars, 42 restaurants, and holiday resorts, the dynamics of anti- fun politics shift ed. First, instead of merely individual ulema, powerful raised the movements banner of the battle against mundane pleasures. Second, the target of anti- fun- damentalism was no longer just fun- loving individuals, but also those secular states that allowed and accommodated ordinary joys of everyday life— music, cinema, entertainment, dating, or any sort of pastime that could be seen as morally reprehensible. Thus, Abul- Ala Mawdudi of India’s Jama ̔at- i Islami and Sayed Qutb of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood spearheaded later militant movements that branded modern Muslim states and societies, such as that of Egypt of the 1950s, as corrupt and jahili . These states, according to the militants, needed to be transformed (through revolution) into Islamic moral entities so as to guide their “corrupt societies” onto the right path. In other words, it was incumbent on the states (and not simply individuals or movements) to take on the duty of righting moral wrongs. With the establish- ment of full- fl edged monolithic Islamic states, as in Saudi Arabia, Af ghan i- stan, and Iran, curbing fun became a prominent po liti cal concern in society. Ironically, modernity displaced the individual zealots and gave rise to over- powering states that confronted people’s private desires, interests, and expres- sions. In Saudi Arabia the concerted anti- fun campaign began with the emergence of the purist Wahhabi movement (led by Muhammad ibn Abd al- Wahhab [d. 1792]) in Nejd in the eigh teenth century. The movement gave rise rst Saudi reign to three episodes of the Saudi state in Arabia. During the fi (1745– 1818), rulers in the Hijaz banned tobacco, scrapped musical instruments, -1— 43 and obliged people to attend mosques and to pray more regularly. Through 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 4 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 146 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

161 THE POLITICS OF FUN 147 the years, they expanded the scope, types, and geo graph i cal coverage of anti- fun rulings and by the late 1920s established the Committee for Commanding the Right and Forbidding the Wrong. Although during the reign of Ibn Saud (1902– 52) puritan ethics were undermined and people were allowed to have their fun, in the late 1950s as the tide of Nasserist republicanism swept through the Arab world, Saudi rulers revived a new and far more severe strategy of 44 moral discipline. Likewise, Af ghan i stan’s strict anti- fun policies came to fruition with the Taliban puritan regime (1996– 2001), which established a 45 ministry to determine and enforce a pervasive moral surveillance. Unlike the Saudi and Taliban rulers, the Islamic regime in Iran faced a formidable challenge in launching its moral crusade, for it confronted a popu- lace that had a longer and more widespread experience with secular diver- sions than had the populations of Saudi Arabia and Af ghan i stan. In Iran the secular trend had reached its peak in the same de cade, the 1970s, as the Is- lamic revolution. In the years just prior to the 1979 Islamic revolution, there was a tremendous boost in the dissemination and consumption of both do- mestic and imported cultural goods. Western cinema and tele vi sion pro- grams, pop u lar music, youth centers, bars, casinos, and Caspian Sea holidays cant components of Iran’s urban culture. The number of had become signifi movie viewers had increased by 50 percent between 1969 and 1975, nearly twice the rate of population growth in the same period. Every year during the 1970s, Ira ni an cinemas showed over fi ve hundred foreign fi lms, one- quarter of which were American. By 1975 half the urban population owned a tele vi sion set, compared with less than 4 percent in 1960, and 65 percent of total house holds 46 owned radios. During the 1970s hundreds of thousands of middle- class Ira- ni ans regularly vacationed at Caspian Sea resorts to take plea sure in the glo- balized experience of sea, sun, sand, and sex. Ira ni an Muslims did not aban- don commemorating the somber occasions of Muharram and Ramadan, yet both the rich and the poor, Muslim and non- Muslim, found great joy in cele- brating the pre- Islamic Nowruz for thirteen days, by wearing new clothes, visiting relatives and friends, taking trips, partying, and picnicking— a highly secular tradition the Islamic regime has been struggling to undermine. By the late 1970s the media had molded a highly festive pop u lar culture, embodied in the songs and per for mances of dozens of vastly pop u lar singers, actors, and comedians such as Gugoush, Haydeh, Aghasi, Sousan, Arham Sadr, Vahdat, Parviz Sayyad, Fardin, and the sultry Foruzan. Comedy, humor, and jokes, —-1 even though at times cynical, had become an integral part of both artistic life —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 4 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 147 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

162 148 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS and pop u lar idiom at large. This growing culture of fun and festivity, espe- cially the western imports, dismayed and disappointed many puritan clerics. They condemned cinema, radio, and tele vi sion, since in Ayatollah Khomei- 47 ni’s view they were used to “corrupt our youth.” They deplored the urban “bright light” culture and holiday resorts and bemoaned the sins of summer Inhaft eh , the Ira ni an equivalent of vacations at the Caspian Sea. The offi ce of magazine, was bombed. These mea sures, however, did little to im- Playboy pede the expression of everyday diversion and enjoyment. It was only by the ascendancy of the Islamic state that fun became the site of a major po liti cal struggle in society. ISLAM AND FUN Why did Islamists insist on preserving puritan values despite the po liti cal cost? What lay behind their fear of fun? The prevailing western view is that animosity toward fun and joy had roots in the rigid ethics of Islam. According to this vision, Islam embodies a “world in which human life doesn’t have the same value as it does in the West, in which freedom, democracy, openness 48 and creativity are alien.” Indeed the Islamic doctrine appears to contain rulings that disdain fun and festivity. For instance, a number of hadith, pro- phetic sayings and practices, seem to emphasize haya ̓ (modesty in character), 49 scorning crass and trivial manners. The exegeses indicate how the Prophet 50 ed language to make people laugh. Re- disliked those who used undignifi portedly, ̔A ̓ishah, his wife, “never saw [the Prophet] laughing to an extent 51 that one could see his palate; he always used to smile only.” In the spirit of minimizing distractions from devotion to God, the Prophet deplored indul- gence in activities such as poetry when they diverted people from God’s re- 52 membrance, religious knowledge, and the recitation of the Qur ̓an. Thus some Muslim jurists prohibited the performing arts, drawing, and sculpture, for fear that they would lead to idolatry ( shirk ), since only God was the creator, even though the performing arts were present during eid s and other festive occasions. Some jurists disallowed any play, amusement, or diversion, as vain and wasteful in conditions of prolonged war and strife that demanded a total 53 focus on jihad. Indeed, the literature on bid ̔a (innovation in religion), nota- bly those attributed to Ibn Taymiya, carried decrees against (among others) 54 joy, laughter, and hedonistic ethics. Shi ̔i sources include similar pronounce- ments that interpret excessive amusement, laughter, and fun as “satanic” acts, -1— 55 which cause scandals ( aberurizi ) and diversion from the faith. They revere 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 1 4 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 148 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

163 THE POLITICS OF FUN 149 modesty, shyness, and asceticism ( zohd ) and disdain the love of material 56 wealth. But there is more to this. Doctrine, indeed the very same sources, simulta- neously endorses ethics of joy and jollity. In contrast to the severe conduct of today’s Islamists, the Prophet is also championed as a messenger of tolerance and tenderness. He despises those like ‘Umar whose “harsh” and “stern” char- acter frightened fellow Muslims. “By Him in Whose Hands my life is,” the Prophet addressed a forbidding ‘Umar, “whenever Satan sees you taking a 57 way, he follows a way other than yours.” These words come from a man who smiled at those who were rude to him. Numerous sources mention his gentle and merciful nature and his pleasant and mild manner in his daily interac- 58 Some rulings in Shi ̔i sources clearly reject violence and coercion, tions. 59 calling instead for soft ness, jollity, fun, and amusement. Imam Sajjad is cited as saying that for the Prophet, “the noblest deed before God is to bring 60 khoshrou According to Imam Sadeq, cheerful ( joy to other people.” ) persons 61 are so revered that God reserves the heaven for them. By comparison, re- ports on the Prophet’s sayings on dancing and singing remain vague, but in 62 them the Prophet does not appear to forbid these acts. Moreover, and con- trary to self- righteous puritans who in the name of morality easily charge fellow Muslims with sin and kufr (nonbelief in God), Prophet Mohammad is emphatic that “all the sins of my fellows will be forgiven, except those of the 63 Mujahirin [who decidedly repeat their evil doings].” So, you should not be 64 extremists.” “Do not take upon yourselves except deeds which are within 65 your ability.” Indeed, charging a believer with kufr is equal to murdering him 66 or her. It appears that Islam, similar to other religions, does not off er a defi nite theory of fun. As scholar Khaled Masoud suggests, the confl icting narratives in the doctrine, including the hadith, refl ect uncertainty and plurality of views over such issues in early Islam, thus leaving behind a tradition that remains open to 67 contesting readings. Islam’s position on the issue of fun, consequently, de- pends largely on who interprets it. Thus, in contrast to the conservative puri- tans, Iran’s reformists of the 1990s proclaimed that Islam had never forced asked them to recognize their limits in asceticism on Muslims. Instead, it had order to promote and harmonize human instincts and life’s pleasures with reason and responsibility. The reformists reminded the puritan Islamists not to force people to do “more than what God has asked” because “they will de- —-1 68 liver less.” In the view of the young cleric Hojjat al- Islam Gholami, “Islam —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 4 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 149 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

164 150 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS has, in fact, called for practices that induce happiness, like traveling, festivi- 69 ties, marriage, diversion, games and fun.” If “Imam Ali was both playful ( shoukh tab ̔ khande- rou ),” the sheikh objected, then why ) and very jolly ( 70 should the “clerics appear so heavy and sour- faced”? Many ordinary Mus- lims wondered why the Islamic authorities harassed men wearing short sleeves or women in colored outfi ts, when there was no religious or legal basis for 71 such prohibitions. Why did Islamists insist on the suppression of delight, joy, self- expression, and love of life— human qualities that most people in the world take for granted? What ever their motives, Islamists in the end drew on certain teachings of their religion, on exegeses and opinions of some early Muslim jurists. But is this tendency peculiar to Islam and Islamists? ANTI- FUN- DAMENTALISM BEYOND ISLAM, BEYOND RELIGION In truth, traces of rigid piety and ascetic tendencies can be seen in most reli- gions. Most religions, and not just Islam, have raised, in their par tic u lar read- ed death. Socrates, ings, the banner of martyrdom or admiration for dignifi the “secular saint,” is said to represent the genesis of martyrdom in the West, while Christianity, with its story of crucifi xion, developed a distinct theology 72 of martyrdom. In addition, most religions, in their distinct interpretations, have expressed hostility toward sexuality, holding that it binds humans to the animal world and diverts them from their mystical quest by threatening self- 73 control and discipline. Arts and music have not been spared from pietistic wrath. Protestant puritans replaced the Church as the medium of salvation, resorting to pietistic practices such as hard work and “avoiding cards, danc- ing, theatre- going, and essentially every action which could be seen as a con- 74 cession to ‘the world’ ” in order to assure their eternal redemption. Drawing on Protestant ethics, Max Weber suggests that while “orgiastic” or “ritualistic” religions were inclined toward song, music, pictorial arts, and poetry, “ratio- nal religions” (such as Judaism, ancient Christianity, and Protestantism) showed animosity toward the arts. According to this logic, art, sexuality, and by ex- uence of reason on human tension fun had the potential to disrupt the infl 75 conduct or divert humans from full attention to the transcendental. There is surely some truth about diversion from the transcendental as a major cause of religious aversion to fun, levity, art, or sexuality, even though in reality not all followers of a faith have similar puritan values, as seen so -1— far— some oppose them, others ignore them, and still others, in par tic u lar those 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 150 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

165 THE POLITICS OF FUN 151 in authority, oft en uphold and enforce them. However, anti- fun sensibilities are not restricted to religious doctrines. The most irreligious movements— French Jacobins and Rus sian Bolsheviks— have expressed similar sentiments. In pre- revolution Eu rope authorities had campaigned in the name of morality to suppress all forms of lower- class public entertainment. Football, public drunkenness, wearing masks, and dancing were prohibited, and the tradi- 76 tional carnivals came under strict surveillance. With the French Revolu- tion “bourgeoisie asceticism” seemed to reach its high point. During 1793– 94, France witnessed the Jacobins attempting to cleanse Paris by shutting down brothels and gambling houses and eliminating drunkenness. In what Crane Brinton described as the “republic of virtue,” even dancing and festivals were 77 outlawed. Citizen Jacobins’ imposing such moral restrictions on people in public diff ered little from that of the morals police in the Islamic Republic of Iran in the 1980s. Within days aft er Robespierre went under the guillotine, ordinary Pa ri sians took over the public space with their simple but subversive pleasures. They engaged in jubilation, horse racing, bear baiting, and Christ- mas festivities, fi lling dance salons while oft en dressed in revealing attire. Games, jokes, street dancing, and singing dominated public squares at times 78 in a rowdy and tactless manner. This subaltern culture of fun and festivity, or what E. P. Thompson called “arts of living,” disturbed bourgeois sensibili- ties and capitalist work ethics— ethics that revered discipline, self- control, 79 hard work, and “rationality.” Not just the French bourgeois Jacobins but also Rus sian communists ex- pressed revulsion against “wine, women, and song.” The Bolsheviks’ ban on jazz as a “de cadent bourgeois art” might perhaps be justifi ed, but their prohi- bition of vodka in the land of Rus sia is like today’s Islamists’ eliminating mu- sic from Egyptian weddings. Bolsheviks were just as “ascetic” in their expres- sion of contempt for ordinary comfort as were the Calvinists, both of whom 80 considered that it was the everyday sins that needed to be eliminated. In Brinton’s view, such “religious” puritanism of both Jacobins and Bolsheviks originated from the revolutionary “reign of virtue” that emerges during times 81 of crisis. But his explanation does not make clear why puritanism has to be religious in essence. Nor does he justify why it should be exclusively the con- sequence of revolutions— aft er all, the Eastern Eu ro pe an revolutions of the 1990s did not suppress mundane pleasures. Indeed, similar puritanism char- acterized the behavior of some Ira ni an Marxist guerrilla leaders, who in their —-1 underground lives before the Islamic revolution would have associated fun —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 5 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 151 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

166 152 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS with nonrevolutionary and bourgeois mind- sets. They imposed celibacy, for- bidding romance and playfulness among members, and placed restraints on ordinary consumption such as eating and sleeping, on reading materials, and 82 on what came from joyful individual desires and expressions. Thus far, two broad approaches to explain the battle against fun stand out. The fi rst, religious reasoning, focuses on diversion from God or faith as the principal cause for the suppression of fun. The second revolves around modernist sensibilities, including bourgeois rationality (“time is money”), ac- cording to which modernity discards collective fun because of the latter’s counterdiscipline— immoral, irrational, and disorderly dispositions. Accord- ing to this view, those in pursuit of fun challenge the idea of the modern indi- vidual as an or ga nized, disciplined, proper, and in- control being. These two approaches each off er valuable insights to understanding antagonism toward festive behavior. However, they also involve serious analytical limitations. Why are fun and amusement and not, say, preoccupation with making a liv- ing or seeking knowledge largely considered sources of diversion from God? More important, as discussed earlier, anti- fun sentiments are not confi ned to religion per se; nonreligious and antireligious individuals likewise espouse similar attitudes. Brinton’s claim that atheist Bolsheviks and secular Jacobins behaved in essentially religious ways neither rescues the religious reasoning as such nor sheds light on the source of the revolutionaries’ austere behavior. What it does is to reify religion by making puritanism its intrinsic and ex- clusive attribute. Moreover, the explanation around modernist sensibilities not only fails to account for religion- inspired fear of diversion (from God), but also fails to explain the position of premodern (e.g., early or medieval Islamic and Christian) moral authorities who fought against joy and the pleasures of life. The claim that such premodern puritans just like the current austere Is- lamists in fact exhibited a modernist mind- set conjures up the same kind of circular argument that Brinton makes with respect to atheists behaving reli- giously. In addition, the fact is that fun as such, in the sense of diversion, joy, and amusement, poses little threat to the modern authority— one that is char- acterized by an ideological open market and inclusive social order and is able to accommodate, incorporate, commoditize, and even promote public and private, hedonistic and consumerist, pleasures. The entertainment industry— concerts, music, games, fi lms, comedy, variety shows, and sports— constitutes a signifi cant sector in the modern capitalist economy. Consequently, it is not -1— merely the revolutionary nature of regimes as such or exclusively religious 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 152 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

167 THE POLITICS OF FUN 153 states or particularly the modernist authority, but rather the doctrinal politics or right, old or new, espoused by individuals or groups) and the ideologi- (left cally monolithic regimes (e.g., Jacobin, Bolshevik, or Islamic) that feel the haz- ard of fun ethics. But why? WHY ANIMOSITY TOWARD FUN? What then explains, beyond the rhetoric, the underlying reason for similar anti- fun passions that a strain of individuals, movements, and regimes from diverse worldviews— premodern and modern, religious and secular, bour- geois and communist— express? Is there a broad explanatory framework to erent perspectives that try to show the cause of anti- fun- integrate the diff damentalism? Commenting on the Eu ro pe an carnival festivities of the late Middle Ages, Mikhail Bakhtin characterizes collective fun in terms of a ritu- 83 alized rebellion against authority in all forms. In their wild delirium, or “dancing mania,” the poor created a utopian moment of freedom, community, and equality, which defi ed all normal hierarchies— men wore women’s cos- tumes and ordinary people acted as clerics, kings, or priests. For Bakhtin, the plebian laughter represented an “element of victory not only over supernatural awe, over the sacred, over death,” but it al so meant “the defeat of power . . . of 84 all that suppresses and restricts.” Laughter, as depicted in Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose , protects the lowly from the feelings of fear that novel the nobility, by behaving exceedingly stern and austere, try to impose on the 85 poor. In Bakhtin, the carnival embodied a folk consciousness, one that acted as a medium of class struggle against the power elites. And it was this subver- sive element in subaltern culture that caused upper- class anxiety over festive rituals. While Bakhtin off ers a plausible argument with respect to the politics of lower- class pleasures in late medieval Eu rope, there is more to fun than can be reduced to a par tic u lar class, or to class politics. Victor Turner’s notion of communitas seems to carry more explanatory power, for it extends the politics of joy beyond class into the struggle against structures of hierarchy at large. In Tu r n e r, communitas is the status of ritual participants who break away from the everyday norms and structures to operate in an ad hoc state of liminality, or in- between- ness, where they form an egalitarian community of equal indi- viduals in which the authority of the ritual leader is temporarily recognized. Communitas embodies a state in human behavior where people act against or erentiated system of social outside the prevailing structures, that is, the diff —-1 86 positions. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 153 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

168 154 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS What Turner and Bakhtin seem to have in mind when they speak of “structure” is primarily the structure of hierarchy. And the festive rituals that they describe were not themselves free from possessing some structural fea- tures: they were more or less routinized collective practices performed by specifi c actors in fairly specifi c times, places, and formats, which diff ered from everyday, free- form, ad hoc, spontaneous, unpredictable, individualis- tic, or collective fun. In these latter forms, fun has the potential to defy not only hierarchy and diff erentiation but any kind of structure. Thus, it is partially this antistructure disposition of spontaneous, free- form, and public fun that seems to cause anxiety and antagonism among political- moral authorities. For it disturbs the sense and security of order, stability, and tranquility that charac- terize the conservative image of a sensible world. It would be a mistake, however, to reduce the threat of fun to merely its potentially antistructure disposition. Nor should an understanding of the subversive element in fun be limited to considering the rowdy, unruly, and undisciplined crowd action in pursuit of simple pleasures— those that feature 87 the carnival festivities of early modernity. The fact is that even the private, harmless, and commoditized expressions of plea sure are also strictly regu- lated and inhibited. What possible injury is done to the ideological state by the innocent act of fl ying kites, by the joyous movement of the body in a private wedding festivity, or by the exchange of harmless smiles between timid teen- agers in the tense moments of backstreet love? Why should a mighty state be apprehensive of colorful outfi ts, the showing of a few inches of hair, the in- tense plea sure of joking and play among intimate friends, or the expression of impulsive jubilance for the victory of one’s national soccer team? My argu- ment is that beyond its physicality, fun also presupposes a powerful paradigm, a set of presumptions about self, society, and life that might compete with and undermine the legitimizing ideology of doctrinal power when these ideolo- gies happen to be too narrow, rigid, and exclusive to accommodate ethics of fun. It is particularly this aspect of fun that causes fury among the Islamist moral- political authority. Anti- fun ethics, whether religious or secular, modern or premodern, bour- geois or communist— and espoused by individuals, movements, or states— are not merely doctrinal concerns; they are primarily historical- political mat- ters. More immediately, they represent and embody a par tic u lar technique of power, a discursive shield that both legitimizes and insulates moral or po liti- -1— cal authority by binding it to “what is not to be questioned,” to the sacrosanct, 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 154 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

169 THE POLITICS OF FUN 155 the untouchables— God, the Revolution, the Re sis tance, the Proletariat, the Nation. Fear of fun, consequently, is not necessarily about diversion from the higher powers or noble values as such, but about the fear of exit from the para- digm that frames and upholds the mastery of certain types of moral and po- liti cal authorities, be they individuals, po liti cal movements, or states. Any type of authority, including Weber’s famous ideal types, may be real- ized only within its own discursive paradigm— a body of consistent concepts, meanings, and understandings. Billy Graham may hold authority only among a segment of American Christians to whom his message makes sense. For the rest of Americans, or Egyptian Muslims for that matter, he holds little power. Graham’s authority not only derives from what and how he preaches but also is realized specifi cally within the paradigm or discursive frame that allows him to operate and communicate with his audience. This is the “paradigm power.” It refers to the discursive space that enables those in charge within a par tic u- lar paradigm to maintain their position by making them meaningful and acceptable to their subjects. Thus, any challenge from without or departure from within this discursive space amounts to a challenge to those in author- ity. Because when subjects exit from the shared paradigm, by way of adhering to a diff erent value system and way of life, they eff ectively leave the masters’ eld of infl fi uence and in eff ect render them powerless. Note how an Ira ni an hard- line weekly expresses this apprehension of exit: “When the chants of Allah- Akbar [God is Great] are replaced by whistling and clapping hands, prayers will come to an end, God will be overlooked, and the doors of lustful- ness will be wide open. In such conditions, you cannot hear the voice of God; you will commit anything in this state of unconsciousness. Even Imam Kho- 88 meini’s cries will fall on deaf ears.” This anxiety is basically about how the rival paradigm (fun) may come in between the moral authority and its follow- ers to divert the latter’s devotion to the former. A powerful conservative aya- tollah in Iran declares fi lms, arts, and cultural centers “as the most dangerous thing[s] that threaten humanity,” because he fears that they would push mosques, churches, prayers, supplication, and ultimately devotion to God to the side- 89 lines. His feeling of threat lies not simply in people forgetting God (aft er all, people themselves are assumed to be responsible before God), but in under- khoda- mehvar ) doctrinal paradigm that ensures mining the “divine- driven” ( erent, secular setting in July 2005, armed militants his moral mastery. In a diff from the al- Aqsa Martyrs Brigades disrupted a music concert in the Palestin- —-1 ian town of Nablus, because, they argued, the joy of love songs would divert —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 155 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

170 156 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS the public’s attention from devotion to the great sacrosanct, the “re sis tance.” “These people [the militants] don’t want us to be happy,” protested the em- 90 battled singer Amar Hasan; “they want us to sit in the ruins and cry.” The brigade militias’ apprehension of “happiness” follows the same logic of power— fear of a rival frame of mind that could ultimately undercut their authority. The subversiveness of fun in the conduct of the young, the artists, and the musicians and their audiences evokes the notion of the “counterculture”— 91 values and norms of behavior that challenge those of the social mainstream. Certainly, these practices of fun can be said to embody some kind of conten- tious collective sentiments that aff ect the cultural fi eld. Beyond this, however, the parallel does not hold, since the ethics and values of fun as espoused by the young, the artists, or the poor do not run counter to those of the social main- stream; rather, for the most part, they are the social mainstream— although suppressed— which runs counter to those of the po liti cal elite and moral mi- nority. Nor can such joyful behaviors easily be labeled and prohibited as west- ern “cultural imports,” even though many elements and mediums of fun de- ployed by globalizing youths— such as fi lms, fashion, music groups, and dating games— are inescapably informed by the western commodity and me- dia logic. The Islamists may be opportunistic in denouncing them as part of a western “cultural invasion,” but what is to be said when it comes to the inhibi- tion of the innocent and indigenous manifestation of public joy, dancing or singing at one’s wedding, wearing colorful dress, or joking, whistling, and clapping? The fact is that fun, whether foreign and commoditized or indige- nous and innocent, can be subversive. And the threat is not simply a percep- tion but a reality. Fun disturbs exclusivist doctrinal authority because, as a source of instantaneous fulfi llment, it represents a powerful rival archetype, one that stands against discipline, rigid structures, single discourse, and mo- nopoly of truth. It subsists on spontaneity and breaths in the air of fl exibil- ity, openness, and critique— the very ethics that clash with the rigid one- dimensional discourse of doctrinal authority. Jokes bring plea sure and laughter because, according to Freud, they break the taboos and speak the unspeak- able. Fun builds on the joy of immediate and instant pleasures rather than on er, the sacrosanct, and those of distant and abstract referents such as the hereaft the untouchable— the very referents on which the authority of the doctrinal 92 movements and regimes rests. In the “fundamentalist” paradigm the ideal individual is an “abstract per- -1— son,” a selfl ess subject estranged from his or her individuality, particularistic 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 156 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

171 THE POLITICS OF FUN 157 faculties, and features; this individual is massed together with others who ned and prescribed by the moral mas- share a devotion to “divine values” defi 93 ters. The experiences of fun and expressions of joy, lightness, and spontane- ity through the arts, amusements, play, and creativity signify “human” ( insan- ) resolve for individuality, diff erentiation, and selfh ood— the very ethics mehvar ood departs that the fundamentalist paradigm cannot accommodate. Selfh from and competes with what the Islamists perceive as divine values from which all high values are believed to emanate and by which Muslims are to 94 abide. Surely, there exists an anti- fun individualism of pietistic youths, such as those active in the conservative counterculture of evangelical churches in the United States, who disdain MTV, drugs, and premarital sex and embrace the conservative ethos of marriage, family, and discipline. But this represents rather a controlled, structured, and restrictive individualism, ood that informs much of one that is distinct from the light and carefree selfh subversive fun. To maintain their authority, masters have to either modify their paradigm by enlarging it to embrace fun ethics (in which case they cease to be exclusive) or resort to curbing diversion/desertion and combating the alternative ways of thinking, being, and doing things. The extent of discipline varies depend- ing on the forms of fun practiced (traditional or commoditized, erotically charged or not charged, private or public), the target populations (young or old, men or women, rich or poor), and the type of adversaries (individual puri- tan zealots or the doctrinal states). Certain forms of fun (e.g., those expressed through sexuality, drugs, or alcohol) more than others (e.g., laughter, music, or games) are subject to prohibition and regulation. And certain target groups (e.g., young women) more than others are subject to severer surveillance. In conditions where the moral authority is merged with a state whose legitimiz- ing ideology is too exclusive to accommodate contending discourses, the bat- tle against diversion takes the form of systematic discipline and coercion. It is no accident that the control of individual deeds and desires in Saudi Arabia, Taliban Af ghan i stan, and the Islamic Republic of Iran (all doctrinal regimes) has been far more extensive than in Egypt and Algeria and more generally in the premodern conditions where, instead of the state, largely individual pur- ists and groups initiated moral discipline. The dissenting aspect of fun should not be overstated, however. Fun can be ed, commoditized, institutionalized, and incorporated. The subversive pacifi —-1 eff ect of fun, at any rate, depends ultimately on the capacity of adversaries, the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 5 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 157 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

172 158 SOCIAL NONMOVEMENTS ideological frame of the moral and po liti cal authority, to absorb and contain its adverse fallouts. Whereas inclusive politics, as in liberal democracies, have succeeded in normalizing and institutionalizing most fun practices, the mono- lithic doctrinal movements and regimes— for example, the Bolsheviks during Rus sia’s revolutionary crisis and current Islamist regimes— are apprehensive in allowing and incapable of adapting the ethics of fun and the joy of everyday pleasures. The Bolsheviks feared, as did the Jacobins, that the frame of mind associated with nonrevolutionary joy and lightness would compete with, and instigate exit from, the ideological paradigm that sheltered their mastery. Such politicization of the everyday lay at the heart of extending and maintain- 95 ing their revolutionary power. Islamists have had similar anxieties. The sup- pression of fun and diversion in Saudi Arabia, for instance, is oft en attributed to the Wahhabi doctrine of the Saudi ruling family, notably its principle of tawhid (unity of God). Since in this doctrine, nothing like saints, convocation ( do ̔a (extending charity to secure God’s favor) are to come between ), or nazri the worshipper and God, and no , or innovation, is to be allowed; plays, bid ̔a fi lms, and harmless joy distract Muslims from God and hence must be sup- 96 pressed. But in fact the revival and spread of this doctrinal order since the 1960s has, to a great extent, po liti cal roots. It served the Saudi ruling family as a discursive shield against the threat of secular nationalism and republican- 97 ism that the Nasserist revolution had unleashed in the Arab world. Reports of the Saudi rulers secretly indulging in what their doctrine prohibits suggest their imposition of this moral order as a means of social control. In short, the issue for Islamists is not simply people diverting from God but the fear of people exiting from them. -1— 0— +1— 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 5 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 158 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

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175 A STREET NAMED “REVOLUTION” 8 on february 11, 1979, Tehran radio announced the victory of the Ira ni an Rev- olution with feverish jubilation, thus heralding the end of a 2,500- year- old 1 monarchy. A tremendous mood of ecstasy overtook the populace, who poured into the streets en masse. Young people danced, and women milled through the crowd, handing out candies and sweet drinks, sharbat . Vehicles sounded their horns in unison, their lights beaming as they drove up and down the main streets, which only days before had witnessed bloody battles between the revolutionaries and the imperial army. Indeed, some of these very streets became the focal point of world photojournalism, the theme of some of the most arresting snapshots of the revolution in Iran, ones that convey the com- mon images of great po liti cal turning points around the globe— the sea of peo- ple rallying in public squares, the burning streets, comrades carry ing wounded revolutionaries, the sober yet ner vous expression of soldiers, and of course falling statues and the breaking of prison gates. They all represent the “street politics” of exceptional junctures, common features of many monumental insurrections that come to fruition in distinct spatial locations, in the “streets of discontent.” In Tehran, such space was Enghelab Square, especially Eng- helab Street; in Cairo, Tahrir Square; and in Istanbul, Taqsim Square. Why is that par tic u lar spaces act as venues for the expression of conten- tion and the extension of solidarity? What distinguishes them from other Adapted from Asef Bayat, “Streets of Revolution,” in Unsent Dispatches from the Ira- ni an Revolution, ed. Akbar Nazemi (Vancouver, BC: Pre sen ta tion House Gallery, —-1 2005). —0 —+1 161 5 4 4 - 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 6 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 161 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

176 162 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET places? Much of the groundbreaking contributions on space and politics as espoused by, for instance, Foucault, Lefebvre, and others, focus on how power (politics) confi gures space— how, for instance, the modern prison or the spa- tial division of streets and alleyways was deployed to discipline the bodies (the way we move or walk in public, and the like) of modern subjects; how func- tional specialization in homes (such as separating kitchen, bedrooms, and sitting rooms) was aimed at the moral repair of the working class; and how modern open boulevards (as transparent spaces) targeted restricting riots by 2 exposing insurgents to police surveillance. This chapter looks at the other side of the coin, at the spatiality of discontents , that is— how par tic u lar spatial forms shape, galvanize, and accommodate insurgent sentiments and solidari- ties. To illustrate, I focus on the revolutionary mobilization during the Ira- ni an Revolution of 1979 and its spatial dimensions, making references also to Cairo’s and Istanbul’s street politics and their sites during the late 1990s. THE REVOLUTION In Iran, the victory day was the culmination of more than eigh teen months of mass demonstrations, violent confrontations, massive industrial actions, a general strike, and many po liti cal maneuverings. Yet the genesis of the revolu- tion was far back; indeed, it was rooted in the structural changes that had been under way since the 1930s, when the country began undergoing a pro cess of modernization. It accelerated aft er the CIA- engineered coup in 1953 that toppled the nationalist prime minister, Muhammad Mossadegh, and rein- stated the Shah. These structural changes engendered many confl icts, chief among them the tension between socioeconomic development and po liti cal 3 autocracy. ciency, corruption, and a sense of injustice among many State ineffi sectors of Ira ni an society accelerated po liti cal confl ict in the country. The modernization policy and economic change, initiated by the state under both Reza Shah (1925– 46) and his son, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, gave rise to the growth of new social forces, to the dismay of the traditional social groups. By the late 1970s, a large and well- to- do modern middle class, modern youth, public women, an industrial working class, and a new poor consisting of slums and squatters, dominated the social scene. With the excep- ciaries of economic development, tion of the latter, these represented the benefi enjoying relatively high status and comparable economic rewards. However, the per sis tence of the Shah’s old- age autocracy prevented these thriving social -1— layers from participating in the po liti cal pro cess. This angered them. At the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 162 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

177 A STREET NAMED “REVOLUTION” 163 same time, the old social groups— a segment of the traditional s, the bazaari old urban middle strata, the clergy, and other adherents to Islamic institutions— were also frustrated by the modernization strategy, as it under- mined their economic interests and social status. With all the conventional institutional channels closed to the expression of discontent as a result of repression, the populace was increasingly alienated from the state. In the meantime, corruption, ineffi ciency, a sense of injustice, and a feeling of moral outrage characterized the social psychology of many Ira- ni ans. So, during the tense years of 1970s, at the height of the Shah’s authoritar- ian rule and remarkable economic development, many people (except perhaps the upper class and the landed peasantry) seemed dissatisfi ed, albeit for dif- ferent reasons. But all were united in blaming the Shah and his western allies for that state of aff airs. It is not surprising, then, that the language of dissent and protests was largely antimonarchy, anti- imperialist, Third World- ist, and nationalist, turning in the end to religious discourse. The opportunity for pop u lar mobilization arrived with what we, college students, used to call the “Carterite breeze” ( ). President Nasseem- e Carteri Carter’s human rights policy in the late 1970s forced the Shah to off er a po liti cal space for a limited degree of expression. This expression, in the pro cess, cumu- latively built up, and in the course of less than two years it swept aside the monarchy. It all began with a limited relaxation on censorship, allowing some literary/intellectual activities (in the Goethe Institute and in universities in Tehran) and public gatherings by po liti cal Islamists (in Quba Mosque). It con- tinued with the distribution, by the intellectuals and liberal politicians, of critical open letters to high- level offi cials. In this midst, an insulting article in a daily paper, Ettelaat , against Ayatollah Khomeini triggered a demonstration in the shrine city of Qum, in which some demonstrators were killed. To com- memorate these deaths, a large- scale demonstration took place in the Azeri city of Tabriz in the north. This marked the beginning of a chain of events that formed a nationwide, revolutionary protest movement in which diverse seg- ments of the population, modern and traditional, religious and secular, men and women, massively participated, and in which the ̔ ulama ̓ came to exert its leadership. But why did the clergy in par tic u lar lead the revolution? ve years of autocratic rule, since the 1953 coup, all the For over twenty- fi ective secular po liti cal parties and nongovernmental organizations had eff been removed or destroyed. The United States– led coup crushed both the na- —-1 tionalist and Communist movements; trade unions were infi ltrated by the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 163 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

178 164 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI secret police, SAVAK; publications went through strict censorship, and there 4 ective NGOs. remained hardly any eff The main or ga nized po liti cal dissent came from the underground guerrilla organizations, Marxist Fedaian and radical Islamic left Mujahidin- e Khalq, whose activities were limited to iso- 5 lated armed operations. Student activism also remained restricted either to campus politics inside the country or to those carried out by Ira ni an students ed, were or gan- abroad. In short, the secular groups, while extremely dissatisfi i za tion ally decapitated. Unlike the secular forces, however, the clergy had the comparative advan- tage of possessing invaluable institutional capacity, including its own hierarchi- cal order, with over ten thousand mosques, Husseinieh s (informal and ad hoc religious gatherings), Huwzeh s (theological seminaries), and associations that acted as vital means of communication among the revolutionary contenders. Young Islamists, both girls and boys, along with young clerics, linked the insti- ulama tution of the ̔ ed deci- ̓ to the people. A hierarchical order facilitated unifi sion making, and a systematic fl ow of both order and information ensured discipline; higher- level decisions in the mosques were disseminated to both the activists and the general public. In short, the clerics’ institutional capacity , in addition to the remarkable generality and ambiguity in their revolutionary message ensured their leadership. What maintained that leadership was, be- yond the lack of a credible alternative, the relatively rapid conclusion of revo- lutionary events— there was little time for debate and dissent, for a social movement to emerge, or for a possible alternative leadership to develop. Thus, the nascent Islamic movement of the 1970s rapidly transformed into a new state. “Islamization,” then, unfolded largely aft er the victory of the revolution, and was enforced primarily from above by the new Islamic state. It was mani- fested in the establishment of clerical rule, the Islamic legal system, new cul- tural practices and institutions, and the moral surveillance of the public space. STREETS OF DISCONTENT Clearly, revolutions are not merely the exceptional junctures of insurrections and regime change, of “moments of madness,” as they have been termed. Nor are revolutionaries just the visible street actors. Millions work backstage in these highly complex dramas: workers in factories, landless peasants on farms, en behind closed ces, and leaders, oft students in schools, employees in offi -1— doors. Yet it is ultimately in the streets, public spaces par excellence, that col- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 164 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

179 A STREET NAMED “REVOLUTION” 165 lective challenge against invincible power holders is galvanized, where the en decided. In other words, beyond the destiny of po liti cal movements is oft temporal component, revolutions in the sense of insurrections possess an in- escapable spatial dimension. Thus, in addition to thinking about why revolu- tions take place, who participates in them, and how events unfold, we should also be thinking about where they actually take place. More specifi cally, why do certain spaces/places, such as urban streets, more than others become the sites of acts and expressions of public discontent? The Ira ni an Revolution was primarily an urban movement. Massive dem- onstrations, protests, and clashes took place overwhelmingly in the large cit- 6 ies, particularly in Tehran. It is true that many rural inhabitants, farmers, and landless peasants were also mobilized, yet they would go to the cities to communicate their collective discontent. The idea of cities as centers of dis- content is perhaps as old as the cities themselves. As the seat of concentrated wealth, power, people, and needs, cities are also sites of amassed contradic- 7 tions and social confl icts. Thus, by the eve of the 1979 revolution, the Ira ni an capital, Tehran, was just such a contradictory site. With a population of some fi ve million, Tehran exhibited a remarkable and perhaps unique class (eco- nomic, social, and cultural) hierarchy. Located on a north- to- south- sloping landscape, the geo graph i cal pyramid of the city refl ected its social and eco- nomic hierarchy. To the far north, the highest district was the site of the most affl uent residents and the most opulent neighborhoods, crowned by the royal palace standing at the very summit of the city. The middle areas, from east to west, housed the relatively large middle classes, the state employees, profes- sionals, and small- business families. The poor (new rural migrants and the lower strata of working people) were pushed away to seek shelters in the lowest lands of the city, in slums and squatter settlements with few urban amenities 8 and ser vices. (See Map 1.) Indeed, the in e qual ity of the capital embodied the prevailing social, economic, and po liti cal order of the nation as a whole. Yet, beyond its profound socioeconomic disparity, the spatial dimension of Teh- ered an additional ele- ran, its strategic streets, squares and institutions, off ment for the expression of contentious politics. Among the many “revolutionary thoroughfares” such as Takht- e Jamshid Avenue, Khiaban Kargar, and Maidan Zhaleh, a long east– west street— one that was appropriately renamed “Revolution Street” (Khiaban- e Enghelab)— stood as the most contentious space in the nation. It was here that the interna- —-1 tional press recorded some of the most remarkable images of the revolutionary —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 165 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

180 N Sefid Khak-i Javadieh Tehran Pars Afsarieh Shahrak Quds . 4 e v A n a s s 14 a n r 8 Lavizan a r 13 o a d h s 15 a P K Niavaran Imam 1 Hussein Sq. Behind Park Niavaran . New York: Columbia University Press, 1997, p. 28. t 7 S 20 Khiaban 3 b a Soush Gowds 12 l e q 16 Bazaar n Dawlat Abad Abbasabad 6 E e v . A 11 r s A i l Shemiran a V Enqelab Sq. Yakhchiabad 19 10 2 17 Qal’eh Morghi Sq. Azadi Soleimanieh 9 d 18 a o Gisha 5 R Khazane h Vanak Parkway e v a S Yaftabad Kan Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran. Shahrak-e Gharb Mehrabad 5 km 2 1 Informal Communities 034 Tehran, 1980s. Source: Asef Bayat, Map 1. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 166 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

181 A STREET NAMED “REVOLUTION” 167 struggles. I can recall how, as young intellectuals and activists, my friends and I would rush to that par tic u lar street to collect news, demonstrate, attend ral- lies, obtain literature, participate in discussions, or meet with comrades. It was there that most clashes also occurred, both during and aft er the revolu- tion, so much so that it was imagined as the spatial core of the revolution. Why did this par tic u lar street attract so many contenders? What made it a distinct space of contention? By their very nature, streets represent the modern urban theater of con- tention par excellence. We need only to remember the role “the street” has played in such monumental po liti cal turning points as the French Revolution, nineteenth- century labor movements, anticolonial struggles, the anti– Vietnam War movement in the United States, the “velvet revolutions” in Eastern Eu- rope, and, perhaps, the current global antiwar movement. The street is the chief locus of politics for ordinary people, those who are structurally absent from the centers of institutional power. Simultaneously social and spatial, constant and current, a place of both the familiar and the stranger, and the visible and the vocal, streets represent a complex entity wherein sentiments and outlooks are formed, spread, and expressed in a remarkably unique fash- ion. The street is the physical place where collective dissent may be both ex- pressed and produced. The spatial element in street politics distinguishes it from strikes or sit- ins, because streets are not only where people protest, but also where they extend their protest beyond their immediate circle. For this reason, in the street one fi nds not only marginalized elements— the poor and the unemployed— but also actors with some institutional power, such as students, workers, women, state employees, and shop keep ers, whose march in streets is intended to extend their contention. For a street march brings to- gether the “invitees” and also the “strangers” who might espouse similar, real or imagined, grievances. It is this epidemic potential, and not simply the dis- ruption or uncertainty caused by riots, that threatens the authorities who exert a pervasive power over public spaces— with police patrols, traffi c regulation, and spatial division— as a result. The police tactic of encircling demonstrators in a corner, separating them from the normal fl ow of street life, as frequently happened in Cairo’s 2002 spring of discontent, was devised to subvert the extension of sentiments to the passers- by. potential of Beyond this generality, however, “streets of discontent” possess their dis- tinct sociology, a blend of several socio- spatial features. First, they are spaces —-1 where a mobile crowd can easily and rapidly assemble before it is forced to —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 167 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

182 168 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET disperse. Thus, the vicinities of an urban campus of a university (such as that in Tehran), or a large mosque (such as al- Azhar in Cairo), or promenades of bookstores and theaters that attract an intellectual crowd are all potential sites of contention. Thus, the proximity of Cairo’s Kasr El- Nil and Tal ̔at Harb streets, with their bookstores and intellectual cafés, including the historic Café Riche, where, the legend goes, the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 was planned, provides the same intellectual import to Cairo’s Tahrir Square as does Istiqlal Street to Istanbul’s Taqsim Square, and Revolution Street to Tehran’s Revolu- tion Square. Second, the streets of discontent would usually have a historical or cance, either in some inscribed memories of insurrection and symbolic signifi triumph, or, just like Cairo’s Tahrir Square in terms of the sites and symbols of state power— palaces, parliament, courts, ministries of justice or the interior, and the like. Third, as the locus of mass transportation networks— the bus, taxi, or metro terminals— which facilitate access to mobile participants, the streets of discontent are distinguished from the suburban slum neighborhoods, where the protests of the poor (over de mo li tion of shantytowns, water shortages, or electricity cuts) oft en remain localized and contained. Thus, in the late 1970s, the intended long march of angry squatters of South Tehran toward the Shah’s palace in the far north of the city was aborted by the long distance. In a simi- lar vein, massive protests of squatters against Tehran municipality’s de mo li- tion squad in the suburban community of Khak- e Safi d failed to spread fur- 9 ther, despite their intensity and violence. Even the mass protests by workers in Helwan, in the outskirts of Cairo in spring 2008, remained by and large circumscribed, compared with the city center’s po liti cal rallies of 2006 in- spired by the Kifaya movement and other prodemocracy groups. Centrality, proximity, and accessibility, both in space and in time, are crucial features of any street of discontent. Fourth, equally important is fl exibility. Streets of discontent need to be a maneuverable space, where protestors can easily fl ee from the police— a space that is open yet surrounded by narrow alleyways, shops, or homes that can er respite or sanctuary to revolutionary fugitives. No wonder Cairo’s Tahrir off Square, Tehran’s Enghelab, and Istanbul’s Taqsim Square are all encircled by a maze of side streets and alleyways, where po liti cal escapees can disappear in the event of a police chase. In Eu rope, modern large boulevards were designed partially to counter the po liti cal challenge of just such tangled or dense spaces -1— of contention. In the Middle East, insurrectionists are likely to leave the open 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 168 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

183 A STREET NAMED “REVOLUTION” 169 and exposed boulevards to the offi cial marches of regime loyalists, who have no reason to fear police and prosecution. Finally, beyond mere physicality, the streets of discontent hold a distinct sociality, whereby solidarity is communicated, discontent extended, and the news disseminated beyond the immediate surroundings. Here, I am referring to the role of the bus, taxi, or train terminals to transfer people, news, and knowledge not only beyond the city limits, but farther, into faraway provinces and beyond national borders. A location such as Tahrir Square, which holds in its orbit diverse headquarters of the press, tele vi sion stations, foreign ho- tels, tourists, and journalists, as well as bus terminals, is likely to attract dis- gruntled insurgents. “Revolution Street” in Tehran possessed many of these distinct socio- spatial qualities. The magnifi cent presence of the Tehran University campus (established in 1934) on a stretch of several blocks housing over 20,000 stu- dents surely contributed to the militancy of the area. Across the university compound, on the opposite side of the street, were hundreds of bookshops and publishing houses that had uniquely turned these few blocks into the intellectual epicenter of the nation. This exclusive book bazaar, the hangout of Iran’s intellectual window- shoppers, off ered not only academic materials, but also underground revolutionary literature. Like the densely packed old bazaars, this book market assumed its own distinct identity and had a solid internal network— a place where news was spread and rumors were verifi ed. During the revolution, many of these bookshops in Revolution Street shel- tered the fugitive street protestors. The secular, left ist aura of the place and its goods stood in stark contrast to the more religious but far less spectacular districts around southern Tehran’s traditional Grand Bazaar, which served as the po liti cal hub of earlier, 1950s and 1960s, po liti cal activity. Surely Tehran University contributed to the politicization of the area. But perhaps more im- portant factors were involved. In earlier periods, such as the early 1950s, po liti cal crowds would congre- gate not around Tehran University, but primarily in the grand Baharestan Plaza, which embraced the parliament located in South Tehran. By the late 1970s, the social and spatial transformation of Tehran had pushed the physical and “po liti cal center” of the city farther north, to Revolution Street. Thus, lo- cated halfway between the north and the south, this street carved the city into ed a virtual two distinct geo graph i cal and social universes. In a sense, it signifi —-1 ) and “poor south” bala- ye shahr “green line,” demarcating the “affl uent north” ( —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 6 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 169 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

184 170 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI ( pain- e shahr )— a distinction that was unequivocally registered in the pop u- lar imaginary and language. Not only the intersection of the rich and poor zones, this street was also the meeting point of the urban and the rural. In the far eastern end of the street, roughly the edge of the city, stood the massive Shahyad Square (renamed Azadi [Liberation] Square, aft er the revolution), which, together with its neighboring Reza Shah Square (later, Revolution Square), gathered the largest insurgent crowds in pre- (and post-) revolution Iran. As hubs of intercity bus and taxi terminals, these two squares contained the crucial transportation networks linking the capital city to the nearby vil- lages and provincial towns. A traveler to Tehran would disembark in these very grand roundabouts. Here, the plebeian visitors would rest on the pave- ments, eat in the cheap street food- stands or tea houses, stroll around, buy gift s from street vendors, get the news of the town, and perhaps see possible dem- onstrations before leaving the city. In the absence of free press and media, it was from places like this that the travelers would spread the news of the revo- lution. In summary, then, Revolution Street represented a unique juncture of the rich and the poor, the elite and the ordinary, the intellectual and the lay- person, the urban and the rural. It was a remarkable po liti cal grid, intersect- ing the social, the spatial, and the intellectual, bringing together not only di- verse social groups, but also institutions of mobilization (the university) and the dissemination of knowledge and news (the chain of bookstores). Thus, the fi rst incidents of collective protest during 1977 emerged from Revolution Street. Students’ demonstration for free speech following ten au- tumn eve nings of literary– political rally at the Goethe Institute catalyzed a chain of street mass protests, riots, and military confrontations that eventu- ally toppled the monarchy. The monumental victory day did not mark the end of street action. Aft er the revolution, new episodes of street politics with more gurations unfolded. Yet Revolution Street continues to main- complex confi tain its centrality in Iran’s geography of contention even to this day. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 7 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 170 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

185 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN 9 URBAN ECOL OGY? in the early morning of January 10, 1993, some fi ft een thousand Egyptian military personnel seized the squatter settlement of Munirah Gharbiyya, in Cairo’s Imbaba quarter, to “cleanse” this poor community of the militant Is- lamists, al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya, who had turned it, in the words of one jour- nalist, into an Islamic “state within the state.” Over the following six weeks, police rounded up some six hundred suspects, while an extensive search fol- lowed for the remaining culprits. This incident, and the scattered reports of Islamist mobilization in the slums of Algiers and Istanbul in the late 1990s, evoked the older and more spectacular image of Iran’s Islamic Revolution of 1979, in which the urban dispossessed are believed to have played a crucial part. Similarly, the takeover by Turkish Islamists of the reins of power and the victory of the Islamist Hamas movement in the dense urban quarters of the Palestinian Territories represent more recent instances that seem to resonate the view that Islamism appeals to the urban masses, especially to recent rural migrants to cities. These events have triggered a sustained debate and discourse on the urban ecol ogy of the poor, oft en reviving century- old assumptions about the social consequences of urban transition and the ideological inclination of urban marginals in contemporary Muslim societies. They have inspired narratives that tend to weave together histories of Islamism and those of the urban Adapted from Asef Bayat, “Radical Religion and the Habitus of the Dispossessed: Does Islamic Militancy Have an Urban Ecol ogy?” International Journal of Urban and —-1 Regional Research 31, no. 3 (September 2007), pp. 579– 90. —0 —+1 171 5 4 4 - 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 7 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 171 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

186 172 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET disenfranchised. Thus, militant Islamism is represented as though it were the movement of the urban downtrodden, a perception that has led some scholars to draw parallels between Middle East Islamism and the Latin American lib- 1 eration theology of the 1960s and 1970s. Mike Davis’s infl uential survey Planet of Slums , for instance, portrays Islamism (along with the Pentecostalist move- ment) as the “song of the dispossessed.” Drawing on the slums of the Gaza Strip and Baghdad, Davis gives a new radical religious agency to slum dwell- 2 ers as those with “gods of chaos on their side.” Not only does Islamic radical- ism in some ways represent the poor people’s moral, ethical, and religious sensibilities, the very existential character of the urban dispossessed, their ecological reality, renders them amenable to embracing the extremist ideas of radical Islam. A key assumption underlying many of these narratives is that there is an urban ecological and cultural affi nity between the habitus of the urban poor and militant Islamism. Urban poverty and the concentration of the poor in the sprawling slum communities infected by anomie and alienation are thought to generate a habitus of violence, lawlessness, and extremism, where Islamism emerges out of the rubble of hopelessness and moral decay to give a religious expression to that mode of life. At the same time, deep religiosity, populist desires, shared language, institutions, and fi nally a propensity for “traditionalism” are assumed to bring together the urban poor and militant Islamists as strategic allies. This way of thinking resonates most in the main- stream media, which oft en take for granted the link between urban ecol ogy and religious extremism in the Muslim world. As an urbanist in Egypt, I have been contacted repeatedly by western media to comment on their storylines about the causal relationship between rural migration and Islamism, poverty, and violence, or the lack of housing (and its privacy) in an atmosphere of moral oppression and sexual frustration that allegedly makes poor young men resort to extremism and violence. Does militant Islamism have an urban ecol ogy? Is there a necessary con- vergence between the social existence of the urban disenfranchised and radi- cal religious ideologies? Does the urban subaltern constitute the natural locus of Islamist politics? Neither has Islamist radicalism in general shown a genu- ine po liti cal or moral interest in the urban poor, nor have the urban poor ex- pressed an ideological commitment to Islamist “distant politics,” the politics that largely remain abstract from the daily anguish of plebeian life. Militant -1— Islamism, chiefl y a middle- class movement and preoccupied with moral poli- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 172 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

187 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN URBAN ECOLOGY? 173 tics and ideological struggles, fails to act as the social movement of the urban disenfranchised, who may lend support to Islamists only contingently. The urban dispossessed tend to follow their own folk religiosity, relatively autono- mous informal life, and “intimate politics” of the everyday. Free from strict ideological loyalties, they are generally oriented toward strategies and associ- ations that are direct and immediate, meaningful, and manageable— strategies whose outcomes they feel they can control. What characterizes the social life of the urban dispossessed in the Muslim Middle East is neither simply ano- mie, alienation, and a “culture of poverty” nor a par tic u lar penchant for em- bracing Islamist politics, but primarily the practice of “informal life”— a so- cial existence characterized by autonomy, fl exibility, and pragmatism, where survival and self- development occupy a central place. The urban disenfran- chised tend pragmatically to lend support to diverse po liti cal trends and move- ments, both governmental and oppositional, including militant Islamism, so long as they contribute to those central objectives. Islamism refers to the ideologies and movements that, notwithstanding their variations, aim in general for the establishment of an “Islamic order”— a religious state, Islamic laws, and moral codes. Concerns such as establishing social justice and improving the life of the poor would be only secondary to this 3 strategic target. Historically, Islamism has been the language of self- assertion to mobilize the largely middle- class overachievers who have felt marginalized by the dominant economic, po liti cal, or cultural pro cesses in their societies, those for whom the failure of both capitalist modernity and socialist utopia has made the language of morality (religion) a substitute for politics. While the grad- ualist and reformist Islamists, such as the Muslim Brothers in Arab countries, pursue nonviolent methods of mobilizing civil society— through work in pro- fessional associations, NGOs, local mosques, and charities— the militant trends, such as al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya in Egypt, resort to armed struggle to seize state power through a strategy akin to Leninist insurrectionism. They oft en operate clandestinely in urban areas or neighborhoods where the state has a minimal presence. Militant Islamists such as al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya in Egypt follow strategies similar to those of the left ist guerrillas in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s. But they diff er from the current jihadist trends, such as groups associated with al- Qaeda. Whereas militant Islamism represents po liti cal movements operating within the given nation- states and targeting the secular national- states, the jihadists are transnational in ideas and operations and rep- —-1 4 resent fundamentally “ethical movements.” —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 173 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

188 174 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET THE MUSLIM POOR: URBAN ECOL OGY OF VIOLENCE? While a classic perception, oft en expounded by the national elites, considers the urban dispossessed in the Muslim Middle East as passive plebeians who are busy struggling to make ends meet— a disposition in line with the “culture of poverty”— the more recent and more powerful view refl ects profound anxiety over the active and dangerous role the urban poor seem to play in undermining 5 modern urbanity and po liti cal civility, paving the way for Islamist extremism. Thus, Egyptian elites— journalists, planners, and politicians— oft en describe Cairo as a giant city choked by overpopulation seemingly resulting from the infl ux of fellahin (peasants) who threaten its urban confi guration by turning it into a “city of peasants.” Cairo’s ecol ogy, they suggest, is being transformed by the spread of massive informal settlements, ashwaiyyat , that are “ruralizing” 6 the Egyptian urban landscape. The prevalence of poverty, joblessness, and un- dermined family relations fuels concerns that rural migration is laying the groundwork for a major social upheaval. Some see ashwaiyyat as “unnatural” communities that trigger “social disease” and “abnormal behavior,” owing to lack of privacy, overcrowding, and violence; others are outraged by the erosion of respect for parents and the prevalence of immorality. Some academics tend to perceive the slums as a Hobbesian locus of crime, lawlessness, and extremism that produces a “culture of violence” and an “abnormal” way of life, a breeding ground for the growth of Islamic fundamentalism. In short, the slums serve and 7 sustain the marriage of the poor and militant Islamism. Perhaps nowhere was this apparent convergence of radical Islam and urban ecol ogy as alarming as in secular demo cratic Turkey during the 1990s, when Islamic- oriented parties swept municipal and parliamentary elections. In 1994, the landslide triumph of the Islamic Rifah Party in municipal elections, which included metropolitan Istanbul, alarmed Turkish elites. Istanbul media warned middle- class citizens that the invasion of “black Turks,” or migrants from Anatolia, was “threaten- 8 ing” the social fabric of modern Turkish urbanity. Neighborhoods such as Sultanbeyli in east Istanbul and Gazi Mahallesi in the west became the hall- mark of the marriage between the migrant poor and radical Sunnis and Alev- ites. This new urban ecol ogy has compelled many elite families, like their Egyp- tian counterparts, to seek refuge in new gated communities. In Iran, many Islamist leaders and scholars alike had already presented -1— the dislocated migrant poor as the natural social basis of Iran’s Islamic Revo- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 174 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

189 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN URBAN ECOLOGY? 175 lution. The “revolution of the downtrodden” was crucial to the pro cess. Rural migrants in par tic u lar were seen as the fundamental social basis of Islamist 9 movements. Some observers considered the miserable living conditions, vio- lent behavior, and déclassé character of the “lumpenproletariat” as factors 10 that made them support Khomeini- type revolution. In par tic u lar, the “the populist ideology of Islam seems to play a crucial role in mobilizing the 11 masses.” In a neo- Durkheimian paradigm, many scholars see Islam— its in- ering a moral community and sense of stitutions and rituals, in general— as off belonging to the dislocated migrants brutalized by anomie and alienation, the 12 key eff ects of competitive and atomizing modern urban life. Once they are perceived as natural allies, militant Islamism and the poor need only po liti cal opportunity to realize their alliance. One such opportu- nity developed in Iran, owing to its remarkable economic development and social change, spearheaded by the authoritarian Shah. The urban poor, the by- product of the modernization pro cess, benefi ted little from this economic growth. Indeed, they were its victims. Though relatively few (some 20 percent of the urban population), they constituted, by the late 1970s, a fairly distinct social group and became a major support base for Islamists during and aft er 13 the revolution. A similar narrative is applied to Egypt, where, the story goes, in spite of Nasserite pop u lism that off ered mea sures to assist the “pop u lar classes,” the postpopulist era, notably the period of “open door” ( infi tah ) and “structural adjustment,” coincided with the gradual withdrawal of the state from its traditional social contract. The space was gradually fi lled by the mount- ing activities of the reformist and militant Islamists during the 1980s and 1990s. Dislocated rural people, disenfranchised migrants, alienated by the brutality of modern competitive and individualistic urban life, yearned for a moral community and sense of belonging, which Islamic institutions such as 14 the mosques could readily supply. Thus, in Egypt the fusion between Islamism and the urban poor was fa- cilitated, on the one hand, by Islamist activists mobilizing the poor through opposition mosques and Islamic associations, and, on the other, by the fact that activists originated largely from the impoverished quarters of large cities. In Gilles Kepel’s view, for instance, “the milieu that is the most fertile source of Islamist militants is the 20 to 25 age- group in the sprawling neighbour- 15 hoods on the outskirts of the big cities.” Similar arguments were made by Nazih Ayubi, Hamid Ansari, and others to stress the militants’ impoverished —-1 disposition. For others, the seemingly proletarian profi le of militant Islamists, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 175 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

190 176 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI their populist rhetoric, and shared urban space (notwithstanding their violent 16 methods) render them the movement of the urban dispossessed. Islamist ac- en told, had infi ltrated thousands of Islamic associa- tivists in Cairo, we are oft tions and mosques located in such slums as Ain Shams, Matariyya, Imbaba, 17 Bulaq Addakrour, and Azzawaya al- Hamrah. They used mosques to assem- ble, communicate, or ga nize activities, recruit new members, and preach against authorities. Some of the larger and older associations, such as the As- 18 sociation of Shar ̔iyya, Jama ̔iyya el- Shaban el- Muslemin, and Jamai ̔yya In- sar Sunna Muhammadiyya, had already been involved in illegal po liti cal ac- 19 tivities. Such mosques and associations also provided medical care, literacy classes, and fund- raising activities to build po liti cal support. THE MYTH OF THE ISLAMIST POOR There is certainly some truth in some of these narratives. The urban poor are concentrated in the slums where militant Islamists have also sought shelter. The poor are inclined to seek assistance from local nonstate agents, including mosques and religious donations. Religious associations and NGOs have be- come centers that, in the absence of the state, provide many types of welfare support— material, cultural, and communal— helping the dispossessed to sur- vive in the harsh urban structure. And fi nally, some degree of crime and vio- lence does exist in the informal communities, especially when the state agen- cies, for instance police stations, are largely absent. Yet these pro cesses do not necessarily render the urban disenfranchised anomic, alienated, extremist, or the strategic ally and the social basis of militant Islamism. Indeed, the “convergence argument” is grounded for the most part in a structural deduction premised on underlying assumptions that are prob- lematic empirically. To begin with, the poor in Iran remained largely aloof from the Islamic Revolution, in which the chief participants included the urban middle classes, students, government employees, bazaar merchants, shop keep ers, and industrial workers. The poor joined the revolution only at its last stage, a month or so before the Shah’s regime collapsed, when opposi- tion leader Shahpour Bakhtiar formed the last government under the Shah. At this time, the urban poor were mobilized less through mosques and than through the activities of the Islamic Consumer Cooperatives hey ̓ats and, especially, Neighborhood Councils, through which middle- class youth ering brought the experience of the revolution to poor neighborhoods by off -1— them basic goods and fuel at the time of an acute shortage brought on by 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 176 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

191 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN URBAN ECOLOGY? 177 an ongoing general strike that had crippled production and distribution 20 systems. mustaz ̔afi n (the downtrodden), referring primarily Thus, the language of to the urban disenfranchised, dominated the populist discourse of Islamist offi cials mainly aft er the victory of the revolution, when mobilization of the poor became the subject of intense competition between various po liti cal groups. The ruling clergy needed to win over the dispossessed as its social ba- sis in its mounting struggles against liberals, left ists, and remnants of the for- mer regime. In par tic u lar, Islamic leaders aimed to disarm the left of its pro- working- class campaign. In turn, the left (various Marxist organizations and the radical Islamic Mujahedin- e Khalq) appealed to the poor on ideological principles in an attempt to build pop u lar support for themselves. It was in this period that the po liti cal orientation of the now- ruling Islamists and the urban disenfranchised converged. Pro- poor rhetoric abounded in general exhorta- tions to improve their living conditions, build housing, and increase commu- nity development. This honeymoon did not last long, as the new state func- tionaries did not and could not follow through on their rhetoric to help the urban disenfranchised. Consequently, the poor were polarized. Some seg- ments (including groups within the newly established revolutionary institu- tions such as the pasdaran , basij, and the Construction Crusade) were incor- porated into the state structure, but others remained outside the system, and their struggles for self- development (expressed in the occupation of homes and hotels, squatting on land for shelter, illegal construction, and in securing collective consumption and jobs) brought them into confl ict with the Islamic state. These included hybrid elements whose ideological affi nity with the Is- lamic government did not deter them from fi ghting its agents in their daily 21 struggles. In Egypt, as pointed out earlier, claims of a fusion between Islamism and rst, that Islamist activists mo- the urban poor are based on two assumptions: fi bilized the poor through opposition mosques and Islamic associations, and, second, that activists originated largely from the impoverished quarters of large cities— those that are instilled with a social ecol ogy that supposedly breeds extremist and deviant activities and ideologies. The Imbaba incident conferred new credence to this kind of thinking. It reinforced the myth of the “Islamist dispossessed” obscuring the dynamics and constituency of po liti cal Islam. What particularly added to this mythology was, fi rst, the Egyptian —-1 state’s sudden apprehension of an emerging “Islamist threat” which in turn —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 177 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

192 LITI 178 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET caused unpre ce dented publicity around the theme of “urban ecol ogy of Is- lamist extremism”; and, second, the subsequent “scientifi c” intervention of the “expert community” (sociologists, criminologists, and journalists), who associated the rise of Islamic militancy and violence with the spread of ash- waiyyat . These experts, in a sense, gave authoritative backing to the fusion of the histories of the urban poor and po liti cal Islam. But the reality was much more complex. ashwaiyyat Although many militants did reside in the , this did not neces- sarily indicate a strategy devoted to mobilizing the poor. Like many middle- class Egyptians, the militants simply did not have much choice when it came to where they lived. The lack of aff ordable housing had made a spatially “mar- ginalized” middle class (educated youth, professionals, and civil ser vice em- ployees) an Egyptian urban phenomenon— a trend that fi gures into the class and spatial dynamics of many other cities in the global South. As the new middle classes, especially newlyweds and the young, were excluded from the housing market in more conventional urban quarters, they were pushed into city outskirts, creating heterogeneous informal communities where residents, ered while they shared the perils and possibilities of their common space, diff considerably in occupations, style, education, and even worldviews. In other words, many who live and function in these poor areas do not necessarily belong to the so cio log i cal category of the urban poor, defi ned as low- skilled, 22 low- income, low- security, and low- status working people. On the other hand, the informal nature of these neighborhoods (without street names, house numbers, offi cial registration, or maps) ensured a safe haven for Islamist mili- tants, chased by the police, who were on the run from the sugar fi elds of South- ern Egypt. Some indeed tried to integrate in the well- off districts of Mohande- sin, Agouza, and Maadi, but strict police surveillance compelled them to 23 move into the opaque neighborhoods of Ain Shams and Imbaba. Islamists did infi ltrate charity associations. However, the extent of their infl uence is oft en exaggerated. Out of thousands of religious NGOs, only a few uence of po liti cal Islamists. The rest were or ga nized dozen fell under the infl either by non- Islamist pious Muslims or expanded owing to market ratio- 24 nale. The sale of religious commodities grew signifi cantly during the 1980s and 1990s. Beyond books, recorded sermons, music, and fashion, the market for Islamic cultural and educational goods and ser vices expanded because of ordability, and religious clout. Many became involved in Is- their quality, aff -1— lamic associations, not only because they served the needy or provided spiri- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 178 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

193 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN URBAN ECOLOGY? 179 tual motivation, but also because religious associations provided them with ess. A few studies of Islamic clinics in Cairo, for jobs and even lucrative busin instance, revealed that the incentive for many of their staff , including doctors, 25 was not so much religious obligation as professional opportunity. For the low- status occupation of nursing, Islamic associations off ered a more respect- able and reputable place to work. Meanwhile, many schools remained Islamic only in name. More important, like the Ira ni an clergy in prerevolutionary Iran, Egyp- tian Islamists (both reformist and militant) showed only slight strategic inter- est in the po liti cal mobilization of the urban subaltern. They never considered the urban disenfranchised as a special group in which to invest po liti cally (in the way that Marxists considered the industrial proletariat; or Frantz Fanon, the “marginal poor” in colonized Africa). In the writings and statements of al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya and El- Jihad, as in the sermons of Ayatollah Khomeini be- fore the revolution, references to the poor, let alone views of them as po liti cal 26 agents, were rare. al- Wafd Obviously, the secular liberal daily al- and left ist Ahaly al- paid more attention to the plight of the poor than did the Islamist Sha ̔b or the Muslim Brothers’ publications; the latter focused invariably on broader po liti cal and religious matters, such as government corruption, inter- national Zionism, or world Islamic politics. In my regular Friday visits to a number of mosques in Cairo’s poor neighborhoods (Sayyeda Zeinab, Boulaq Abul Ela, Darb al- Ahmar, Mar Girgis) during the fall of 1996, Islamic activ- ism was limited to the sale of tapes by preachers such as Omar Abdul- Kafi , Shaykh Kishk, Ahmad Al- Ajami, and Muhammad Hissamah, or of religious books and pamphlets covering such topics as life aft er death, marriage, women and Islam, jinn, and the dev il. This po liti cal and ideological distance would set militant Islamism apart from Latin American liberation theology, which seemed to establish a more 27 organic relation with the poor. Whereas the point of departure for liberation theology was the “liberation of the poor,” where the gospel was then reread 28 and reinterpreted to achieve this fundamental goal, Islamist movements have in general aimed for the establishment of an Islamic order (a religious state with Islamic laws and moral codes); concerns such as establishing social justice and improving the life of the poor would follow from this strategic 29 target. Thus, while for liberation theology concern for the poor was an end in itself, indeed, a doctrinal matter, the Islamists’ mobilization of the poor —-1 had largely the po liti cal purpose of achieving change to clear the way for the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 7 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 179 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

194 180 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI 30 Instead of being an expression of cultural establishment of an Islamic order. identity as in Islamism, liberation theology, partially inspired by humanist Marxism, was embedded in the indigenous discourse of development, under- ercely debating at the development, and de pen den cy that Latin America was fi time. Indeed, the idiom “theology of liberation” emerged in the context of clerics exploring a “theology of development,” a notion in which the emanci- 31 pation of the poor was central. Islamism, however, has had a diff erent birth and birthplace. Broadly speaking, it arose as a language of self- assertion to mobilize those (largely middle- class overachievers) who felt marginalized by the dominant economic, po liti cal, or cultural pro cesses, those for whom the failure of both capitalist modernity and socialist utopia made the language of morality (religion) a substitute for politics. In a sense, it was the Muslim middle- class way of rejecting those whom they considered their excluders— their national elites, secular governments, and these governments’ western allies. As an alternative to existing models, they imagined a utopian society and state for Muslim humanity. Da ̔wa (an invitation to Islam), not necessar- ily the liberation of the poor, became a key objective for Islamists, and elitism 32 continued to guide their politics. Just as the Islamists treated the urban poor in pragmatic terms, the urban grass roots in turn approached the Islamists in instrumentalist fashion. In postrevolution Iran, the disenfranchised took advantage of the intense compe- tition between ruling clergy and the po liti cal left in order to mobilize the poor. The poor came to realize their power and used the opportunity to make de- mands and improve their lot, by squatting on land and in homes, upgrading 33 their community, and acquiring consumer goods. In Egypt, many among the poor had no direct interaction with Islamists and remained confused as to their intentions, while others, such as the residents of Imbaba’s ashwaiyyat , remained apprehensive and yet appreciative of the ser vices they provided. The Imbaba incident placed the urban dispossessed and ashwaiyyat at the were center of Egypt’s po liti cal and developmental debates. If the ashwaiyyat regarded as the fundamental locus of extremism and Islamism, then undoing them, that is, either upgrading or destroying these entities, was expected to ameliorate the situation. Thus on May 1, 1993, a year aft er the Imbaba inci- dent, President Mubarak authorized that “an immediate implementation of a national program in upgrading the most important ser vices and facilities in 34 haphazardly built areas in all governorates.” USAID had already moved into -1— Imbaba with a large- scale project to pave roads and develop sewer systems. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 180 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

195 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN URBAN ECOLOGY? 181 Eu ro pe an NGOs followed suit with community development projects in the ashwaiyyat . In 1996, 127 zones out of 527 targeted zones “were fully upgraded” by the Egyptian government, and by 1998, it had spent EL 3.8 billion ($700M) on community upgrading. Hasan Sultan (also known as Hasan Karate), commander of the military wing of the al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya in Imbaba, was turned into a symbol of this “integration.” Having turned himself over to police aft er managing to escape the siege, he was now al- lowed to go free and establish a street kiosk in the heart of Imbaba, Munira 35 Gharbiya. The government’s policy of urban renewal sought in part a common objective of turning opaque communities into transparent entities (mapping, naming the streets, and numbering homes) partly in pursuit of ensuring surveillance. What ever the motives behind these developmental programs, the poor welcomed both government and Islamic initiatives. Yet they declined to ex- tend ideological allegiance to either the state or the Islamists. If anything, most of them expressed profound indignation about the use of po liti cal vio- lence by both Islamists and the state. For the most part, the poor relied on themselves to survive and improve their lives. CULTURE OF POVERTY OR INFORMAL LIFE? If uncertainty and utilitarianism characterized the relationship between the poor and Islamism, then why do the predominant narratives continue to in- sist on the fusion of militant Islamism and the dispossessed? I suggest that these narratives refl ect the profound anxieties of the elite and the media con- cerning the urban ecol ogy of Islamist extremism. They are also general claims premised on erroneous presuppositions about urban society and politics in the Muslim Middle East. First, in many Middle Eastern countries, demographic changes since the 1980s have produced a complex spatial pattern. Many large cities have ceased to be centers of rural migrants. Population movement from the countryside to large urban centers has leveled off , while rural areas have begun to assume some aspects of urban life: consumption patterns, diverse occupations, more extensive division of labor, and higher rates of literacy. For instance, in 1996, over 80 percent of Cairo’s population and 86 percent of Alexandria’s had been born in their city. Of the remaining migrants, over 80 percent, the over- whelming majority, had come from other cities, not the countryside. Tehran —-1 followed a remarkably similar demographic pattern, with only 15 percent of —0 —+1 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 8 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 181 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

196 LITI 182 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET residents being migrants, and most of them, too, were from other urban centers. Second, the politicians and academic community (sociologists and crimi- ashwaiyyat through the prism of the concept of nologists) in Egypt viewed the “slums” formulated in the United States. This model emerged in part from the studies of inner- city African American ghettos, where joblessness and de- cayed family structure are said to be responsible for crime and violence. U.S. scholarship on “slums” is heavily informed by the notion of “neighborhood eff ects” that are assumed to be responsible for socially isolating the poor from ects” embrace many conventional life- chances and norms. “Neighborhood eff ects,” “spatial isolation,” or “ghet- spatial meta phors, such as “concentration eff 36 toized poor,” that overdetermine poor people’s habitus. Egyptian researchers ashwaiyyat , for invoking the American model assumed a priori that Cairo’s ogies that fostered isolationism, anomie, lawlessness, instance, were urban ecol 37 extremism, and Islamist violence. The fact is that local cultures have unde- niable impact on the subculture of the poor wherever they are. The level of was not conspicuously higher than that in other ar- crime in the ashwaiyyat eas. Serious scholarly works on Cairo’s poor areas invariably confi rmed the prevalence of a “cultural capital of tolerance,” resourcefulness, a strong sense of community, solid family relations, fi rm social control of children and youth, and high hopes for the future, and showed Cairo, a megacity with enormous urban problems, to be one of the world’s safest cities, a quality quite distinct 38 from its counterparts in Latin America. Indeed, the strict offi cial defi nition of what constitutes an urban unit and the invention of the notions of ashwaiyyat, hashieye- nishini, gecekondu s, as po liti cal categories tend to produce spatial divisions that exclude many citi- zens from urban participation. The ashwaiyyat , hashieye- nishini , or gecekon- s are perceived as “abnormal” places where “nonmodern” people— that is, du the villagers, traditionalists, nonconformists, or unintegrated— live. But this oversimplifi ed picture obscures the fact that populations of informal settle- ments are involved in the complex urban economy and division of labor. In the old so cio log i cal tradition, what in social terms defi nes “urban” is primar- ily the organic ensemble in a par tic u lar space of a variety of lifestyles and economic activities, and those of the informal settlements constitute but one signifi ed whole that is the city. cant component of the diversifi It is true that many of the inhabitants of informal communities pursue an -1— “informal life.” That is, they tend to function as much as possible outside the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 182 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

197 DOES RADICAL ISLAM HAVE AN URBAN ECOLOGY? 183 boundaries of the state and modern bureaucratic institutions. For instance, they wish to exert some degree of autonomy in their working and cultural lives, basing their relationships on reciprocity, trust, and negotiations, rather than on the modern notions of individual self- interest, fi xed rules, and con- tracts. Thus, they might opt for self- employment or resort to informal dispute- resolution rather than report to the police; they might be married by a local shaykh rather than at government offi ces; or they might borrow money from informal credit associations rather than from banks. This is the case, to repeat from Chapter 3, not because these people are essentially non- or antimodern but because the conditions of their existence compel them to seek an informal way of life. That is so because modernity is a costly enterprise, in that it requires a capacity to conform to the types of behavior (adherence to strict discipline of time, space, contracts, and so on) that most poor people simply cannot aff ord. The activities of Islamist militants in Cairo’s Imbaba or Istanbul’s Sultan- beyli reinforced the image of “informals” as a Hobbesian locus of lawlessness, violence, and religious extremism. These may indeed be present in poor squat- ter areas. However, this type of behavior is not the result of inhabitants’ cul- tural essentials, since informal communities, despite their appearance, consist of heterogeneous occupational and cultural universes. Although stigmatized as “rural,” they not only receive migrants from urban core areas but are also 39 home to young people and newlyweds— the future of these nations. Informal settlements in the Middle East are not simply poverty belts but are also home to many middle- class urbanites, professionals, and civil servants. What per- haps breeds lawlessness is not the cultural essentials of residents but rather the consequences of their “outsiderness,” the communities’ density and lack of spatial clarity. An “outsider” community, even if it is located in the heart of the city, by defi nition lacks street names, house numbers, paved roads, maps, po- lice presence, and, thus, state control. Islamist violence attributed directly to informal cities’ social ecol ogy is more complex than a phenomenon of poverty and ignorance. In Cairo, militants (from al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya and al- Jihad) were mostly young, educated individuals, many of whom lived in the ash- waiyyat because of Cairo’s high housing costs, which exclude and marginalize many, including middle- class families. So cio log i cally, these young, educated erent from the cultural type portrayed by some academics, people were diff planners, and the media, and there is paltry empirical evidence to suggest that —-1 they shared the features that characterize Oscar Lewis’s “culture of poverty.” —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 183 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

198 184 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI The key sociocultural mode among the Muslim poor in the Middle East is not the “culture of poverty” but “informal life.” The preceding discussions indicate that the relationship between radical Islam and the habitus of the dispossessed is more complex than oft en pre- sented. The claims about organic convergence between the two oft en refl ect fear by the national and international elites (politics and media) about the social consequences of urban marginality. In reality, however, the dispos- sessed show no more natural propensity toward extremism or Islamism than Islamists (notwithstanding their populist rhetoric) show strategic interest in the dispossessed as a po liti cal player or moral target. More oft en than not, a utilitarian politics governs the relationship between the urban disenfranchised and Islamist activists. As I have discussed elsewhere, the poor cannot aff ord to be ideological. Their interests lie in strategies, organizations, and associa- tions that respond directly to their immediate concerns. To be ideological re- quires certain capacities (time, risk taking, money) that the disenfranchised 40 oft en lack. In the Muslim Middle East, the po liti cal class par excellence re- mains the educated middle class (students, intellectuals, and professionals), which both Islamist and secular movements target. “Low- politics,” or local- ized struggles for concrete concerns, are the stuff of the urban dispossessed. For the dispossessed, it is largely the localized struggles, unlike the abstract and distant notions of “revolution” or “reform,” that are both meaning ful and manageable — meaningful in that they can make sense of the purpose and have an idea of the consequences of those actions, and manageable in that , rather than some remote national (Islamist or secular) leaders, set the they agenda, project the aims, and control the outcome. -1— 0— +1— 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 8 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 184 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

199 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 10 it might sound out of place to invoke the idea of cosmopolitanism in global conditions dominated by the language of “clash”— clash of cultures, civiliza- tions, religions, or ethnicities. The discourse of clash is so overwhelming that it is as though it were the sole feature of today’s cultural, religious, and com- munal life. It may be plausible for the prevailing scholarship to pay more at- tention to human confl ict as a subject of inquiry than to cooperation or shar- ing, because hierarchy and relations of power (in terms of for instance class, gender, and race) constitute the key features of human societies. But what does justify portraying the relationships between diff erent cultures, religions, or national origins (horizontal groups) predominantly in terms of confl ict? This tendency is partially rooted in the “primordialist,” outlook which deems ethno- religious groupings as natural, permanent, and bounded entities with clear and everlasting lines of cultural demarcation, and thus prone to division 1 and clash. However, this line of thinking has been challenged by those who see such communities as dynamic beings, subject to continuous deconstruc- 2 tion, shift ing boundaries, and reconstruction. In other words, “communi- ties” are not simply introverted and exclusive collectives whose relation with others is defi ned merely in terms of mistrust. Rather, communities also at- 3 tempt to overcome their diff erences and live together. This chapter aims to transcend overemphasis on relations of confl ict, by highlighting the other, more common but unnoticed and inaudible pro cesses Adapted from a contribution that originally appeared in Shail Mayaram, ed. The —-1 Other Global City (London: Routledge, 2009). —0 —+1 185 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 1 8 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 185 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

200 186 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET erent cultural or reli- of human conduct, to show how people belonging to diff gious groupings can and do reach out of their immediate selves by intensely interacting in their lifeworlds with members of other cultural or religious col- lectives. In short, they experience a cosmopolitan coexistence. Cosmopolitan- ism refers to both a social condition and an ethical project. In the fi rst place, it signifi es certain objective pro cesses, such as globalization, migration, and traveling that compel people of diverse communal, national, or racial affi lia- tions to associate, work, and live together. These pro cesses lead to diminishing cultural homogeneity in favor of diversity, variety, and plurality of cultures, religions, and lifestyles. In this sense Dubai, for instance, represents a cosmo- politan city- state, in that it juxtaposes individuals and families of diverse na- tional, cultural, and racial ties, who live and work next to one another within a small geo graph i cal space. Cosmopolitanism has also ethical and normative dimensions; it is a proj- ect with humanistic objectives. In this sense, cosmopolitanism is deployed to challenge the language of separation and antagonism, to confront cultural superiority and ethnocentrism. It further stands opposed to communalism, where the inward- looking and close- knit ethnic or religious collectives es- pouse narrow, exclusive, and selfi sh interests. Cosmopolitanism of this sort also overrides the “multiculturalist” paradigm. Because although multicul- turalism calls for equal coexistence of diff erent cultures within a national so- ciety, it is still preoccupied with cultural boundaries— an outlook that departs from a cosmopolitan lifeworld where intense interaction, mixing, and sharing tend to blur communal boundaries, generating hybrid and “impure” cultural practices. But is this cosmopolitanism not the prerogative of the elites, a bourgeois lifestyle? Certainly elites are in a better material position to experience cos- mopolitan lifestyle; they are the ones who can easily aff ord frequent travel, by which they taste diff erent cuisines and experience alternative modes of life and cultural products. In addition, unlike the poor, the privileged groups need not rely on exclusive communalistic networks as a venue to secure social protection— something that tends to reinforce more inward- looking commu- nalism. However, the objective possibility to experience mixing, mingling, and sharing is not the same as the desire and ability to do so. How many of those elite expatriates residing in the metropolises of the global South, Dubai for instance, share cultural life with those of the poor of the host society? In a -1— closer look, the cosmopolitan Dubai turns out to be no more than a “city- state 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 186 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

201 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 187 of relatively gated communities” marked by sharp communal and spatial boundaries, with labor camps (of south Asian migrants) and the segregated milieu of parochial jet- setters, or the “cosmopolitan” ghettos of the western elite expatriates who remain bounded within the physical safety and cultural 4 purity of their own reclusive collectives. What is oft en ignored or downplayed is the cosmopolitanism of the subal- 5 tern. Evidence from early twentieth- century Cairo, Baghdad, Jerusalem, and Aleppo suggests how, beyond the elites, the ordinary members of diff erent religious communities— Muslims, Jews, Christians, Shi ̔is, or Sunnis— were engaged in intense intercommunal exchange and shared lives in neighbor- 6 hoods or at work; they were engaged in “everyday cosmopolitanism.” By ev- eryday cosmopolitanism I mean the idea and practice of transcending self— at the various levels of individual, family, tribe, religion, ethnicity, community, and nation— to associate with agonistic others in everyday life. It describes the ways in which the ordinary members of diff erent ethno- religious and cultural groups mix, mingle, intensely interact, and share in values and practices— in the cultures of food, fashion, language, and symbols; in history and memory. In everyday life, women in par tic u lar act as protagonists in ini- tiating cosmopolitan exchange and association. In the mixed neighborhoods, women move easily between houses, chat, exchange gossip, lend or borrow things from neighbors. They participate in weddings, funerals, or religious festivals. Children of diff erent confessional affi liations play together in the al- leyways, teens befriend, and men may make neighborly visits. This notion of cosmopolitanism signifi es how such association and sharing aff ect the mean- ing of “us” and “them” and its dynamics, which in turn blurs and problema- tizes the meaning of group boundaries. The “everyday cosmopolitanism” may en abstract and philosophical notions of Stoicist “world not go as far as the oft citizenship” but engages in the modest and down- to- earth, yet highly relevant, ways in which ordinary men and women from diff erent communal worlds manage to engage, associate, and live together at the level of the everyday. However, cosmopolitan association of this sort does not grow in a vacuum. It takes shape under specifi c structures and possesses par tic u lar geographies. Modern urbanity per se potentially contributes to cosmopolitan habitus by erent reli- facilitating geographies of coexistence between the members of diff erent gious or ethnic groups. But this may be so not just because people of diff religions and cultures naturally come to live and interact with one another; —-1 aft er all, neighbors might dislike and distrust one another; rather because —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 187 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

202 188 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET proximity and interaction can open opportunities for divergent cultural groups to experience trust between them and coexistence in daily life. But the paradox of modern urbanity is that not only can it engender cosmopolitan coexistence, but it can also facilitate communal identities. A modern city like Cairo tends, on the one hand, to diff erentiate, fragment, and break down the traditional face- to- face ethnic or religious- based communities by facilitating the experi- ence of sharing with other cultural- religious groupings. At the same time, however, religious- ethnic identities may persist or get reinvented not neces- sarily through face- to- face interactions, but through the construction of imaginary or “distanciated” communities. The modern city has a tendency to diff erentiate, individualize, and fragment its inhabitants, to weaken the tradi- tional ties, break down extended family (among people who can aff ord to be- come autonomous), and increase geo graph i cal mobility. The logic of land use, cost of housing, and jobs oft en determine where families settle. Spatial con- gregations based upon ethnic or religious affi liation gives way to class segre- gation, so that the ethno- religious communities based on intense interper- sonal interactions are undermined as their members break up into clusters of individual families dispersing across the vast expanse of the city, where they are compelled to connect to the “larger society,” and where religious members may experience real interactions and sharing with city dwellers of diff erent religious or ethnic affi liations. But deep association and sharing between members of diff erent communities does not mean the end of religious or eth- nic identities. On the contrary, the breakdown of faith- based local collectives can, in conditions of general uncertainty and threat, give rise to diff erent— “virtual” or “distanciated”— religious communities. Here identity is based not upon real cooperative experiences, but on imagining ties with distant, faceless, and unknown “brothers” or “sisters,” whose general whereabouts are shared through modern networks of daily papers, via tele vi sion, or through heresy and rumor. This dialectic of both inner- communal identity, on the one hand, and the real day- to- day cooperation with people outside, on the other, generates a more complex intercommunal dynamics than simply ict. For individuals are likely to test their imaginary and harmony or confl abstract view of the “other” (resulting from, for instance, prejudice or provo- cation) against the experience of real association they develop with them. This is how I see Muslim– Christian relations in today’s Cairo. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 188 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

203 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 189 MAPPING THE COMMUNAL DIVIDE In 2008, Egypt represents primarily a Muslim majority nation. Yet a substan- tial proportion of the population, some 8 to 10 percent, or six million, are 7 Coptic Christians. Christianity came to Egypt with the Roman conquest, but it grew largely from the mid- fi rst century AD onwards. It is suggested that the oppressive rule of the Roman Empire created a sort of nationalistic Coptic, or Egyptian, Christianity that stood in opposition to the Byzantine authorities. With the Arab conquest in 639 AD came Islamization and Arabization of Egypt, so that by the tenth century the Muslim population had ascended to 8 the majority. Conversion to Islam was not smooth. Some embraced Islam voluntarily for its promise of justice, many did so to avoid special taxation, while still others did to acquire equal social and po liti cal status with Mus- 9 lims. In the meantime, Arabic gradually replaced “Coptic language”; since the government bureaucracy used Arabic language, it compelled the Coptic elite (who continued to work in the administration) to learn Arabic and teach it to their children, who would then pursue occupations like their fathers’. When in the twelft h century Pope Gabriel decreed that the church use Arabic language in its sermons, lay Copts also moved to speak in this language. In the end, Arabic became the language of Egyptians, both Muslim converts and the remaining Christians, with the Coptic language dying out sometime between 10 the fourteenth and eigh teenth centuries. Under Muslim rule during Umar (717– 40), Copts became a dhimmi (non- Muslim) “minority,” denied of serving in the army, and of high po liti cal posi- tions, and subject to a special poll tax (in exchange for their protection), jizya, for centuries. It was not until the reign of Said Pasha in 1856 that the dhimmi status was dropped, the poll tax was lift ed, and Copts became full citizens. Mamluk rulers (1250– 1517) had already attempted to create a balance between the Copts and the Muslims by recruiting the former into bureau- cracy and trade, so that Copts became a counterpart to a growing educated ces. Muslim “middle class,” which also aspired to positions in government offi Modern times brought formal equality between the two communities. Mu- hammad Ali’s Hamayouni Decree in 1856 established Coptic personal status laws, allowed them into the military, and promised freedom of religion, equality in employment, and removal of all discriminatory terms and sym- bols, even though the construction of churches remains a contested issue —-1 even today. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 8 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 189 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

204 190 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET The “Liberal Age” (1923– 52) was the hallmark of Coptic public presence and citizenship. Elite Copts and Muslims developed almost identical liberal lifestyles and tastes, informed by French Enlightenment and En glish liberal trends. In the early twentieth century two Christians became prime minister (Boutros Ghali Pasha, 1908– 10; and Youssef Wahba Pasha, 1919– 20). Wafd, the po liti cal party of in de pen dence, was so close to Copts that Islamists and ultra- nationalist Misr- al- Fitah labeled Wafd the “Party of Copts,” and the king the “protector of Islam.” Although the Revolution of 1952 treated Copts and Mus- lims equally in welfare dispensation and educational attainment, it infl icted disproportionate economic losses on the Coptic community. Being exces- sively richer than Muslims, Christians lost more to Gamal Abdel Nasser’s na- tionalization policies than did Muslims (some 75 percent of their work and 11 property). Following the dissolution of po liti cal parties, their presence in politics and parliament drastically declined. These developments led to the fi rst wave of Coptic emigration, to Canada, the United States, and Australia in the 1960s and 1970s. The continuing outfl ow of educated Copts, together with the rise of Islamist militancy in Egypt since the 1970s, has cemented a strong identity politics among the vocal Coptic community in exile and to a lesser degree among Copts living in Egypt. Since the 1980s, the status of Coptic Christians in relation to Muslims in Egyptian history has become the site of a contentious positioning. Both the reality of Christian– Muslim relations and its repre sen ta tion have been deeply politicized. In this contestation, “history,” as usual, has become the battle- ground. One view expressed mainly by the militant Copts in exile and at home considers Christian Copts as a distinct ethnicity with distinct ancestry, religion, and way of life, but one that has been relegated by the Muslim major- 12 ity and the Egyptian state to the status of an oppressed “minority.” The very meaning of the term Copt, rooted in the word Aegyptos, or Egypt, suggests Christians to be the “true original Egyptians,” a distinct racial group who over 13 time have been turned into a “second- class” population. Interestingly, mili- tant Islamists in Egypt likewise attribute a distinct ethnic character to Coptic Christians, albeit not as “oppressed” minority, but as the stooge of crusaders and western interests. In contrast, most Coptic intellectuals and church lead- ers, as well as Muslim elites inside Egypt, view Muslim– Coptic relations in a unique fashion that does not resemble any other interethnic or interreligious gures as Samir Morcos, Hani Labib, Ghali Shukri, dynamics. Such Coptic fi -1— Milad Hanna and the like, together with Muslim counterparts such as Tariq 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 190 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

205 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 191 el- Bishri, Salim el- Awa, or Jamal Badawi view Egyptian Christian Copts not as a so cio log i cal “minority,” but as players and partners in the unique Egyptian- Arab- Islamic civilization. The Coptic population is seen as an inte- gral element in the category of “Egyptian people,” on par with their Muslim counterparts, while Egypt is constituted as a “unique entity,” a “land of inher- ent pluralism and mélange” owing to its pharaonic, Greco- Roman, Coptic, 14 and Islamic heritage. In Gamal Hamdan’s words, most of today’s Egyptian Muslims are yesterday’s Copts [ . . . ]. In fact Egyptians are made partly of Muslim Copts and partly Christian Copts, considering that the word “Copt” 15 means “Egyptian.” According to Christian Hani Labib, although Islamists may consider Copts to be second- class citizens, the Egyptian constitution rules for equality, and the modern state renders the concept of dhimmi status 16 redundant. While the former view insists on “minority” status, “discrimina- tion,” and confl ict, the latter underlies “citizenship,” “equality,” and accom- modation. Yet both seem to characterize Coptic reality in terms of certain “objective,” historical, and cultural “facts,” a long standing metanarrative. There is little reference to everyday life pro cesses, to interpersonal relations and agency, to specifi c episodes of confl ict, to the intricate marriage of both clash and coexistence, nor especially to the spatial dimension of these 17 pro cesses. NARRATIVES OF CONFLICTS Notwithstanding claims about the “unique historic affi nity” between Egypt’s Christians and Muslims, evidence of episodic sectarian confl ict, clash, and violence abounds. In modern times, three episodes of sectarian clash stand out: British colonial period, the presidency of Anwar Sadat, and the Islamist era. During its colonial rule, Britain deployed the usual divide- and- rule strat- egy to separate Copts from the national movement. It recognized the Copts as an “ethnic minority,” stressing their anthropological “distinctiveness.” En- couraged by the British support, groups of Copts, notably wealthy families, pursued a sectarian line, demanding in 1911 a special Coptic repre sen ta tion in councils and the legal system, proposing a “Sunday holiday” instead of Fri- days. Muslims responded with dismay, rejecting the demands. Yet the majority of Copts seemed to disapprove of the British emphasis on “Coptic distinctive- ness,” rejecting the attempt to insert in the 1923 constitution a clause confer- ring a special status to “foreigners” and “minorities,” including the “Coptic —-1 community.” Copts in general seemed to desire not a minority status, but —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 191 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

206 LITI 192 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET citizenship. Indeed, the “liberal era” through the 1960s under Nasser some- how fulfi lled that desire, as Christians and Muslims exhibited a good mea sure of national unity and cooperation at societal and governmental levels up until the 1970s. The presidency of Anwar Sadat in 1971 marked a turning point in Muslim– Coptic relations. Sadat wanted to take Egypt out of the Nasserist system as- sociated with socialism, pop u lism, and nationalism; he wished to open up to the West, foreign capital, and market forces. To undermine Nasserists and Communists, Sadat gave a free hand to the growing Islamist movement, both the reformist Muslim Brothers and the new gama ̔at , Islamist student asso- ciations, which dominated most universities, and which later turned into the violent al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya or ga ni za tion. In addition, Sadat himself as- sumed a pious posture, speaking the idiom of Islam and passing religious laws. He changed the constitution to enshrine shari ̔a as the main source of law. These mea sures deemed to undermine the status of the Christians. There were even signs of provocation to undercut Coptic authority. In 1972 a report was said to be circulated in which the Coptic pope allegedly had called for an increase in the Coptic population in order to return Egypt fully to Chris- 18 tians. In addition, mea sures were taken to restrict new church construction by imposing many conditions. Such pressures brought on the fury of the Cop- tic community, forcing Sadat to back down by passing laws on national unity and freedom of belief. Yet the opportunity for sectarian strife remained. In 1972, Muslim youths in Beheira clashed with Copts, burning shops and houses, on the ground that a Christian shop own er had shot at the provocative youths. Then, in 1977, Al- Azhar called for passing laws to implement Islamic penal codes ( hodoud ), and to implement the execution of apostates. The mea sures, which would have brought Christians under Islamic laws, infuriated the Coptic community and the church. The ensuing protests, statements, and hunger strikes, however, were overshadowed by the February 3, 1977 mass urban riots; the laws went ahead, and only the exiled Coptic community followed up the campaign. Yet the new mea sures were bound to lead to communal strife. A year later, in the Upper Egyptian towns of Menya and Assiut, priests were attacked and churches set cials renewed their threat to implement apostasy laws in an re, while offi on fi attempt to silence the church. With the pope retreating to the desert as a ges- ture of protest, the Coptic Church and Sadat’s regime had a head- on colli- -1— 19 sion. Although a compromise and relative calm were established, they failed 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 1 9 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 192 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

207 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 193 to end sectarian violence. In June 1981, Egypt witnessed the worst Coptic– Muslim incident of violence. Reportedly, a personal dispute between two in- dividuals in Cairo’s poor community of al- Zawya al- Hamra turned into an armed confrontation between groups of Christians and Muslim neighbors. The violence ended with the intervention of the state. In 1981, the regime ar- rested twenty- two priests and bishops and deposed Pope Shenouda, as part of a large- scale crackdown on internal dissent arising following Sadat’s peace deal with Israel and his new “open door” economic policy. President Sadat was, ironically, gunned down by an Islamist group to which he had given lip ser vice. His successor, President Mubarak, mended relations with the Christian community and the church but could not stop sectarian confl ict. On the contrary, the 1980s and early 1990s, the height of the Islamist movement in the country, witnessed the most frequent and spectacular sec- tarian violence in Egypt’s history. In March 1987, the Islamist groups insti- gated a band of youth to burn the Church of the Virgin Mary in the southern town of Sohag, on the grounds that some Christians had set a mosque (Qutb) on fi re. September saw violent clashes in Assiut between militant Islamists and police, in which Coptic shops were destroyed. In the meantime, Muslim militants in Menya attacked a private party given by a wealthy Copt, and threw explosives into a church, which was followed by violent clashes between Muslims and Christians. In the next two years, churches were assaulted in Rod al- Farag and in Cairo’s Masara, a wedding party was attacked, and more skirmishes ensued in Menya and Assiut. In March 1990, Menya’s Abu- Kersas became the scene of forty- eight burnt shops belonging to Copts, and bomb attacks of more churches. Violence, largely against Coptic Christians, contin- ued in the early 1990s in Bani Sweif, Menya, and Cairo’s Ain Shams, Zeitoun, and Shubra. In 1992 alone, dozens of shops were destroyed, twenty- two people were killed, homes and places of worship were attacked. For every Muslim 20 killed, two Copts were murdered. The most dramatic sectarian violence took place in the southern village of al- Kosheh in January 2000, where at least six- teen people died. A dispute between two traders spread into the surrounding villages, where scores of businesses and homes were destroyed and residents killed in the course of three days of violence. Police regained control only af- 21 ter the violence had already escalated. icts were not confi ned to these isolated acts of sabotage by some The confl professional activists. Undoubtedly, they left their imprints on communal sen- —-1 timents, reviving a new identity politics in Egypt. The hegemony of Islamism —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 193 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

208 194 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET had altered the po liti cal mood in the nation, had generated a more inward- looking religious nativism, manifested in a typical defensive selfh ood and communalism. As Muslims became more Muslim, Copts likewise became more Christian. Muslims grew beards, put on veils, massively attended mosques, and chose more and more religious names for their children; similarly, Copts showed off their crosses, displayed Christian icons, paid much greater atten- tion to church activities, and called their off spring by the names of Christian saints. The two communities continued to compete in what Zeidan calls the “war of stickers”— bumper stickers on cars. The more they felt threatened, the more Coptic Christians withdrew into themselves. College students found their own sectarian groupings, with some calling for the establishment of a 22 Coptic po liti cal party. Meanwhile, occasional sectarian outcries spread from the pulpits of mosques, and slanderous books, pamphlets, and cassette tapes unleashed sentiments of communal suspicion and mistrust, oft en dispropor- tionately, against the Copts. These developments became evidence to support Copts’ claim as “oppressed minority,” whose dissenting sentiments the church leadership tended to appease. An absence of collective action had earned them the description of “passive minority.” Thus, when thousands of angry middle- class Christian youths took to the streets of Cairo in June 2001 to ex- press outrage against a slanderous report in a newspaper against the Coptic Church (about a defrocked priest allegedly having sex with a woman on the premises of a church), it shocked the po liti cal elite. Similar collective outrage lm Bahab al- Sinima (I was expressed only a year later on the screening of the fi Love Movies), made by a Copt, which had allegedly “misrepresented” the Chris- tian way of life in Cairo. Signifi cantly, in both cases protesters refused to seek state protection but resorted to direct protests from the nucleus of their own 23 community, the church. These represented communal protests, directed not against other religious members, but against a par tic u lar newspaper and a fi lmmaker. What do these forms of incidents tell us about the nature of interreligious relations in Egypt? Violent clashes seem to occur in par tic u lar po liti cal con- ditions, for example, the reign of President Sadat and the rise of Islamism. Accordingly, they originate less from the communities’ lay members than from elites or militants. Signifi cantly, most of the incidents took place in rural areas or provincial towns of southern Egypt, rather than in large cities, such as Cairo, where a large concentrated Coptic population lives. Finally, these nar- -1— ratives of confl ict represent the tales of the vocal, the noise, the shouting, 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 194 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

209 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 195 burning, and killing, which are oft en reported, recorded, and which we hear. They are real and require serious attention. But the narratives also conceal the more intricate dynamics of communal interactions; they tell us little about how “separate” communities have nevertheless so profoundly merged into a cultural fabric that drawing boundaries between them becomes an empirical challenge. The tales of the “mainstream” oft en obscure the ways in which Christian and Muslim families live their lives on a daily basis, interact with one another, merge and diverge identities, and share long- standing lifeworlds, and then experience moments of mistrust and suspicion. To highlight the spatial moments of coexistence, I will focus on the Cairo district of Shubra, unique for its cosmopolitan history and high concentration of Copts (cur- rently 30 percent) located in the Muslim megacity in which Christian popula- tion is dispersed in small pockets or individually in the vast urban landscape. CAIRO’S SHUBRA: GEOGRAPHY OF COEXISTENCE For centuries aft er Cairo’s construction, Shubra remained the summer resi- dence of the notables and the elites. In fact, the word Shubra is a Coptic term 24 referring to Djebro or Sapro, meaning “countryside.” From the nineteenth century, the area expanded, developing especially aft er World War I. In 1947 Shubra had 282,000 residents, increasing to 541,000 by 1960. The natural popu- lation growth and migration turned the surrounding areas into Coptic neigh- borhoods. So in the current administrative division, Shubra constitutes only a segment of the adjacent districts of Rod El- Farag, Ezbekiya, and Sahel, which accommodates the highest concentration of Christians in the city. In its mod- ern expansion, Shubra developed new European- style streets and buildings, in- cluding churches, clinics, missionary schools, and cinemas. Mohammad Ali Pasha’s summer palace, built in the image of Versailles, crowned Shubra Ave- nue, the fashionable carriage promenade, which had become known as Egypt’s Champs Elysées. With the settlement of elite families originating from the Le- vant, Ottoman, Syria, and Lebanon, as well as Jews, Greeks, and Italians, and most famously the singer/actress Dalida, Shubra assumed an exceptionally cos- 25 mopolitan character, attracting a host of artists, singers, writers, and poets. The twentieth- century Shubra, an extension of Ezbekiya, has been the residential area of middle- class urbanites, with a 40 percent Coptic concen- tration. However, in its current form, Shubra looks in many ways like hun- —-1 dreds of other lower- class areas in the city. The district has lost its past glory, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 195 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

210 196 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET style, elitist distinction, and cosmopolitan posture. From being Egypt’s Champs Elysées, Shubra Avenue has declined into a congested, crowded road, dark- ened and depleted by the city’s traffi c fumes. The run- down remains of its old- style homes, two- or three- story villas, are now surrounded by scores of tasteless, boxy, and fl imsy buildings, struggling to emerge out of layers of dust and pollution. Its urban form, shops, people, and rhythms are not radically erent from other neighborhoods. Yet Shubra represents a distinct urban- diff ected in its history and memory, in its urban “footprints,” in social ity, refl 26 space, in echoes and manners. It is perhaps the only baladi , or pop u lar area in the city, where one can see a larger number of unveiled women shopping, walking, or working in the public space. Some of them stand behind store counters as salespersons, while older ones may sit in front- door chairs on the sidewalks. More striking perhaps is Subra’s skyline. Minarets of cross and crescent conjoin sometimes in juxtaposed proximity, staring at each other in resolve and rectitude. From these structures emanate the echoes of eve ning prayers, fi lling the sky of the neighborhoods. Indeed, for Muslim passersby, Shubra’s small churches are not estranged zaway s— small, single- room spaces places; they look remarkably like Muslim and simple structures, with the male worshippers usually sitting on the fl oor, reciting from the holy book, simultaneously broadcast on rooft op loudspeak- ers. The large churches, such as Mar Girgis in Khalafawi, where worshippers are seated on chairs, are more complex. They oft en act as community centers, places of prayers, recreation, education, interpersonal relations, and spaces of communal identity and association. Both male and female Copts attend large churches, but, just as in mosques, they pray or attend religious classes in seg- regated halls. Similarly, the informality that characterizes Coptic churches (the apparent disorder, screaming children, men and women chatting, sipping tea, and nibbling sandwiches) resembles that of mosques. Both institutions of faith share in their regard for each other. During Muslim festivals and Rama- dan, for instance, Shubra churches illuminate with colorful green lights, to express solidarity with mosques. The experience of sharing in the public space encompasses the common erent institutions. Coptic and Muslim children attend the use of many diff same government schools, where they play, fi ght, form peer groups, and expe- rience almost identical childhoods. There are plenty of stories about Muslims ) schools. owqaf who attended Christian schools, or Copts who joined Islamic ( -1— Educated Copts from the older generations took courses in Al- Azhar; the poet 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 196 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

211 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 197 Wahbi Tadross studied Qur ̓an; and Francis al- Eter attended classes by Mu- hammad Abdu, who decried the sectarian divide and saw nationalism as the 27 cooperation of all citizens irrespective of religion. In the localities, Muslims and Christians build deliberately nonsectarian organizations such as com- munity associations to improve the neighborhood. Coptic and Muslim busi- nesses and shops are invariably found next to each other, with almost no way for an outsider to know which belongs to whom, except by religious names of their own ers. This integration structures daily personal interactions, for in- stance, in cleaning up the front shop sidewalk, watching each other’s business, lending and borrowing, and neighborly chatting and discussing. I did not see any indication that Christians refer only to Christian, and Muslims to Mus- lim, businesses. Business personnel of Shubra are likely to live in the vicinity, in the typical three- or four- story boxy apartment buildings, where each fl oor is usually tai- lored to enclose two or three fl ats, within each residing a Muslim or Christian family. The proximity of buildings across the narrow streets and alleyways is such that neighbors cannot avoid overhearing or seeing one another. In such interfaith spatial arrangement, few things remain private. For residents who have shared common life, apartment doors do not remain closed. Umm Ya- hya may enter into Abla Mary’s fl at just across the hall without knocking on her door, and engage in hour- long smalltalk, a practice not to the liking of the more autonomous younger generations. If a neighbor does not hear the usual buzz in the next- door apartment, she might wonder what has gone wrong. “Where is your mother?” recalled Safa, a Christian resident of Shubra, about her neighbor, Umm Yahya from the front balcony. Umm Yahya had not heard Safa’s mother’s usual “good mornings,” for she had fallen ill. Upon hearing the news, “she came back, before lunch, with two big chickens and lots of maca- roni,” a visit that was followed by frequent calls to make sure that the children 28 were fi ne. “It is not clear in your story if Umm Yahya was a Christian or Muslim,” I commented. “She was Muslim, God bless her; she was a neighbor,” she replied. “You see at the time,” Safa went on, “we did not know [notice] re- ligion. We were not just aware if this person was Christian or that one Muslim. Actually, my father kept both the Qur ̓an and Bible at home. We had both; we didn’t know the separation.” In fact, there is little that distinguishes a Chris- tian home from a Muslim one in middle- class Shubra. Except for the religious icons, home decorations and internal designs are almost identical— small —-1 rooms packed with heavy furniture, big and bright chandeliers, and walls —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 197 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

212 198 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET lled with religious calligraphies. So, a Christian entering a Muslim home fi would fi nd not a strange but a familiar habitat. Neighborly relations widely involve the customary practice of borrowing things from each other— money, tools, or more frequently a cup of oil, sugar, rice, or beans. For those who fi nd cash in scarcity, it is essential, as part of survival strategy, to secure access to foodstuff by lending and borrowing. The practice follows the attendant rationalities in how to keep the account, the fre- quency of transfers, and the time of returns. The tradition also means that food culture in both communities is essentially similar. “Coptic food and Mus- lims’ diet is exactly the same,” according to Safa, only Muslims avoid pork, and Copts camel meat. Otherwise, the main Egyptian dishes, molukhiya , kushari , ta ̓miya , and the like are an integral part of food culture in both communities. Even such Muslim delicacies as (a special sweet made of milk, rice, and ashura sugar) are widely consumed by the Christians, oft en on special occasions by “important” members of the family, men. Muslim and Christian male neigh- bors may get together in eve ning pastimes to socialize, play backgammon, and talk, while women serve them tea and delicacies, which refl ects how gen- der relations in the two communities are remarkably similar. The Orthodox Church stipulates that it is the man’s duty to house, feed, clothe, and shelter his wife, who, in return, is obliged to obey her husband and not to leave home without his permission. Women are not allowed to make major decisions in the church, or to become deacons or priests, even though they may involve themselves in charity and ser vice work. Just as in mosques, in churches too men and women sit separately during the prayer. Early mar- riage is condoned and female circumcision is practiced in both communities. Christians share more or less similar piety and moral codes as Muslims in terms of family relations, respect for elders, sexuality, and marriage. “Conser- vatism is not just a Muslim thing,” Coptic Maged commented. “Church is also 29 saying TV or fi lms are not allowed.” However, while the conservative piety of en judged by their public appearance in the veil (as op- Muslim women is oft posed to “modern” unveiled ones), lack of veiling among Christian women of- ten veils their conservative ethos. What in principle determines the cultural and behavioral patterns in Egypt is not religion, but class. Muslim and Coptic middle classes share by far more than what poor and middle- class Copts do. No distinct dress codes separate members of the two faiths. Gone are the nineteenth- century days when the Copts were compelled to wear colored tur- -1— bans, belts, or heavy crosses around their necks, as reported by Edward Lane, 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 198 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

213 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 199 even though the use of some religious symbols (such as the cross and tattoos that in the past largely peasants displayed as protection from evil spirits) 30 seems to be back. The growth of veiling among Muslim women is a very re- cent phenomenon, largely since the 1980s. It is mainly the use of religious names (such as Mohammad or George) that distinguishes a Christian from a Muslim. Yet with the growing use of nonreligious names (such as Shirin or Mona), this identity marker has drastically diminished. Followers of both faiths invariably stressed deep interfaith friendships, in par tic u lar among youths of the same sex. Beyond the schools where peer groups are formed, neighborhoods and apartment buildings are places where youngsters establish deep affi nity. Male youngsters spend a great deal of time on the street corners, strolling, chatting, seeing movies, sitting in coff ee shops, or playing soccer, sometimes very late at night. But young females, both Mus- lim and Christian, are likely to join together in the privacy of homes to build close associations. Even when Fatma, a Muslim friend of her Christian neigh- bor Lilian, went through a new religiosity by putting on the veil, their deep af- 31 nity was not aff fi ected. Muslims in Shubra attend churches for marriage and religious festivities, while Christians may partake in Muslim weddings and ift ars . Na- such festive occasions as Eid al- Fitr, or Eid al- Adha, and Ramadan tional ancient holidays, such as Sham Nassim, are shared by both religious members. It is true that intermarriage is rare, but cross- religious love is not. Novels and fi lms on Shubra oft en contain stories about love aff airs between the Chris- tian and Muslim youths, highlighting secret romances between the neighbor- ing teens. The proximity of homes, windows, and balconies makes eye con- tact, personal interactions, and emotional exchanges between neighbors— in their ordinary or “natural” states, their T-shirts or pajamas— a way of life. Yet such tales of interfaith love oft en end in sorrow, in the sad realization that legal union will not be in their future. Venturing into Shubra neighborhoods on Friday midday, one cannot es- (call for prayers) cape the reverberating sound of Qur ̓an recitation and the adan from the bustling mosques, large or small. The mosques soon are packed with young and old men, with the prayers lined up, soon extending into the sur- rounding allies and streets. In the western mainstream media, the group of bending praying men represents the most eye- catching marker of Islam ( just note the images in books on Islam or in daily papers), representing a clear re- —-1 ligious pointer that separates “us” from “them.” For the Christians of Shubra, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 1 9 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 199 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

214 200 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET c however, the scene is neither novel nor an issue, except perhaps for the traffi they are just how things are in the congestion they might cause; otherwise, neighborhood. People simply “do not see them.” Indeed, the lack of awareness about many identity markers that readily stand out for an outsider is remark- able. For the month or so that I lived in Shubra’s neighborhood of Khalafawi, I would be wakened, oft en abruptly, by the thundering noise of morning s, which blast from the loudspeakers hooked onto the front doors of adan neighborhood mosques. Almost every night I would wonder how the Chris- tian neighbors felt about such piercing sounds in the middle of the night. “We don’t hear them,” they usually responded. This discourse of “not seeing, not hearing, or not noticing,” in a sense, points to a state of unconsciousness about “diff erence” in the daily life of Shubra, indicating the dissipation of boundaries in some domains of social and cultural life among Muslims and Christians. DIALECTIC OF CONFLICT AND COEXISTENCE It is naive to present a romantic picture of harmonious sectarian relations in Cairo. What good does such sharing do if it suddenly turns into episodes of violent confrontations, of killing, burning, and destroying in the name of re- ligious diff erence? What if these members do not invoke their shared lives when the overarching image of communal divide haunts them? We have al- ready seen how Egypt experienced three de cades of frequent violent confl icts between members of Muslim and Christian communities, with dozens of people killed, mosques and even more churches attacked, and scores of prop- erties destroyed. But as indicated earlier, the violent clashes occurred in par- tic u lar po liti cal episodes, were instigated primarily by militant members, took place in specifi c geographies, and escalated not simply out of sectarian diff erence, but also due to the Upper Egyptian “culture of vendetta,” of re- venge killing” ( tha ̔r ), which in essence serves to strengthen the patriarchy of 32 lineage or tribe. More importantly, incidents of confl icts take place not within the large modern cities, but overwhelmingly in villages or provincial towns. Yet, interreligious clash does arise in everyday interactions. Confl icts may occur between the Christians and Muslims for the same reasons as within each religious group. Tensions with secular roots can be given religious color- ings as a way of cultivating support or opposition in an urban locality. Radical -1— activists on both sides attempt to highlight religious diff erences in their quest 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 200 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

215 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 201 to build pop u lar backing. Militant Islamists oft en “otherized” Copts as non- religious people in order to plant a more exclusive religious identity among their potential constituencies. National politicians at times exalt one faith over the other to nurture support. Thus, Christians oft en feel a profound insensitiv- ity when po liti cal leaders or soap operas project “Egypt as an Islamic nation,” a 33 posture that subtracts the Coptic population from the national membership. Yet other tensions arise directly out of diff erences in religious traditions; for instance, churches ringing their bells simultaneously with the mosques’ calls for prayers can cause disruption and tensions. Laypeople of the faith, as in Shubra, time and again try to fi nd solutions to their diff erences. Many Shubra residents remain indiff erent to the divisive tactics of national politicians. Thus, during the parliamentary elections in 2000, in the mostly Muslim district of Al- Weili in Shubra, the Muslim candidate of the rul- ing National Demo cratic Party, Ahmad Fouad Abdel- Aziz, played the sectarian card against his Christian opponent, Mounir Fakhri Abdel- Nour, from the Wafd Party. He propagated the idea that a Christian member of parliament could not represent Muslims. Yet Muslims went ahead electing the Christian 34 candidate as their deputy. In general, Cairo has seen the prevalence of sectar- ian coexistence more than confl ict. The reason cannot be attributed simply to some natural tendency of humans to cooperate, for we have also seen periods of confl icts, even though humans do possess the capacity to coexist, largely when “right conditions” are at their disposal. Nor can the general interreligious calm be reduced to Copts’ minority position, their “passivity,” atypical tolerance of discrimination, or their subordination to the hegemony and cultural power of the majority. For we have seen also episodes of disquiet, protests, and the expres- sion of collective identity. Despite that Copts constitute a distinct group in terms of shared historical memory, religion, a “proper name,” or a “myth of common ancestry,” undoubtedly their shared traits, homeland, history, and culture with the “larger Muslim society” play a major role in Muslim– Christian coexis- 35 tence. Yet there is a need to transcend generalities and abstract images of erent commonality, by exploring the concrete ways in which people of diff ethno- religious groupings experience interconnectedness in daily life. In other words, we need to highlight the geographies within which sharing is experi- enced (or confl ict is fostered). The modern city severely undermines the tradi- tional pattern of immediate, local, interpersonal, and territorial ethno- religious communities. It mixes people with various primordial imaginings, facilitating —-1 experiences of interpersonal interactions and sharing; it destabilizes the total —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 201 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

216 202 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET and indiscriminate image of sectarian community and solidarity. Muslim– Coptic relations in Shubra are a function of the transformation of urban space in Cairo in the twentieth century. Social change and the modernization of Cairo in the past one hundred years have led to the breakdown of the traditional Coptic community— that is, a relatively bounded religiously based group localized in par tic u lar urban territory with regular day- to- day interpersonal relations— into a mostly frag- mented population loosely tied together through a “virtual” or “distanciated community.” These Copts with broad Christian identity simultaneously share and experience life with diff erent and diverse non- Coptic individuals and groups. Janet Abu- Lughod has shown how the ecological or ga ni za tion of the preindustrial city in medieval times has in many ways shaped the ethnic and religious distribution of the population in today’s Cairo. Built in the tenth century by the Fatimids, the walled city of Cairo did not expand consider- ably until the French Expedition in the early nineteenth century and the en- suing modernization pro cess; at this time its population did not exceed some 200,000 inhabitants. Until the nineteenth century, the Muslim majority largely lived inside the walls, while some 20,000 religious minorities— Greek sects, Jews, Armenians, and some 10,000 Copts— resided outside, in the northwest 36 corner of Cairo, and were “excluded by and in turn excluded the majority.” Not only the religious minorities, but also the Muslim majority, were ethni- cally divided into distinct groupings, including Egyptian Arabs, foreign Mus- 37 lims, Mamluks, Black Nubians, and Ethiopians. The ethnic and religious groups irrespective of class and status lived in distinctive shared quarters, wherein workplaces stood traditionally in close proximity to homes. Only Jews typically lived in the walled city, since their major occupation, money- changing and goldsmithing, were located inside the walls, and because they lived close to and under the protection of the ruler who crowned the walled city. The Coptic quarter was located just north of the modern Azbakiya, a site for the port town of al- Maqs, and within the Qas al- Sham ̔a portion of old Cairo. What determined their spatial location had to do with Copts’ main- stream occupations, as scribes, account keepers, and customs offi cials, who 38 resided in the proximity of their work site, the port. These were the urban occupations in which the early Arab conquerors (warriors) were not inter- 39 ested and lacked the skill to perform. The rapid modernization pro cess transformed occupational structure and -1— changed many spatial features of Cairo, including the walled quarters; it cre- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 202 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

217 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 203 ated new architectural styles and institutions, a class- based spatial division, distinction of workplace and living areas, land use separation, and ethnic and religious mixing. The modern industry, education, and administration gener- ated a new class of professionals and businesses among Muslims ( eff s) endy and Copts alike. Yet Copts remained disproportionately more urban, more professional, and better- off . The Coptic tradition of secular education empha- sizing professionalism seems to have contributed to the higher percentage of teachers, doctors, and engineers among them. One estimate in the 1970s found that 80 percent of all pharmacists and 30– 40 percent of all doctors in 40 Egypt were Copts. They have a lso been involved in businesses such as money- lending or wine and pork production, in which Muslims express lesser inter- ests. As modernization swept the nation, such wealthy and professional Copts did not hesitate to move out of the traditionally Coptic neighborhoods to dis- perse and merge into the newly established middle- class areas across the city. What added to a further fragmentation of ethnos and dilution of ethnic com- munities was that many ethnic and religious minorities, especially Jews, some middle- class Copts, and foreigners (Greek and Italian entrepreneurs, British civil servants, troops, and businessmen) left er the 1952 Revolution. Egypt aft 41 By the late 1960s, close to 300,000 Egyptians were living abroad. Although the walled section of today’s Cairo has maintained some aspects of its traditional spatial or ga ni za tion, it has been strangled by the encroaching modern neighborhoods and their feeble buildings devoid of any memorable character. 42 Thus, the Coptic population (some 10 percent of the total inhabitants ) dispersed individually or in pockets of families across the vast terrain of this megacity. It was largely Shubra, an extension of the Coptic quarter in Azba- kiya that maintained its historic legacy of relatively higher (40 and 30 percent respectively) Christian density. Yet even here the infl ux of Muslim rural mi- grants (partly due to the location of Khazindar bus terminal in Shubra) since the Second World War expanded Shubra while diluting its Christian density. Indeed as more rural Muslim migrants have moved in, residing in such lower- class neighborhoods as al- Wayli, Zaytoun, Shubra al- Khaymah, or al- Azawa uent and middle- class Christians (along with their Muslim al- Hamra, the affl counterparts) chose to move out to settle in the more desirable districts of Muhandessin, Heliopolis, and Nozha, where they created ethnically heteroge- neous and more cosmopolitan urban localities. The appeal of modern autono- —-1 mous individuality, mobility, and the in de pen dent nuclear family free from —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 203 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

218 204 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET traditional ties and restrictions continue to push new generations of middle- class professional Copts to seek, once they can aff ord it, to reside outside of their historic Coptic quarters. Consequently, Shubra over the years has been left with more variation in terms of housing styles, socioeconomic status, and 43 ethnic composition than other districts. While, relative to other areas in Cairo, Shubra still accommodates more concentrated Christian Copts, the area has nonetheless lost its more cohesive ethnic grouping or closeness in a bounded spatial location. Ethno- religious dilution in a neighborhood means diminishing the real experience of intimate and durable interaction and shar- ing with members from one’s own ethnic grouping, simultaneously increas- ing the possibility of more physical proximity to, social interaction, cultural sharing, and, in short, coexistence with members of other ethno- religious clusters. So, the old Coptic quarter of Azbakiya and its Shubra extension, where Christians lived together, did business, interacted, and shared in every- day life, has given way to a more heterogeneous mélange of diverse people, interests, and interactions. It is perhaps no surprise that a Coptic intellectual would argue: “Community? What community? There is not such a Coptic 44 community in Egypt.” “DISTANCIATED” COMMUNITY I tend to think, however, that some sort of “Coptic community” does exist in Egypt. The diminishing of localized, immediate, and territorially based reli- gious “community” has not meant the end of collective identity, communal sentiment, and imagining. A feeling of general threat, discrimination, and distinction or a desire for what Stanley Tambiah calls “leveling” can generate collective affi nity among religious members who may not even have met each other. Leveling refers to eff orts to equalize entitlements, eliminating the real or perceived advantages enjoyed by the opponents and the disadvantages suf- 45 fered by the self. While the modern city, as in Cairo, tends to erode close- knit face- to- face and localized collectives, thus bringing out modes of cosmo- politan experience and interaction, it at the same time facilitates broader, even though distanciated and imagined, communities. For the modern city is not just physical space (neighborhood relations, immediate proximities, and the everyday) but also consists of the public sphere— the sphere of virtual communities, po liti cal pro cess, media activities, and citizenship. The urban concentration of literacy, electoral campaigns, and mass media (news, novels, -1— daily papers, images, TV, satellite channels, and now the Internet) provide 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 204 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

219 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 205 anonymous religious members the means to associate, develop collective af- nity, and form a virtual community. In modern conditions, rumors, the source fi of so many sectarian tensions, spread faster and farther than ever before, thus potentially rendering communal relations even more volatile and precarious. icts would remain mostly enclosed, Unlike in premodern times, when confl extinguishable, and endemic, the modern media have the capacity to broaden a small and insignifi cant incident into epidemics of generalized violence among overstretched imagined and distanciated communities. Only in late modernity could a few cartoons of Prophet Muhammad or Pope Benedict’s statement galvanize Muslim collective outrage in such a global scale and velocity. In Egypt, the dominance of Islamic discourse in the past three de cades has made the Christians more self- conscious as a “minority.” Their internal affi n- ity has been reinforced by both real and imagined acts of discrimination. Copts in general speak of how they are under- represented in academia and professional unions; are deprived of state support for Coptic studies; have no Coptic mayors, governors, college deans, school head teachers; and are absent from high- ranking military positions, the judiciary, intelligence, and presi- dential offi ces. When the Muslim Brotherhood leader, Mustafa Mashhur, dhimmi were not to be allowed stated in the 1990s that Copts as the people of to serve in the Egyptian army, it implied a lack of trust in Christians. Mass media have in par tic u lar been instrumental in alienating Copts as a collective by spreading anti- Christian smears and rumors or by projecting them as second- class citizens. Pop u lar tele vi sion serials oft en depict Egypt as an Is- 46 lamic nation, thus excluding Christians from its membership. Many ordinary Christians may not experience or not be aware of these facts, but these are usually communicated through publications, via websites, and, more fi ercely, by Coptic activists in exile. On the other hand, the retreat of the state from social welfare provisions tends to reinforce the sectarian divide, in that people are compelled to rely on their own communal support instead of the state, upon which all citizens equally rest. Thus, following President Sadat’s open door policy, the Coptic Church took on the task of establishing a network of community development centers in rural and urban areas to provide reli- gious education, literary classes, women’s empowerment, and income genera- tion schemes of various kinds— ones that cater largely to Christian clientele. The 1980s and 1990s saw an even more expansive “welfare pluralism,” one that —-1 47 was deemed to buttress a new “communal identity” and loyalty. Thus, Maged’s —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 0 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 205 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

220 206 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET uncle in Shubra established a welfare association that supports forty poor Coptic families, who are introduced by the local church or the related associa- 48 tions, serving only the Christian families. Thus, while Shubra stands as a distinctive Christian– Muslim cosmopolitan locale in the city’s imagination, the discourse of exclusivist identities does contribute to lines of tension within Shubra. What we have, then, is a coincidence of both a daily experience of inter- religious coexistence and a sense of inner- communal belonging among Copts and Muslims. This simultaneity of exclusive communal identity and inclusive inter- communal connectedness gives rise to a diff erent kind of ethno- religious reality, one quite distinct from those projected by both primordialist and in- strumentalist schools. One might call this “critical communalism” or “post- communalism,” referring to a critical identity that unites a collective sense of ethno- religious self with cosmopolitan experience of lifeworld, and in which the sense of the “other” is complicated by the live experience of interpersonal association, sharing, and trust. In day- to- day life, judgment about “us” and “them” tends to be concrete, selective, and diff erential, rather than general- ized and sweeping. Selective rational judgments moderate generalized praise of self and prejudice against others, diminishing the ground for inward- ict in everyday life. looking sectarianism and collective confl Does this mean that the modern city is free from communal strife? Not quite. The extraordinary tales of sectarian violence in Beirut, Sarajevo, Mum- bai, and Delhi attest to the fact that “critical communalism” does not elimi- nate the possibility of episodic sectarian violence in cosmopolitan conditions. Civil war, destruction of property, killing, and rape are common features of what Horowitz calls the “deadly ethnic riot” in urban places. It is not uncom- mon to hear astonishing tales of carnage between long- standing neighbors 49 and associates. Of course, the experience of the sectarian divide in Egypt, even in its villages, is in no way comparable to the kind of “routinization,” “ritualization,” and seemingly disproportionate scale of collective violence 50 that seem to characterize South Asian or African ethnic relations. Neverthe- less, Egypt’s urban landscape has not remained immune to occasional com- munal confrontations. October 2005 saw ten- day sectarian tension and vio- lence between Muslims and Christians in the historically cosmopolitan port city of Alexandria. The incident began with the media reporting news of a . The video recording, a DVD, of a play called I Was Blind, but Now I Can See -1— play told the story of a young Copt who was persuaded by fundamentalist 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 206 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

221 EVERYDAY COSMOPOLITANISM 207 Muslims to convert to Islam, only to return to Christianity soon aft er realiz- ing the moral shortcomings of Muslims. The tabloid press seemed to exploit the DVD to undermine a Christian candidate for the parliamentary elections in favor of his Muslim rivals. The newspapers pressed the Coptic Church to issue an apology for the DVD. Upon its refusal, some fi ve thousand Muslim protesters assembled at the gate of the church of Mar Girgis, which had been accused of distributing the DVD. The ensuing fi ghts left three people dead, 150 injured and over 100 arrested. The incident became a prelude to yet an- other episode of violence some six months later, when on April 14, 2006, a Muslim man stabbed Coptic worshippers in three separate Alexandria 51 churches, causing further sectarian dissension. How, then, can one explain the episodic feuds between individuals and families of diff erent denominations who have been living together through communal divide? This is an extremely challenging task, and a satisfactory response is yet to emerge. Suffi ce here to suggest that the very coincidence of cosmopolitan interaction, on the one hand, and communal belonging, on the other, carries within itself the seeds of an exaggerated emphasis on demarca- tion, which can potentially grow into mass violence of extraordinary scale. Georg Simmel observed that “the degeneration of diff erence in convictions into hatred and fi ght occurs only when there are essential similarities between 52 the parties.” In other words, when confl ict erupts between ethno- religious groups that had a history of similarity and coexistence, rival parties make an exaggerated attempt to highlight the diff erences and wipe out blurring and confusion. Thus, in the words of Tambiah, speaking on South Asia, “the greater the blessings of and ambiguities between the socially- constructed cat- egories of diff erence, the greater the venom of the imposed boundaries, when 53 confl ict erupts between the self and the other, ‘us’ and ‘them.’ ” Notwith- standing their signifi cance, these observations refl ect only an aspect of the complex whole, in that they relate to the indiscriminate intercommunal atroci- ties in which assailants construct an abstract and generalized picture of the target groups, lumping everyone together as the object of hatred. The fact, however, is that the times of acute tension are also times when individual op- ponents selectively spare, protect, and rescue neighboring “enemies” from the wrath of indiscriminate assault. They invoke their life experience of sharing and trust with people who happen to belong to a rival sect. In other words, the experience of cosmopolitan exchange renders a Muslim to project a more —-1 concrete and diff erentiated “Christian people,” rather than massing them —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 0 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 207 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

222 LITI CAL STREET 208 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO together as an abstract and totalized other, and vice versa. Thus, a Coptic resi- dent referring to the sectarian confrontation in Alexandria in October 2006 would say, “This [the clash] is not going to keep me from associating with my Muslim friends.” And a Muslim shop keep er would echo, “In this neighbor- hood, we Copts and Muslims live together, work together, share the same 54 hardships. It is inconceivable that a problem like this should tear us apart.” This pro cess of individual diff erentiation in judging the “other” by lived ex- perience of interpersonal association, sharing, and trust, that is, everyday cosmopolitanism, is likely to contain indiscriminate sectarian divide and 55 dissension. Aft er all, in Egypt’s worst urban religious “strife” in Alexandria in October 2006, only three people were killed— and they were killed not by rival sect members, but by the rubber bullets of the police. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c 9/1/09 1:59 PM 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 0 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 208 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M h

223 THE “ARAB STREET” 11 in the tense weeks between the September 11 attacks and the fi rst U.S. bomb- ing raids over Af ghan i stan, and continuing until the fall of the Taliban, com- mentators raised serious concerns about what the Wall Street Journal later 1 called the “irrational Arab street.” If the United States attacked a Muslim country, the pundits worried, would the “Arab street” rally behind Osama bin Laden and other radical Islamists, endangering other U.S. interests in the re- gion and rendering George W. Bush’s “war on terrorism” a troublesome, if not doomed, venture from the outset? As U.S. troops prepared to deploy in Af- cials in Washington implored Israeli prime minister Ariel ghan i stan, some offi Sharon to exercise restraint in his campaign to crush the Palestinian uprising by force. Should Israeli incursions into Palestinian territory continue during the U.S. assault on the Taliban, they feared, the simmering rage of the Arab masses might “boil over,” leaving the local gendarmes powerless to prevent the furious crowds from harming Americans, trashing U.S. property, and threatening the stability of friendly Arab regimes. Senator Joseph Biden broached the possibility that “every US embassy in the Middle East [would be] burned 2 to the ground.” Since the war in Af ghan i stan, and continuing through the major Israeli off ensives in the West Bank and the buildup to Bush’s war on Iraq, the “Arab street” became a minor house hold phrase in the West, bandied about in the media as both a subject of profound anxiety and an object of withering Adapted from Asef Bayat, “The ‘Street’ and the Politics of Dissent in the Arab World,” —-1 Middle East Report , no. 226 (spring 2003), pp. 10– 17. —0 —+1 209 5 4 4 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 0 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 209 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M -

224 210 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET condescension. The “Arab street” and, by extension, the “Muslim street” be- came code words that immediately invoke a reifi ed and essentially “abnormal” mind- set, as well as a strange place fi lled with angry people who, whether be- cause they “hate us” or just “don’t understand us,” must shout imprecations “against us.” “Arab or other Muslim actions” were described almost exclusively 3 in terms of “mobs, riots, revolts,” leading to the logical conclusion that “West- ern standards for mea sur ing public opinion simply don’t apply” in the Arab world. At any time, American readers were reminded, protesting Arab masses might shed their unassuming appearance and “suddenly turn into a mob, powerful enough to sweep away governments—”notably the “moderate” Arab 4 governments who remain loyal allies of the United States. Worries about the “Arab street” notwithstanding, U.S. forces did move into Af ghan i stan, U.S. bombs did kill Afghan civilians in the thousands, the Israeli– Palestinian confl ict only briefl y “cooled off ,” and Bush moved full speed ahead with plans to attack Iraq. But, though numerous protests in the Muslim and Arab worlds did occur, no U.S. embassy was burned to the ground. Nor did the Arab and Muslim masses rally behind Bin Laden. Only when Israel invaded the West Bank in the spring of 2002 did ordinary people in the Arab world collectively explode with outrage. The millions of Arab citizens who poured into the streets of Cairo, Amman, Rabat, and many other cities to ex- press sympathy with the Palestinians evoked memories of how Arab anticolo- nial movements in the postwar period were driven from below. But because the “Arab street” had not erupted at the possible U.S. bombing in Af ghan i stan during Ramadan, this very real example of latent pop u lar anger in the Arab world was airily dismissed. Abruptly, the image of the “Arab street” shift ed from an unpredictable powder keg to a “myth” and a “bluff ,” somehow kept alive despite the fact that Arab countries were fi lled with “brainwashed” peo- 5 ple trapped in “apathy.” The implication for U.S. policymaking was clear: Ar- abs do not have the guts to stop an attack on Iraq or any other unpop u lar U.S. initiative, and therefore the United States should express “not sensitivity, but 6 resolution,” in the face of remonstrations from Arab allies. Neither the slogans tence of Arab governments that they of the actual demonstrators nor the insis face unbearable pressure from their populations needed to be taken at face value. The Economist declared the “death” of the Arab street, once and for all. It was not long before national security adviser Condoleezza Rice concluded that because the Arab peoples were too weak to demand democracy, the -1— 7 United States should intervene to liberate the Arab world from its tyrants. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 210 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

225 THE “ARAB STREET” 211 LITI CAL STREET STREET POLITICS AND PO In the narratives of the western media, the “Arab street” is damned if it does and damned if it doesn’t— either it is “irrational” and “aggressive,” or it is “apathetic” and “dead.” There is little chance of its salvation as something western societies might recognize as familiar. The “Arab street” thus became an extension of another infamous concept, the “Arab mind,” which also rei- fi ed the culture and collective conduct of an entire people in a violent abstrac- 8 tion. It was another subject of Orientalist imagination, reminiscent of colo- nial repre sen ta tion of the “other,” which sadly was internalized by some Arab selves. By no simple oversight the “Arab street” was seldom regarded as an expression of public opinion and collective sentiment, like its western coun- terpart still was, but was perceived primarily as a physical entity, a brute force expressed in riots and mob violence. The “Arab street” mattered only in its violent imaginary, when it was poised to imperil interests or disrupt grand strategies. The street that conveyed the collective sentiment was a nonissue, en does safely ignore it. Such percep- because the United States could and oft tions of the “Arab street” have informed Washington’s approach in the Middle East— fl outing Arab public opinion with increasingly unequivocal support for Ariel Sharon while he proceeded to dismantle the Palestinian Authority, and simultaneously, with determination to wage war on Iraq. But street politics in general and the Arab street in par tic u lar are more com- plex. Neither street is a physicality, nor the Arab street a mere brute force or simply dead. The “Arab street” is an expression of not simply street politics in general, but primarily of what I like to call “po liti cal street”; one whose modes and means of articulation have gone through signifi cant changes. “Street poli- tics” represent the modern urban theater of contention par excellence (see Chap- ter 8). We need only remember the role the “street” has played in such monumen- tal po liti cal changes as the French Revolution, nineteenth- century labor movements, anticolonial struggles, the anti– Vietnam War movement in the United States, the “velvet revolutions” in Eastern Eu rope, and, perhaps, the current global antiwar movement. The street, in this sense, is the chief locus of politics for ordinary people, those who are structurally absent from the institu- tional positions of power— the unemployed, casual workers, migrants, people of the underworld, and house wives. It serves as a key medium wherein sentiments and outlooks are formed, spread, and expressed in a remarkably unique fash- —-1 ion. But “street politics” enjoys another dimension, that is, it is more than just —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 211 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

226 212 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET ict between the authorities and the deinstitutionalized or “informal” about confl people over the active use of public space and the control of public order. Streets as spaces of fl ow and movement are not only where people protest, but also where they extend their protest beyond their immediate circles to include also the unknown, the “strangers” who might espouse similar, real or imagined, grievances. That is why not only the deinstitutionalized groups such as the un- employed, but also actors with some institutional power, like workers or stu- nd streets arenas for the extension of collective sentiments. It is this pan- dents, fi demic potential that threatens the authorities, who exert a pervasive power over public spaces— with police patrols, traffi c regulation, and spatial division— as a result. Students at Cairo University, for example, oft en stage protest marches in- side the campus. However, the moment they decide to come out into the street, riot police are immediately and massively deployed to encircle the demonstrators, push them into a corner away from public view, and keep the protest a local event. Indeed this heavily guarded actual street points to the fact that the meta- phorical street is not deserted so much as it is controlled. Beyond serving as the physical place for “street politics,” urban streets also signify a diff erent but crucial symbolic utterance, one that transcends the physicality of street, to convey collective sentiments of a nation or community. This I call po liti cal street — a notion that is distinct from “street politics.” Po liti- cal street signifi es the collective sensibilities, shared feelings, and public judg- ment of ordinary people in their day- to- day utterances and practices, which are expressed broadly in the public squares— in taxis, buses, shops, sidewalks, or more audibly in mass street demonstrations. The Arab street (and by exten- sion, the “Muslim street”) should be seen in terms of such expression of collec- tive sentiments in the Arab public sphere. THE SHIFTING ARAB STREET How does the Arab world fare in terms of its “po liti cal street”? Arab anticolo- nial struggles attest to the active history of the Arab street. Pop u lar move- er ments arose in Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon during the late 1950s aft Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. The unsuccessful tripartite aggression by Britain, France, and Israel in October 1956 to reclaim control of the canal caused an outpouring of pop u lar protests in Arab countries in support of Egypt. Al- though 1956 was probably the last major Pan- Arab solidarity movement until the pro- Palestinian wave of 2002, social protests by workers, artisans, women, -1— and students for domestic social development, citizens’ rights, and po liti cal 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 212 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

227 THE “ARAB STREET” 213 9 Labor movements in Lebanon, Syria, participation have been documented. Egypt, Yemen, and Morocco have carried out strikes or street protests over both bread- and- butter and po liti cal issues. Since the 1980s, during the era of IMF- recommended structural adjustment programs, Arab labor unions have tried to resist cancellations of consumer commodity subsidies, price rises, pay cuts, and layoff s. Despite no- strike deals and repression of activists, wildcat stoppages have occurred. Fear of pop u lar re sis tance has oft en forced govern- ments, such as in Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco, to delay structural adjustment 10 programs or retain certain social policies. When traditional social contracts are violated, Arab populations have re- acted swift ly. The 1980s saw numerous urban protests over the spiraling cost of living. In August 1983, the Moroccan government reduced consumer subsi- dies by 20 percent, triggering urban unrest in the north and elsewhere. Simi- lar protests took place in Tunis in 1984, and in Khartoum in 1982 and 1985. In summer 1987, the rival factions in the Lebanese civil war joined hands to stage an extensive street protest against a drop in the value of the Lebanese cur- rency (see Chapter 4). Algeria was struck by cost- of- living riots in the fall of 1988, and Jordanians staged nationwide protests in 1989, over the plight of Palestinians and economic hardship, forcing King Hussein to introduce cau- ing subsidies in 1996 provoked a tious mea sures of po liti cal liberalization. Lift new wave of street protests, leading the king to restrict freedom of expression 11 and assembly. In Egypt in 1986, low- ranking army offi cers took to the streets to protest the Mubarak regime’s decision to extend military ser vice. The un- rest quickly spread to other sectors of society. While the lower and middle classes formed the core of urban protests, col- lege students oft en joined in. But student movements have had their own con- tentious agendas. In Egypt, the 1970s marked the heyday of a student activism dominated by left ist trends. Outraged opposition to the Camp David peace treaty and economic austerity brought thousands of students out into urban streets. Earlier years had seen students or ga niz ing conferences, strikes, sit- ins, and street marches and producing newspapers for the walls, the “freest of pub- 12 lications.” In 1991, students in Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Jordan, Yemen, and Sudan demonstrated to express anger against both the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the U.S.- led war to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. Since 1986, Palestinian stu- dents have been among the most frequent pa rticipants in actions of the inti- en undeterred by the Israeli army’s policies of shooting and arresting fada, oft —-1 students or closing down Palestinian universities. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 213 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

228 214 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET Yet many things have changed drastically for the Arab street since the 1980s. The pace of cost- of- living protests has slowed down, as governments enact structural adjustment programs more slowly and cautiously, deploy safety nets such as Social Funds (Egypt and Jordan), and allow Islamic NGOs and charities to help out the poor. Indeed, the Arab world enjoys the lowest 13 incidence of extreme poverty in the world’s developing regions. Meanwhile, the discontent of the impoverished middle classes was channeled into the Is- lamist movements in general, and the politicization of professional syndicates in par tic u lar. On the other hand, the more traditional class- based movements— notably, peasant organizations, cooperative movements, and trade unions— have been in relative decline. As peasants have moved to the city from the countryside, or lost their land to become rural day laborers, the social basis of peasant and cooperative movements has eroded. The weakening of economic pop u lism, closely linked to structural adjustment, has led to the decline of public- sector employment, which constituted the core of trade unionism. Through reform, downsizing, privatization, and relocation, structural adjustment has under- mined the unionized public sector, while new private enterprises linked to international capital remain largely union- free. Although the state bureau- cracy remains weighty, its underpaid employees are unor ga nized, and a large proportion of them survive by taking second or third jobs in the informal sec- tor. Currently, much of the Arab workforce is self- employed. Many wage earners work in small, paternalistic businesses. On average, between one- third and one- half of the urban workforce are involved in the unregulated, unor ga nized informal sector. While relations between employers and em- ployees are not always happy, workers tend to be more loyal to their bosses than to fellow workers. Although the explosive growth of NGOs since the 1980s heralded autono- mous civic activism, NGOs are premised on the politics of fragmentation. NGOs divide the potential benefi ciaries of their activism into small groups, substitute charity for principles of rights and accountability, and foster insider lobbying rather than street politics. It is largely the advocacy NGOs, involved in human rights, women’s rights, and demo cratization, not wealth and in- come gaps, that off er diff erent and new spaces for social mobilization. As people rely more on informal activities and their loyalties become frag- mented, struggles for wages and conditions tend to lose ground to concerns -1— over jobs, informal work conditions, and an aff ordable cost of living; and rapid 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 214 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

229 THE “ARAB STREET” 215 urbanization increases demands for urban ser vices, shelter, decent housing, health, and education. Under such conditions, the Arab grass roots resort not to politics of collective protest but to the individualistic strategy of “quiet en- croachment.” Individuals and families strive to acquire basic necessities (land for shelter, urban collective consumption, informal jobs and business oppor- tunities) in a prolonged and unassuming, though illegal, fashion. Instead of or ga niz ing a street march to demand electricity, for example, the disenfran- chised simply tap into the municipal power grid without authorization (see Chapter 4). Thus, in the Arab world, the po liti cal class par excellence remains the educated middle class— state employees, students, professionals, and the intelligentsia— who mobilized the “street” in the 1950s and 1960s with over- arching ideologies of nationalism, Ba ̔athism, socialism, and social justice. Is- lamism has been the latest of these grand worldviews. With the core support coming from the worse- off middle layers, the Islamist movements succeeded for two de cades in activating large numbers of the disenchanted population with cheap Islamization— moral and cultural purity, aff ordable charity work, and identity politics. However, by the mid- 1990s, it became clear that the Is- lamists could not go very far with more costly Islamization— establishing an Islamic polity and economy and conducting international relations compati- ble with the modern national and global citizenry. Islamist rule faced crisis where it was put into practice (as in Iran and Sudan). Elsewhere, violent strat- egies failed (as in Egypt and Algeria), and thus new visions about the Islamic project developed. The Islamist movements either were repressed or became resigned to revision of their earlier outlooks. Anti- Islamic sentiments in the West following the September 11 events, and the subsequent “war on terrorism,” have undoubtedly reinforced a feeling that Islam is under global attack, reinforcing the languages of religiosity and nativism. Several Islamist parties that, among other things, expressed opposi- tion to U.S. policies scored considerable successes in several national elections. The Justice and Development Party in Morocco doubled its share to forty- two seats in the September 2002 elections. In October 2002, the Islamist move- ment came in third in Algerian local elections, and the alliance of religious parties in Pakistan won 53 out of 150 parliamentary seats. In November, Is- lamists won nineteen out of the total forty parliamentary seats in Bahrain, and the Turkish Justice and Development Party captured 66 percent of the leg- —-1 14 islature. However, these electoral victories point less to a “revival of Islamism” —0 —+1 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 1 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 215 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

230 216 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET of Islamism from a po liti cal project with national concerns into than to a shift more fragmented languages concerned with personal piety and global, anti- 15 Islamic menace. If anything, we are on the threshold of a post- Islamist turn. (See Chapter 13.) What ever its merit, a major legacy of Islamism has been to change the Arab states. It rendered the Arab states more religious (as states moved to rob Islamism of its moral authority), more nativist or nationalist (as states moved to assert their Arab authenticity and to disown democracy as a western con- struct), and more repressive, since the liquidation of radical Islamists off ered states the opportunity to control other forms of dissent. This legacy of the Is- lamist movements has further complicated the politics of dissent in today’s Arab world. A RENEWAL The revival of the “Arab street” in 2002 in solidarity with the Palestinians was truly spectacular. For a short while, states lost their tight control, and publicly vocal opposition groups proliferated, even among the “westernized” and “apo- liti cal” students of the American University in Cairo. The Palestinian solidar- ity movement showed that there is more to Arab street politics than Islamism and spurred the renewal of a po liti cal tradition. In January, as the United States moved closer to attacking Iraq, one million Yemenis marched in Sanaa, chanting, “Declaration of War Is Terrorism.” Over ten thousand protested in Khartoum, thousands in Damascus and Rabat, and hundreds in the Bahraini 16 capital of Manama. Twenty thousand Christians in Jordan staged a prayer 17 for the people of Iraq, condemning Bush’s war. One thousand Yemeni women demonstrated in the streets to protest the arrest of a Yemeni citizen 18 mistaken for an al- Qaeda member in Germany. Large and small protest ac- tions against the war on Iraq continued in Egypt and other Arab countries amid massive deployments of police. And with the U.S. and U.K. invasion of Iraq, street protests throughout the Arab world assumed a new momentum. At least with regard to Palestine, however, the tremendous rise of the Arab street occurred with the tacit approval of the Arab states. The extremity of Israel’s violence during the 2002 invasions, and later invasion of U.S. forces into Iraq, brought the politicians and people together in a common national- ist sentiment. In addition, street dissent was directed largely against an outside adversary, and protesters’ slogans against their own governments were voiced -1— 19 primarily by the ideological leaders rather than the ordinary participants. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 1 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 216 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

231 THE “ARAB STREET” 217 Only in the later Cairo rallies of 2005 and 2006 did crowds demand the re- moval of the twenty- year- old emergency laws, which continue to hamper free public assembly, and an end to the Mubarak presidency. These rallies then evolved into an explicitly prodemocracy movement. Why did the Arab street fail to rise against its own suppression, to demand democracy and justice? While the disenfranchised have resorted to “quiet encroachment,” the Arab states have considerably neutralized the po liti cal class by promulgating a common discourse based on nationalism, religiosity, and anti- Zionism. Entrenched in the “old- fashioned Pan- Arab nationalism,” and seduced by the language of religiosity and moral politics, the Arab intel- ligentsia failed to seize the moment to win po liti cal concessions from their own authoritarian states. Israel’s occupation of Palestinian lands, with mate- rial and diplomatic U.S. support, has trapped generations of Arab intelligen- tsia in a narrow- minded nativism and cultural nationalism from which the authoritarian Arab states largely benefi t. The nativist oft en dismisses ideas and practices, however noble, that can be described as rooted in alien, usually “western,” cultures and romanticizes ideas and practices of the “self ” even if they are oppressive. Human rights, for example, may simply be discarded as a western import or a manipulative U.S. ploy. On the other hand, the Arab governments allow little room for in de pen- dent dissent. Since 2000, demands for collective protests against the United States and Israel were ignored by the authorities, while unoffi cial street ac- tions faced intimidation and assault, with activists being harassed or de- 20 tained. On February 15, 2003, the day that over ten million people through- out the world demonstrated against the U.S. war on Iraq, thousands of Egyptian riot police squeezed some fi ve hundred demonstrators into a corner, separat- ing them from the public. Faced with formidable challenges to expression in the street, Arab activ- ists developed new means of articulating dissent, mostly in the form of civic campaign— boycott campaigns, cyberactivism, and protest art among them. As the Arab states exercised surveillance over the streets, activism was pushed in- side the confi nes of civil institutions— college campuses, schools, mosques, pro- fessional associations, and NGOs. Given the lack of a free po liti cal climate, professional associations off ered venues for po liti cal campaigns, to the extent en assumed the role of po liti cal parties, where intense competi- that they oft tion for leadership prevailed. Their headquarters served as sites for po liti cal —-1 rallies, meetings, charity work, and international solidarity campaigns. Other —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 217 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

232 218 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET y the new advocacy NGOs, began to promote public civil associations, chiefl debates on human rights, demo cratization, women, children, and labor rights. In early 2000, some ninety to one hundred human rights organizations oper- ated in the Arab world, along with hundreds of social ser vice centers, and many more social ser vice organizations that began to employ the language of 21 rights in their work. Innovations in mobilization, styles of communication, and or gan i za tion al fl exibility are bringing a breath of fresh air to stagnant nationalist politics. The Egyptian Pop u lar Committee for Solidarity with the Palestinian Intifada represented one such trend. Set up in October 2000, the committee brought together representatives from Egypt’s various po liti cal trends— left ists, na- tionalists, Islamists, and womens’ rights groups. It set up a website, developed a mailing list, initiated charity collections, or ga nized boycotts of American and Israeli products, revived street actions, and collected two hundred thou- sand signatures on petitions to close down the Israeli embassy in Cairo. The Egyptian Anti- Globalization Group and the National Campaign Against the War on Iraq, as well as the Committee for the Defense of Workers’ Rights and 22 some human rights NGOs, adopted similar styles of activism. It was these organizations and styles that served as the precursor for the emergence of a new kind of politics in Egyptian po liti cal tradition. It was galvanized in Ki- 23 faya and other prodemocracy movements. Grassroots charity and boycotts, or product campaigns, became new me- diums of po liti cal mobilization. Collecting food and medicine for Palestin- ians has involved thousands of young volunteers and hundreds of companies and organizations. In April 2002, students at the American University in Cairo gathered thirty 250- ton truckloads of charitable products from facto- ries, companies, and homes in the space of four days and nights, bringing them to Palestinians in Gaza. Millions of Arabs and Muslims joined in boycot- ting American and Israeli products, including McDonald’s, KFC, Starbucks, Nike, and Coca- Cola. The remarkable success of local products caused Coca- Cola to lose some 20 to 40 percent of its market share in some countries, while 24 fast- food companies also lost sales. The Ira ni an ZamZam Cola captured a sizable Middle Eastern market, extending to Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and several African countries. Within four months, the company exported ten million cans to Saudi Arabia and Persian Gulf states. Some Eu ro pe an countries, Denmark and Belgium, began to import ZamZam. Alongside -1— ZamZam, Mecca Cola appeared in Paris to cater to Eu ro pe an Arabs and 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 1 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 218 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

233 THE “ARAB STREET” 219 Muslims who boycotted the U.S. beverages. It sold 2.2 million bottles in France within two months. Mecca Cola allocated 10 percent of the revenue to Palestinian children. Information technology was also increasingly employed to direct po liti cal campaigns. “Small media” have a longer history in the Middle East. The ser- mons of Islamic preachers like Shaykh Kishk, Yusuf al- Qaradawi, Shaykh Fadlallah, and the pop u lar Egyptian televangelist Amr Khaled have been dis- seminated on a massive scale through audio and videocassettes. Followers of Amr Khaled, who was banned from preaching in late 2002, could gather over ten thousand signatures in his support via websites. Later, activists began to use e-mails to publicize claims or mobilize for rallies and demonstrations. These media proved instrumental in disseminating news, calling for rallies, and street mobilization. In February 2003, Egyptian Co ali tions in Solidarity with Palestine and Iraq planned to send one million petitions to the UN and to the U.S. and British embassies via the Internet. Alternative news websites have become probably the most important sites through which networks of critical and informed constituencies are formed. The increasing use of Face- book, the social networking site, allowed Egyptian youth in 2008 to build what came to be known as the April 6 Youth Movement. The “movement” mobilized some seventy thousand, mostly educated, youths who called for free speech and economic welfare and decried corruption. Activists succeeded in or ga niz ing street protests and rallies and, more spectacularly, in initiating a general strike on April 6, 2008, in support of the striking textile workers. The venue for networking has gained a considerable ground in most Arab 25 countries, where Facebook is among the ten most- visited sites on the web. In addition, satellite TV has been rapidly spreading in the Arab world, bringing alternative information to break the hold of the barren domestic news channels. The skyline of Damascus, bristling with satellite dishes, helps to explain the soullessness of the street newsstands where the ruling party’s dailies are dis- played. While cybercampaigns remain limited to the elite (despite increased Internet use), the politics of the arts reaches a mass audience. The Israeli reoc- cupation of the West Bank in 2002 revived the po liti cal legacy of Umm Kul- thoum, Fairuz, and Morocco’s Ahmed Snoussi. Arab artists, movie stars, paint- ers, and especially singers became oracles of public outrage. In Egypt, major pop stars such as Amr Diab, Muhammad Munir, and Mustafa Qamar produced best- selling albums that featured exclusively religious and nationalist lyrics. —-1 Munir’s high- priced Land and Peace, O Prophet of God sold 100,000 copies in a —0 —+1 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 1 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 219 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

234 220 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI short period. Other singers, including Ali al- Hajjar, Muhammad Tharwat, and Hani Shakir, joined together to produce the religio- nationalistic album Al- Aqsa, O God, which cornered Arab marketplaces. Of course, the extent and effi cacy of these new spaces of contention re- main modest. Yet the growing tendency of most Arab governments to try to control them— closing NGOs, banning publications or songs, and arresting Web designers, and the protagonists of “Facebook Revolution”— off ers a hint of their potential to compensate for the impediments facing the Arab street. The street remains the most vital locus for the audible expression of collective sentiments, so long as the local regimes or the global powers ignore popularly held views. The Arab street has been neither “irrational” nor “dead,” but it is undergoing a major transformation caused by both old constraints and new opportunities brought about by global restructuring. As a means and mode of expression, the Arab street may be shift ing, but the collective grievance that it conveys remains. Will Islamism occupy the center stage as the ideological articulation of these grievances? -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ 9/1/09 1:59 PM h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 2 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 220 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M c

235 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 12 the forward march of Muslim militancy— from Iran to Lebanon, from Alge- ria to Palestine, from North Africa to South Asia, extending to the immigrant communities in Eu rope, not to mention the transnational al- Qaeda—seems to confi rm the view that the world is on the verge of Islamist revolutions. It is as though the late twentieth century has impregnated history to give birth to Islamic revolutions with the same intensity and vigor that the early twentieth century produced socialist rebellions. Is globalization pushing religion, Islam, onto the center stage of world radical politics? This chapter attempts to show that ours may be an age of widespread so- cioreligious movements and of remarkable social changes, but these may not necessarily translate into the classical (rapid, violent, class- based, and over- arching) revolutions. What most accounts of Islamism refer to do not signify Islamic revolutions; rather, they point to heightened but diff used sentiments and movements associated, in one way or another, with the language of religi- osity. Perhaps we need to rethink our understanding of “revolutions” in gen- eral and the Islamic version in par tic u lar. In the Muslim Middle East, the fu- ture is likely to belong to a kind of sociopo liti cal change that might be termed “post- Islamist refolution.” Adapted from Asef Bayat, “Is There a Future for Islamic Revolutions? Religion, Re- Revolution in the Making of the Modern volt, and Middle Eastern Modernity,” in Worl d , ed. John Foran, David Lane, and Andreja Zivkovic (London: Routledge, —-1 2008), pp. 96– 111. —0 —+1 221 5 4 4 - 4 1 9/1/09 1:59 PM 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 2 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 221 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 0

236 222 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET MODERNITY AND REVOLUTIONS Revolutions and revolutionary movements are integral features of modernity, and the Middle Eastern experience is no exception. In this context, modernity cation of the nation- states that forge material infrastruc- implies the solidifi ture, such as a modern army and conscription, education and media, through 1 which people can “imagine” and develop a sense of nationhood. Nationalist 2 movements are the likely outcome if the nation is under colonial domination. Second, modernity is also characterized by the formation of modern central- ized states, with the sole power of constituting laws and the monopoly of coer- cive powers over people whose rights (as citizens) within the framework of the nation- state are recognized. In short, it involves rule over people who hold rights. Modern states, in turn, not only enact laws to regulate dissent (estab- lishing organizations, unions, procedures, and protection) but also tend to be- come targets of contention by po liti cal forces. Third, it is indeed under modern conditions that broader modular contentions become possible, when the local- ized struggles for parochial concerns of premodern times give way to general- 3 ized and epidemic movements. Finally, (capitalist) modernity involves an overarching contradictory tendency, which is followed by deep- rooted con- tentions fostered by both the remaining old social classes and groups as well as the historically novel ones (such as the new middle class, women, youth, etc.). Here I am not referring to the Marxian labor– capital contradiction, even though it remains a fundamental one. I am, rather, pointing to a more general anomaly. Simply put, modernity off ers unparalleled opportunities for many people to thrive, forge identities, and get ahead in life, and yet it excludes and ravages the fortunes of many others. Modern capitalist economy and science, urbanization, education, and the idea of citizenship are closely tied to the fl ourishing of new social groups such as the bourgeois, professional classes, youth, and public women who foster new social existence and habitus, and engender par tic u lar demands. At the same time, on the margins of the mod- ern po liti cal economy, ways of life, and institutions, lies a great humanity that is excluded from the modern off erings, in terms of life- chances, respect, equality, and meaningful po liti cal participation. Revolutions are the outcome en “partial inter- of the collective contention of such social beings whose oft ests,” moral and material, converge and become the basis of collective identity and action. Revolutionary struggles target the state and are waged only within -1— the confi nes of a par tic u lar nation- state. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 222 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

237 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 223 As such, none of the above on its own may explain the actual making of revo- lutions. Revolutions are more intricate phenomena than mere structural contra- dictions and agency. The making of revolutions involves, in addition, a complex set of material, moral, and cognitive conditions as well as po liti cal (internal or international) opportunities. One needs to determine how the potential revolu- tionaries perceive and interpret their real or imagined misfortunes and margin- alization. And, if they do so at all, whom do they blame as being responsible: themselves, God, the state, their immediate superior at work, or fate? Do they fi nd possible ways to get out of their hardship, such as reliance on family, kin, or traditional institutions of support? But if they opt for change, what kinds of re- 4 sources have they to deploy, as Tilly and others have wondered? Finally, to what extent does a “structure of opportunity” allow for action, how far are states able to withstand the demand of their citizens for change, and what (coercive or re- 5 formist) strategies do they deploy to undermine revolutionary movements? MIDDLE EASTERN MODERNITY AND REVOLUTIONS These propositions fi nd resonance also with respect to the modern Middle East, notably those countries with oil and other kinds of rentier economies. 6 Despite claims to be otherwise, Middle Eastern modernity has had its own particularities, even though it is by no means “peculiar or exceptional,” as the Orientalists would suggest. In the Middle East, the modernization pro cess (characterized by capitalist relations, national markets, human mobility, ur- banization, and new education systems, and of modern national states) has by and large been a synthesis of both internal dynamics and colonial encoun- 7 ters. For Hisham Sharabi, this “hybrid” formation refl ects “neo- Patriarchy,” defi ned as a mixture of “pseudo- modernism” and “Patriarchy.” And patriar- chy is seen as a sociocultural reality characterized by myth (rather than rea- son), religious (rather than scientifi c) truth, rhetorical (as opposed to analyti- cal) language, authoritarian (instead of demo cratic) polity, communal (rather than citizenry) social relations, and kin- based rather than class- centered so- 8 cial relations. Although Sharabi’s neopatriarchy focuses on the cultural di- mension of modernity (ideas, behavior, and relations) in the Arab world, its structural dimension in terms of the emergence of new social structures, so- cial forces, economic classes, and social relations has also been far- reaching. Thus, the gradual pro cess of modernization inaugurated in the late nine- —-1 teenth century and earlier has involved two contradictory pro cesses. On the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 223 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

238 LITI 224 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET one hand, it has fostered opportunities for city dwelling, modern education, social mobility, and new classes and groups (such as new working and middle classes, women, and youths, who together came to coexist with the already existing merchants, artisans, and religious elite, or the ̔ulama ̓ ). On the other hand, modernization has also triggered formidable challenges for the popula- tion. Restricted po liti cal participation (by both colonial regimes and postco- lonial populist states), in e qual ity, and exclusion from economic development (the poor and marginalized groups), po liti cal structures, and conditions of reproduction (of power of the “traditional” groups, the Islamic institutions, ̔ulama ̓ and their legitimacy) account for the major challenges. At the same the time, modernity fostered strong centralized states that commanded power over the populace and major economic resources. An overarching feature of Middle Eastern modernity has been a contradiction between social and eco- 9 nomic development and po liti cal underdevelopment, a condition ripe for demo cratic revolutions. Modern economy, institutions, bureaucracy, work re- lations, education, social classes, city dwelling, and generally the modern pub- lic sphere have been accompanied by the states that have remained, by and large, authoritarian, autocratic, and even despotic (embodied in kings, mon- archs, shaykhs, or lifelong presidents). Thus, the modern middle classes oft en have played the leading role in all major social movements and revolutions in the region. The authoritarian character of the regimes has partly to do with the ruling elites’ forging of a “traditional solidarity” ( asabiyya ) , notably in the 10 Arab states of the Persian Gulf; but for most part it has to do with their con- trol over oil revenue, an asset that has given them not only monopoly over economic resources, but also po liti cal support of foreign powers who look for a share in oil. The overwhelming power of these rentier states has been such that it has generated dissent from almost all segments of the population, in- cluding the affl uent groups. No wonder Homa Katouzian views the people– state ( mellat– dawlat ) divide as the principal line of demarcation in societies icts within the category of “people” cannot like Iran, even though social confl 11 be denied. Such centralized states oft en evoke analogies with Marx’s “Asiatic mode of production” or Wittfogel’s “oriental despotism.” No doubt, many of these authoritarian regimes are the products as well as promoters of modernization, even though not in the domain of the polity. Many of these states were either installed by the colonial powers (as in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and other sheikhdoms in the Persian Gulf, as well as both -1— Pahlavi Shahs of Iran) or pushed to power by the rising classes. In their quest 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 224 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

239 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 225 for modernization of their countries, the postcolonial regimes oft en encoun- icts with the power of land- owning classes, who re- tered formidable confl sisted to transform themselves into the new bourgeoisie. In such circum- stances, the modernizing regimes began a signifi cant pro cess of “revolutionary reform,” oft en from above, on behalf of the middle classes as well as the peas- antry, who then were to turn into smallholders or farm workers. In Egypt, icts assumed the form of mili- Syria, Iraq, and Iran, the earlier po liti cal confl tary coups representing the ascending classes, followed by massive social and economic transformation, nationalization, land reform, and populist dispen- 12 sation in employment, education, and health. Yet none of these revolution- ary reforms entailed an inclusive polity and demo cratic governance. What they did was produce and empower social forces that in later years were to target the very same states, this time in the name of Islam. WHAT SORTS OF MUSLIMS REBEL? So what kinds of Muslims rebel in the age of modernity? Many accounts of Is- lamist movements see the basis of Muslim rebellion as reaction against moder- 13 nity. Beyond the perspectives of the Islamist ideologues, in general, two types of interpretations have attempted to explain the spread of religious politics in modern times. The “modernist” interpretations portray Islamism as reactive movements carried out by “traditional people,” whether intellectuals or the ur- ban poor, against western- type modernization. The movements are said to be antidemo cratic and regressive in character. On the right, the “clash of civiliza- tions,” proposed by Bernard Lewis and shared by Samuel Huntington, manifests the framework within which the “antimodern” character of such movements in 14 their encounter with western modernity is assessed. On the left , one can point to Alberto Melucci and Alain Touraine, among others, who express concerns about religious revivalism. “Regressive utopianism” and “anti- movement” are 15 how they refer to religious movements, including Islamism. The second type of interpretation views Islamism as the manifestation of, and a reaction to, postmodernity. In this framework, the movements represent a quest for diff er- ence, cultural autonomy, alternative polity, and morality versus the universal- izing secular modernity. Foucault described the Ira ni an Revolution as the rst post- modern revolution of our time,” as the “spirit of a world without “fi 16 spirit.” For Giddens it signals “the crisis of modernity.” There seems to be some plausibility in such observations. The global condi- —-1 tions in which most of these movements emerged, and the discourses of such —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 225 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

240 226 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI Islamist leaders as Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ali Shari- ati, Musa Sadr, Sayed Qutb, Rachid Ghannoushi, and others, attest to this ten- jahiliya , a society characterized by the worship of dency. Mawdudi’s concept of man by man and the sovereignty of man over man, had been taken up by Sayed Qutb in Egypt, Abdul Salaam Yassin in Morocco, and Ali Shariati in Iran, among others, to lash out on western liberalism, secular nationalism, and imperialism, which come, in Yassin’s views, in the name of enlightenment, re- 17 form, nationalism, and rationality. Shariati’s notion of “return to self ” re- fl ected Islamists’ choice of Islam as an indigenous and all- embracing human alternative. While Maududi proposed some kind of “Islamic cosmopolitan- ism” to be governed by a “theo- democracy” or a “divine demo cratic govern- ment,” Shariati off ered a “divine classless society”; and Sayed Qutb, an Islamic state and economy. Ayatollah Khomeini called for “Islamic government” but 18 went along with an Islamic republic. What is not entirely clear about these observations is how their authors have come to their conclusions. It seems that many of the assumptions rest on texts, on the discourses of the articulated leaders of the Islamist move- ments. If we understand movements not in a Bourdieuian sense of solid groups to be represented by leaders, but as heterogeneous entities with diverse layers of activism, interests, and perspectives, then we will have to consider the va- riety of discourses embedded in a social movement, digging into what the constituencies really aspire to. Living in and observing the Middle East dur- ing the past twenty years, I would argue that most of the Islamist rebels would probably be in favor of modern conditions, would wish to be part of them, and would desire to enjoy their off erings only if they could aff ord their multifaceted costs. But they simply cannot. The central problem, therefore, is not primordial animosity against what is modern; neither is it related to op- ponents’ historical origin, in that premodern classes, for instance, may op- pose the modern order; aft er all, the working class is a product of modern capitalist economy and yet has major confl icts with this economic and social formation. The question, rather, pertains to whether and to what extent indi- viduals and groups have the capacity to handle modernity, so to speak, to t from it. The truth is that, as we have already dis- function within and benefi cussed in this book, not everyone can aff ord to be modern, because it is a costly arrangement. It requires the capacity to conform to the kind of mate- rial, institutional- cultural, and intellectual imperatives that many simply -1— cannot aff ord. In other words, things would likely be less volatile had the 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 226 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

241 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 227 majority of the population been enabled to cope with the various costs of modern life. Let me elaborate. In many Middle Eastern countries, a large segment of the educated middle class (college graduates, professionals, state employees, or unemployed intel- ligentsia) lack the material abilities to enjoy what modernity would otherwise off er them, such as decent shelter and a possibility of forming a nuclear family 19 with a good degree of autonomy from elders. So, many are compelled to stay under the protection of extended family, fathers and elders, with all its con- straining implications limiting their autonomy and the individuality that en aspire to. Many of them wish to possess, but cannot aff ord, the they oft usual consumer commodities or travel to the places about which they oft en have great knowledge. Consequently, they are oft en pushed into the ranks of the poor, marginalized in life- chances and consumption realms, while strug- gling hard to maintain a lifestyle and taste that match their education and 20 status. Their acute awareness of what is available and of their inability to acquire it gives them a constant feeling of exclusion and what Barrington 21 22 Moore called “moral outrage.” They are likely to be revolutionaries. en experience the same or an even higher degree of ma- The urban poor oft terial deprivation as the educated but marginalized middle classes. Yet this state of deprivation does not engender in them the same kind of po liti cal and moral outrage as occurs among the middle classes. For unlike the middle class, the poor oft en live on the margin of modern off erings, be they rights at their jobs, goods, entertainment, power, opportunities, or, above all, information. As discussed in Chapter 9, the poor are immediately aff ected and frustrated by the complex modalities of modern working, living, and being. They oft en lack the capacities and the skills, both materially and culturally- behaviorally, to function within the prevailing modern regimented institutions. This does not mean that the poor are antimodern traditionalists; rather, it tells us how the conditions of their lives compel them to resort to informal ways of doing things. Nor are the Muslim poor necessarily antimodern revolutionaries. In- en seek recourse in “quiet deed, instead of confronting the states, the poor oft encroachment.” Yet when the opportunity arises, they tend to make tactical alliances with revolutionaries, until their expected benefi ts dwindle, in 23 which case they return to the strategy of “quiet encroachment.” At any rate, the poor have remained largely divorced from Islamism as a po liti cal —-1 project. They surely generate their own oft en kin- based ties and collectives, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 227 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

242 228 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET but these do not necessarily induce revolutionary communities, as some 24 tend to suggest. Then, there are the rich— segments from the well- off classes, mostly the new rich (notably women)— who do enjoy material well- being and economic status; they oft en adhere to globalized consumer behavior, in terms of con- sumer goods, education, and entertainment. Yet they lack the intellectual abilities to tackle the epistemological premises of late modernity, its multiple truths, to which they are widely exposed precisely because of their privileged positions (traveling, global communication, access to global cultural and in- tellectual products, and living in global cities). They are disturbed by moder- nity’s philosophical and existential uncertainties, its risks. They are troubled, for instance, by the normalization of the idea that there may not be a God, that homosexual marriage may be legitimate. They are distressed by being bombarded by many “truths” from the satellite TV channels, by new “discov- eries” that overturn established ethical paradigms— all these in conditions where the “gender division of sin” renders well- off women more than men or poor women susceptible to religious moral “wrongdoings” (such as appearing half- naked on beaches, showing their hair, or mingling with men), and thus to feeling remorse and regret. Such groups are likely to form their own moral communities, as spaces for existential security and certainty. Religion, Islam, can off er a core institutional and conceptual setting for such communities. In Egypt, for instance, thousands of halaqat , or weekly informal gatherings of women to discuss religious rituals and injunctions, serve as moral commu- nities where participants feel empowered to face the challenges of modern ethics. These groups may not be revolutionaries but are likely to support some 25 kind of religious transformation of society. To these modern critical classes may join the traditional merchants, arti- sans, and religious elites, members of the traditional religious establishments, the guardians of mosques and seminaries, who together may form a loose co- ali tion of contentious classes in the modern Muslim Middle East. They tend to wage their collective struggle against secularist, oft en repressive and inef- cient, postcolonial regimes that have tended to rest on the support of the fi secular western powers. In the postwar period, pop u lar classes in the Muslim Middle East were mobilized overwhelmingly around the secular ideologies of nationalism, so- cialism, and Ba ̓thism, which by the 1970s were superseded by illiberal capital- -1— ism. The Nasserist revolution of 1952 in Egypt mobilized the lower and middle 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 228 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

243 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 229 ght the remnants of colonial rule and to ensure social justice; it classes to fi spearheaded a model of “Arab socialism” that swept the Arab world in sub- sequent de cades. In 1961, a military coup overthrew a medieval system led by an imam that had ruled Yemen for centuries. Two years later, a revolt in Iraq brought the Ba ̓th Party to power. A secular nationalist movement ensured Algerian in de pen dence from the French rule in 1962; and the Libyan modern elites dismantled the Senussi monarchical dynasty, establishing a revolution- 26 ary regime in 1969. A precursor to these events was the nationalist movement led by the secular prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh, who nationalized the Ira ni an oil industry and inaugurated a secular democracy in Iran, before 27 he was overthrown by a CIA- engineered coup in 1953. But by the 1970s, these secular ideologies seemed to fail to deliver. Arab socialism (despite some im- portant social outcomes) soon encountered insurmountable economic pres- sure, as in Egypt and Algeria. Secular nationalism fell with Nasser’s defeat by Israel in the 1967 war. Ba ̓thism lost to the despotism of Saddam Hussein and Hafez al- Assad. And the capitalist experiment led to growing social in e qual ity and exclusion and was identifi ed with Sadat’s perceived “sell- out” in foreign policy and his heavy- handed internal polity. Then emerged po liti cal Islam with an enormous boost from the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran. THE PLACE OF ISLAM Why po liti cal Islam? What is the place of Islam in these contentious condi- tions? Is Islam an inherently revolutionary religion, a religion of politics? Certainly, the religious outcome of the Ira ni an Revolution reinforced among many observers the image of a highly politicist Islam in the age of modernity. Projecting the outcome of the revolution to the pro cess, even such careful scholars as Nazih Ayubi would not hesitate to state that “Islam is a po liti cal 28 religion for it promises to control public morality.” Initially, much of the attention focused on the Shi ̔i branch of Islam (the Ira ni an version) as more prone to revolution and protest than Sunni Islam. This was so supposedly because Shi ̔i Islam represented a minority group, a “creed of the oppressed,” and thus a “religion of protest.” The story of Imam Hussein’s (the Prophet’s grandson’s) struggles against the powerful and “op- pressive” Mu ̔awiyah was to provide the doctrinal and historical basis for the imagined radicalism of Shi ̔i. The writings of the Sorbonne graduate Ira ni an c” legitimacy to the conceptualization Ali Shariati gave a particularly “scientifi —-1 29 of what he termed as “red” or revolutionary Shi ̔i. In fact, he brought the —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 2 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 229 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

244 LITI 230 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET modern concepts of “class,” “class struggle,” and “revolution” into the Shi ̔i Islamic discourse, popularizing the battle of Karbala (where Imam Hussein fought against Mu ̔awiyah) as the historical stage of a premodern revolution. He was instrumental in turning Islam into a po liti cal ideology. Following Shariati, Iran’s Mujahedin- e Khalq or ga ni za tion, with an ideological blend of Islam and Marxism- Leninism, put revolutionism into practice by establish- 30 ing a Latin American– type guerrilla or ga ni za tion in the 1960s. Hamid Da- bashi’s massive volume represents an exploration of this Theology of Dissent revolutionary character of Shi ̔i Islam in retrospect. Beyond Iran, the rise of Hizbullah in Lebanon in the late 1980s onto the center stage of world radical politics, and its relentless struggle to oust Israeli occupation forces from Leba- non, further reinforced the revolutionary image of Shi ̔i Islam in the world, until September 11, 2001, when attention was shift ed to Sunni Islam as the re- ligion of violence and revolution. In truth, Sunni Islam has also had some revolutionary elements. The Egyp- tian Hasan al- Banna, a leader of the oldest and largest Islamist movement in the Arab world, brought the concept of jahili state and society from the Indian Abul Ala Maududi, who himself was infl uenced by Lenin’s perspective on or- ga ni za tion and the state. Maududi’s notion of Islamic “theo- democracy” was not very dissimilar to a model of the communist state. Al- Banna, however, was remarkably Gramscian in strategy (in “war of maneuver” and hegemony), even though there is no evidence that he actually read Gramsci. More recently, in the 1980s, many Sunni Marxists (such as Tariq al- Bishri, Mohammad Emarah, Mustafa Mahmoud, Adel Hussein, Abdulwahab el- Massiri, and others) were turning to Islamism, thus bringing many Marxian visions and vocabularies into po liti cal Islam, projecting the latter as an endogenous Third World- ist 31 ght imperialism, Zionism, and secularism. ideology to fi However, it was the events post- 9/11 that mostly exonerated the revolutionism of Shi ̔i Islam, shift - ing attention to Sunni radicalism, notably its Wahhabi version. Not only were all culprits in the 9/11 attacks Sunni Islamists, the rise of post- Islamist reform- ists in Iran in the late 1990s had already undermined essentializing assump- tions about Shi ̔i revolutionism. And then the violent insurgency of the “Sunni en contrasted with the triangle” in Iraq against the U.S. occupation was oft “reasonable” and “moderate” Shi ̔i clerical leader, Ayatollah Al- Sistani. I have argued elsewhere that the revolutionary/reactionary, demo cratic/ undemo cratic character of religions, say Islam, should be seen not by refer- -1— ence to some “intrinsic” dispositions of the faith, but by the historically condi- 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 230 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

245 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 231 tioned faculties of the faithful. In other words, we should focus not on Islam ne and redefi as such, but on the historical Muslims, who come to defi ne their religion, both in ideas and practice, in diverse fashions. In short, it is the Muslim humanity with diverse moral and material interests, loyalties, and orientations that come to construct diff erent types of Islams— revolutionary, 32 conservative, demo cratic, or repressive. Through this prism, the role of Islam in radical politics is important in at least two main respects. First, Islam can act, and has done so, as the ideologi- cal and moral structure within which contentious politics and revolutions are given meaning. Any act of contention fi rst goes through the fi lter of the prevailing moral and communal values through which “injustice” is per- ceived, defi ned, and resisted, and where struggle assumes its meaning. Islam can provide that structure. Islamic codes and concepts can also be deployed, deliberately, to frame a revolutionary movement, that is, to justify, legitimize, dignify, and extend the appeal of movements. Muslim revolutionaries attempt to present Islam as an alternative social, po liti cal, moral, and even economic order. Having an alternative on the horizon constitutes a leap for contenders to further their struggles. The ideologues’ repre sen ta tion of Islam as an alter- native social order oft en remains at the level of generality. This might sound like a drawback, but it is in fact projecting a broad and ambiguous prospect that may cover diff erences in opinions and expectations and thus ensure unity. In the chaos of revolutionary hope, the generality of objectives ensures uniformity and guides action, leaving the potentially divisive details to the 33 free imagination of each contender to construct their own ideal outcome. Islam may intervene in revolutionary struggles not merely as an ideology, frame, and model, but also as a harbinger of vested interests. In the Middle East, the “Islamic sector” (consisting of religious institutions, mosques, shrines, madrasa, rules, rituals, tastes, and the associated personnel, property, and power) has historically been pervasive. Within it, the ̔ulama ̓ (t he cler ic a l class), as the articulated gatekeepers, have served as the main legitimizing fac- 34 tor for Middle East rulers. The sector continues to reinvent itself in the face of modernity’s challenges. Yet the advent of the modern state, citizenship, nance, and taxation has seriously undermined the legitimacy and education, fi power as well as the material gains and control of many functionaries, notably , as a status the “spiritual elites” involved in the religious sector. The ̔ulama ̓ group controlling the “spiritual property,” could see their status, legitimacy, —-1 material gains, and especially their “paradigm power” (that is, the discursive —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 231 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

246 LITI 232 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET frame that allows them to communicate and exert their hegemony) being eroded. The new education system deprived them of being the sole transmit- ter of knowledge and literacy; the modern justice system pushed them aside from the helm of religious arbitration; the new taxation and fi nancial institu- tions undercut their ability to raise religious tax (zakat, khom s, and sadaqat ), awqaf while the modern states brought many of the religious endowments ( ) under the control of the bureaucrats, consequently seriously undercutting the nancial in de pen dence of the religious authorities. Associated with these fi changes, religious sensibilities and the power that they bring to the religious elites are challenged. In short, Islam, in this sense, may move into the center of a revolutionary struggle because of religious elites’ vested interests. In the experience of Iran, the Shi ̔i clerics who had managed to maintain their au- tonomy (fi nancially and po liti cally) succeeded in retaining a good part of the religious sector in de pen dent from the diktat of the Shah’s regime by relying on various religious taxes and donations (zakat, khoms ) from the faithful and ̔ulama ̓ the revenue from the remaining endowments. But Egyptian and with them much of the Islamic sector were incorporated into the state structure, rst by Muhammad Ali in the nineteenth century, and later and more fi ercely fi by Nasser in the 1960s. In Iran, the ̔ulama ̓ became a major revolutionary force, while in Egypt, it was not the ̔ulama ̓ , but the lay Muslim activists, who in the form of the Muslim Brothers raised the banner of re- Islamization of Egyptian society and polity. This is not to fi xate on Islam and the Islamic ̔ulama ̓ as essential subjects of revolutionary transformation. Indeed, “modernizing” ̔ulama ̓ may well cohabit and cooperate with Middle Eastern secular states. The top segment of Egypt’s religious establishment and its elites have for de cades pursued a policy of coexistence and cooperation with the government. Indeed, today most re- gimes in the region enjoy the general blessing of “establishment Islam,” for example, Al- Azhar’s top clerics. In Iran, the clerical class is deeply divided, along po liti cal as well as doctrinal lines. The “traditional” and “fundamental- ist” ̔ulama ̓ (as they are labeled in Iran) support a religious state, while the younger generation, and those adherents of “critical rationality,” who place “reason” at the center of the management of public life, oppose the ver y idea of an “Islamic state.” While the unity of po liti cal and religious authorities tends to alienate at least a segment of the clerical class, lay Muslims have expressed far greater distrust of an Islam that is enticed by mundane po liti cal power. As -1— the outcome of several elections in the late 1990s showed, many women and 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 232 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

247 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 233 the young in Iran feel more than any other group the debilitating eff ect of the religious state, in their daily lives, at work, before the law, and in the public space. They have been in the forefront of the opposition against an Islam that they see as having degenerated into an offi ce of power. Thus, Islam may be both a factor of revolution and its target. It can be not only the subject of revo- lution, but also its object. THE FUTURE OF ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS What is the future of Islamist revolutions in the age of globalization? Is glo- balization conducive to the making of revolutions in general, and Islamist revolutions in par tic u lar? I think that globalization may induce dissent, social movements, and even revolts but is antithetical to classical revolutions, in- cluding the Islamic versions. Perhaps we need to revisit our understanding of “revolutions,” looking at them in terms of more diff use and nonviolent mobi- lization with gradual pro cess and long- term change. Their ultimate aim may not be to challenge the global system, but to negotiate with it. Critiques of globalization seem to generally agree that it leads to consider- able instability and insurgency, in par tic u lar in the periphery of the world 35 capitalist system. National states become undermined by the normalized involvement of supranational economic and po liti cal entities and structures airs of the sovereign states. The neoliberal economic policies, in the national aff oft en directed by the creditor nations, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank, oblige the postcolonial populist states to retreat from their traditional social contract in off ering subsistence provisions to their needy citizens. Not only do such retreats generate pop u lar resentment against these regimes, they also open new space (left by the withdrawal of the state from the social sector) that then is fi lled by oppositional forces, such as the Is- 36 lamist militants in the Middle East. Many view the growth of “social Islam” as a front for po liti cal Islam resulting from such an absence by the states. In the meantime, the globalization of means of communication facilitates the inter- nationalization of national confl icts, the easy fl ow of information, and forging solidarities that extend beyond national boundaries. In addition, international po liti cal pressure, by the governments, civil society, and suprastate institutions (e.g., the international criminal court, the UN Charter and Security Council, human rights organizations, and the like) are likely to reinvigorate movements for po liti cal change within the individual countries of the global South. Thus, —-1 with the decline of “legitimating identities,” such as nationalism and socialism, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 233 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

248 234 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET according to Castells, contenders express their re sis tance against the global “network society” by forming autonomous “communities” around ethnic, cul- tural, and religious identities (“re sis tance identities”). These formations may nes not even remain defensive but may develop into a new identity “that defi their position in society and by so doing seeks the transformation of over- all 37 social structure,” what Castells calls “project identities.” The 1989 chain of revolutions in Eastern Eu rope, the Zapatista revolution- ary movement connecting a local peasant rebellion to the international anti- globalization movement (Castells), and, most recently, the “color revolution” in the former Soviet Union between 2003 and 2005 (which, unlike the Zapatista movement, was supported by western established classes and elites) all point to the power of the transnational linkage of dissent and solidarities, of models 38 and lifestyles that seem to penetrate the national iron curtains. It is as though such momentous events of the turn of the twentieth century stand as testi- mony to yet another “age of revolution,” reinforcing the high hopes of such postwar social theorists and activists as Hanna Arendt, who saw “almost as a matter of course that the end of the war is revolution, and that the only cause of which possibly could justify it is the revolutionary cause of freedom.” Eric Hobsbawm retained such a high hope until the “halt” of the “forward march of labour” in 1978. And as late as 2000, David Harvey suggested, against the pre- vailing mood, that Marxism and notably the Communist Manifesto had never been as relevant to the global conditions as they are today. At the outset of the twenty- fi rst century, Harvey implied, the world is ripe to free itself from the 39 shackles of capital. However, it seemed that these theorists’ “optimism of will” overshadowed their “pessimism of intellect.” Arendt did not survive to observe the wave of the late- 1990s revolutions against communism. Hobsbawm, in reviewing his own history, was to acknowledge, though “without apology,” the “over- optimism” of those early years. And Harvey became dismayed by the absence of interest in 40 Marxism and the politics of revolution. If the idea of revolution for these ob- servers was to free humanity from the diktat of capitalism, then the age of made such a freedom ever more formidable. With globalization seems to have the hegemony of capital and neoliberal logic in every society and major sector, space for alternative social order becomes restricted primarily and ironically to the margins, those on the exclusion zones of global capital and po liti cal order: the informal sectors, the barrios, cityscapes, and house hold economies, and in -1— terms of the reviving cultural identities and ethnicities, within which some 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 234 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

249 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 235 41 Indeed some (postdevelopment advo- degree of autonomy is still maintained. cates) consider these “premodern communes” as the major alternative to the 42 western- imposed development model. The point, then, is that a world needing a revolution is not necessarily the one that has the requisite forces to carry it out if the agents are fi gured by frag- mentation, despair, individualism, and alienation. Even in 2009, in the midst of the worst fi nancial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s, no serious movement to challenge capitalism has emerged. Harvey’s merit lies not so much in spelling out revolutionary conditions as it does in his attempt to off er “spaces of hope,” the possibility of alternative ways of or ga niz ing society, econ- omy, work, and ecol ogy, to undercut the debilitating pessimism of will, or the prevailing idea that “there is no alternative.” What Har vey and Castells explore are not, nor do they aim for, agency and conditions for Marxian revolutions, but the constitution of dissent, social movements, and alternative ways of ar- ranging work and life. I am inclined to think that the logic of globalization (because it tends to fragment the pop u lar classes through informalization, NGOization, and indi- vidualization, and because it transnationalizes both the objectives and actors of revolutionary movements) may be antithetical to the making of classical revolutions. It is true that globalization does engender radical changes, but not in the form of the rapid, violent, and nationally based revolts to transform the state and society, that is, classical revolutions. For classical revolutions are ac- tualized only within the confi nes of the nation- state; they come to fruition by mass revolts in which the national states become the ultimate target. Because it is only within the limits of a nation- state that “rights” assume their concrete meaning, and around which dissent, mobilization, and action make sense. In addition, it is only within the confi nes of the nation- states that dissent fi nds a concrete focus, a recognizable target, and a manageable course of action. In other words, the question of revolution is ultimately tied to the question of the state— the way in which the states change (or do not change) determines whether a revolution has occurred, and what kind. If nation- based revolts lie at the core of classical revolutions, then the transnationalization of revolts, both in their agents and aims (e.g., struggles against the “West” or “global injustice”), would deprive them of broad mobilization against a concrete national objective. In short, the idea of world revolution is ironically nonrevolutionary. Now, what of the future of “Islamic revolutions”? I think that the possibility —-1 of Islamic revolutions in the current age follows a more or less similar logic. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 235 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

250 236 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO LITI CAL STREET Iran’s earlier idea of “global Islamic revolution,” beginning with Iraq, clearly failed during the war with Saddam Hussein, because opposition against the Ba ̔thist regime did not come from within the country but had a foreign ele- ment (Iran), which in turn instigated Iraqi nationalism. Since then, the revi- sionist idea of “Islamism in one country” has become the accepted strategy of the Islamic republic. But there is more to the story of revolutions. Revolutions signify extraordinary change par excellence, rare moments of utopian visions icts to merge utopia and extreme mea sures, followed by compromise and confl and hard realities, thus leading to a surging dissent both from within the revo- lutionary ranks and from without. The Islamic Revolution involves par tic u lar incongruities by its distinctly religious ideology and moralist regime, which paradoxically rules over a modern citizenry through a modern state. Al- though, the Islamic Revolution in Iran caused dissent at home, it inspired and found friends among the Islamic movements in the Muslim world. But Is- lamic revolutions do not only inspire movements to emulate but also subvert similar happenings, because they make incumbent secular regimes (e.g., in Egypt or Algeria) more vigilant in suppressing potential revolts, and because their subsequent anomalies and retreat demonstrate that revolutions may not, aft er all, be desirable options. This pushes the nation- based Islamist move- ments into a state of perplexity and confusion, where they vacillate between revolutionary utopia and realpolitik, between aspirations and limitations. Ye t m o r e s i g n i fi cant trends seem to be under way in the dispositions of Islamism that lead it to deviate from a revolutionary path. These trends are infl uenced by both the internal workings of the Islamist movements and global politics, in par tic u lar the post- 9/11 events. One trend is what I have called “post- Islamization.” It refers to the project and movements that want to transcend Islamism as an exclusivist and totalizing ideology, seeking instead inclusion, pluralism, and ambiguity. It is nationalist in scope (as opposed to be- ing Pan- Islamist), and consciously postrevolutionary—post- idea- of- revolution, that is. It represents primarily a po liti cal project. In Iran, it took the form of the “reform movement” of the late 1990s, which partly evolved into the “reform government” (1997– 2004). A number of Islamic movements also exhibit some aspects of “post- Islamism”: the new pluralist strategy of the Lebanese Hizbullah in the early 1990s, leading to a split in the movement; the emergence in the mid- 1990s of the Al- Wasat Party in Egypt as an alternative to both militant Is- lamists and the Muslim Brothers; the Justice and Development Parties in both -1— Turkey and Morocco; the discursive shift in the Indian Jamaat- i Islami toward 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 236 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

251 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONS? 237 - more inclusive, pluralistic, and ambiguous ideological dispositions; and fi nally, the emergence in Saudi Arabia of an “Islamo- liberal” trend in the late 1990s, seeking a compromise between Islam and democracy— each displaying some diverse versions of post- Islamist trends in Muslim societies today. Most of these movements seek a secular state but wish to promote religious societies (see Chapter 13). Many movements in the Muslim world still aspire to establish an Islamic state but wish to do so within the existing constitutional frameworks; they reject violent strategies and hope to operate within the prevailing po liti cal norms, invoking many demo cratic principles. Their Islamic state and econ- omy fi nd an overall complementarity to capitalism. The Muslim Brothers in Egypt and its off shoots in Algeria, Syria, Sudan, Kuwait, Palestine, and Jor- dan represent this trend. So did Necmettin Erbakan’s locally based Rifah Party in Turkey. Even though in classical terms they are reformist, not revo- lutionary, movements, they tend to engender signifi cant social and po liti cal change in the long run. Global events since the late 1990s (the Balkan ethnic war, Rus sian domina- tion of Chechnya, the Israeli incursions into the West Bank and Gaza, not to mention the post- 9/11 anti- Islamic sentiments in the West) created among Muslims an acute sense of insecurity and a feeling of siege. This in turn has heightened religious identity and communal bonds, generating a new trend of “active piety,” a sort of missionary tendency quite distinct from the highly or- ga nized and powerful “apo liti cal Islam” of the transnational Tablighi move- ment. Inclined toward individualism, diff usion, and Wahhabi- type conserva- tism, the adherents aim not to establish an Islamic state, but to reclaim and enhance their own individual ethical selves, even though they strive to im- plant such an undertaking among others. Even though the mobilization of millions of Muslims against the Danish cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad in 2006 demonstrated forging a new type of ethical- political practice and protest, it also pointed to the globally disparate, reformist, and nonrevolu- tionary character of the dissent. It is largely the so- called jihadi trend that pursues armed struggle and ter- rorism. But even here, only a segment follows the project of overthrowing the Muslim regimes within a par tic u lar nation- state, and in this sense it is revolu- tionary. For the most part, these groups are consumed by the idea of jihad as an end, perceiving the very pro cess of struggle as an ethical journey, off ering —-1 little in the way of projecting a future state, society, and economy. Many jihadi —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 3 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 237 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

252 238 STREET POLITICS AND THE PO CAL STREET LITI groups are involved in “civilizational” struggles, with the aim of combating an abstract “west,” “infi del” and “corrupt’.” A reading of Bin Laden’s messages reveals how his priority goes little beyond “uniting opinions under the word 43 of mono the ism and defending Islam.” Transnational and notoriously male in aim and or ga ni za tion (defending the global umma against an “unholy West”), al- Qaeda intrinsically lacks any sort of social and po liti cal program, and thus is unlikely to su cceed in mobilizi ng a concerted national dissent against a concrete national state. In the current status of widespread religious sentiments and movements in the Muslim world, the growth of demo cratic sensibilities and movements (secular or religiously oriented) is likely to push Islamism into the post- Islamist course, paving the way, through “reformist” struggles, for a demo cratic change in which an inclusive Islam may play a signifi cant role. The outcome might be termed “post- Islamist refolutions.” In the end, the Ira ni an experi- ence of 1979 may well remain the fi rst and the last Islamic revolution of our time. The fi nal chapter describes the details of this trend in the Muslim Mid- dle East, highlighting the part that “nonmovements” and the “art of presence” may play in such a transformation. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 9/1/09 1:59 PM 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 3 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 238 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 0

253 Part 3 PROSPECTS —-1 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 3 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 239 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

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255 NO SILENCE, NO VIOLENCE 13 Post- Islamist Trajectory cit” in the Middle East is not new. What is debate about a “demo cratic defi novel is the excessive attention given to Islam as a factor said to hinder demo- cratic reform. With its emphasis on God’s sovereignty and patriarchal dispo- sition, Islam is argued to be essentially incompatible with democracy. Lacking concepts of citizenship, freedom, and tolerance, it encourages believers to 1 embrace coercion, violence, and the path of jihad. Thus, Islam is viewed as a “world in which human life doesn’t have the same value as it does in the West, 2 in which freedom, democracy, openness and creativity are alien.” Such views have been energized by many home- grown Islamists who, in the name of their religion, suspect democracy as a “foreign construct,” suspend pop u lar will in favor of God’s sovereignty, and commit violence in the name of jihad. Even though many Muslims refute these charges by suggesting that God has granted sovereignty to humans to govern themselves, and that Islamic justice values life (“killing one person equals killing the whole of humanity”) and 3 disallows discrimination based on class, race, or gender, the debate has in general been bogged down in entirely textual and philosophical terrains, with liation, and how in prac- little eff ort to understand the politics of religious affi tice Muslims perceive their religion in relation to demo cratic ideals. Adapted from Asef Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- —-1 Islamist Turn (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007). For a full elaboration —0 of the arguments raised here, and for extensive historical/empirical narratives, please —+1 refer to the book. 241 5 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 4 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 241 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 4

256 242 PROSPECTS I would like to suggest that the question, raised so per sis tent ly, is not whether Islam is or is not compatible with democracy (itself a convoluted con- cept), but rather how and under what conditions Muslims can make Islam embrace demo cratic ethos. Nothing intrinsic to Islam— or any other religion— makes it inherently demo cratic or undemo cratic, peaceful or violent. It de- pends on the intricate ways in which the living faithful perceive, articulate, and live through their faiths: some deploy their religions in exclusive, authori- tarian, and violent terms, while others read in them justice, peace, equality, repre sen ta tion, and pluralism. Irrespective of whether religious beliefs and experiences relate to supernatural reality, in the end, “religion is expressed by 4 means of human ideas, symbols, feelings, practices, and organizations.” In a sense, religious injunctions are nothing but our understanding of them; they are what we make them to be. Some fi ft y years ago many social scientists be- 5 lieved that Christianity and democracy were incompatible. But today the most deep- rooted democracies are in the Christian heartland, even though fascism also emerged, and was associated with the church, in the heartland of Christianity. Clearly then, there are no such things as religions out there. Rather, a religion is understood, imagined, and constructed by diff erent groups of the faithful in diverse forms. As to why individuals and groups perceive and present the same scriptures diff erently is a most intriguing so cio log i cal question and cannot be elaborated here. Suffi ce to state here that it depends largely on individual believers’ diff erent biographies, social positions, and interests. While so much is currently discussed about the “fundamentalist Islamist” and jihadi trends that draw oft en on puritanical, exclusivist, and hostile inter- pretations of the doctrine, little is known about the ethics and experiences of those nonviolent social movements— what I have called “post- Islamism”—that aim to bridge the gap between Islam and democracy in Muslim societies today. This chapter elaborates on the workings of these movements and discusses the obstacles as well as opportunities to envisage a post- Islamist democracy in the Middle East through peaceful means. ISLAMISM POST- What is post- Islamism? Is it a discursive break from Islamism— the ideologies and movements that aim to establish an Islamic order (i.e., religious state, Is- lamic laws and moral codes), emphasizing disproportionately people’s obliga- -1— tions over their rights? Or does it rather represent only a par tic u lar version of 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 4 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 242 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

257 NO SILENCE, NO VIOLENCE 243 Islamist politics? Does the term indicate we have reached the historical end of Islamism altogether? In 1995, I happened to write an essay entitled the 6 “Coming of a Post- Islamist Society” in which I discussed the articulation of the remarkable social trends, po liti cal perspectives, and religious thought which post- Khomeini Iran had begun to witness— a trend which eventually came to embody the reform movement of the late 1990s. Since then, a number of observers and students of Islam have deployed the term, even though de- scriptively, to refer primarily to what they consider a general shift in attitudes and strategies of Islamist militants in the Muslim world. In fact, partly due to its poor conceptualization and party for its misperception, the term has in- 7 vited critical appraisal. In my formulation, post- Islamism represents both a condition and a proj- ect. In the fi rst instance, post- Islamism refers to a po liti cal and social condi- tion, in which aft er a phase of experimentation, the appeal, energy, and sources of legitimacy of Islamism get exhausted even among its once- ardent supporters. Islamists become aware of their system’s anomalies and inade- quacies as they attempt to normalize and institutionalize their rule. The con- tinuous trial and error makes the system susceptible to questions; and the pragmatic attempts to maintain the system reinforce abandoning certain of its underlying principles. Islamism becomes compelled to reinvent itself, but does so at the cost of a qualitative shift . Not only a condition, post- Islamism is also a project, a conscious attempt to conceptualize and strategize the ratio- nale and modalities of transcending Islamism in social, po liti cal, and intel- lectual domains. Yet, it is neither anti- Islamic nor un- Islamic or secular. Grow- ing out of the anomalies of Islamist politics since the early 1990s, post- Islamism represents an endeavor to fuse religiosity and rights, faith and freedom, Islam and liberty. It wants to turn the underlying principles of Islamism on their heads by emphasizing rights instead of duties, plurality in place of a singular authoritative voice, historicity rather than fi xed scripture, and the future in- stead of the past. It strives to marry Islam with individual choice and freedom, with democracy and modernity (something post- Islamists stress), to achieve what some have termed an “alternative modernity.” It wishes to undo the dis- course of violence that is so much ingrained in the ideologies and practices of some, but not all, Islamist trends today, to discard the current association of Islam with violence. Post- Islamism is expressed in acknowledging secular exi- gencies, in freedom from rigidity, in breaking down the monopoly of religious —-1 truth. In short, whereas Islamism is marked by the fusion of religion and re- —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 4 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 243 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

258 244 PROSPECTS sponsibility, post- Islamism emphasizes religiosity and rights, even though the latter’s relationship with liberalism remains tense. I should stress that, fi rst, Islamism and post- Islamism serve primarily as conceptual categories to sig- nify change, diff erence, and the root of change. In the real world, however, many Muslims may adhere eclectically and simultaneously to aspects of both discourses. On the other hand, the advent of post- Islamism as a real trend, should not be seen necessarily as the historical end of Islamism. What it should be seen as is the birth, out of Islamist experience, of a quantitatively diff erent discourse and politics. In reality we may witness simultaneous pro- cesses of both Islamization and post- Islamization. Whether or not Islam corresponds to demo cratic ideas depends primarily on whether advocates of these perspectives— Islamism and post- Islamism— are able to establish their hegemony in society and the state. The history of socioreligious movements in Iran and Egypt since the 1970s off ers a fertile ground to examine the logic, conditions, and forces behind rendering Islam demo cratic or undemo cratic. In Iran, the 1979 revolution and establishment of an Islamic state set conditions for the rise of post- Islamist ideas and move- ments that aimed to transcend Islamism in society and governance. The end of the war with Iraq (1988), the death of Ayatollah Khomeini (1989), and the program of postwar reconstruction under President Rafsanjani marked a turning point toward post- Islamism. It expressed itself in various social prac- tices and ideas, including urban management, feminist practice, theological perspective, and social and intellectual trends and movements. Youths, stu- dents, women, religious intellectuals, and many state employees, among oth- ers, called for democracy, individual rights, tolerance, and gender equality, but they refused to throw away religious sensibilities altogether. Thus, daily re sis tance and struggle by ordinary people compelled religious thinkers, spir- itual elites, and po liti cal actors to undertake a crucial paradigmatic shift . Scores of old Islamist revolutionaries renounced their earlier ideas of exclu- sivism, revolutionary violence, and religion as ideology and politics, and la- mented the danger of religious state to both religion and the state. Numerous opponents from both without and within the Islamic state called for its secu- larization but stressed maintaining religious ethics in society. In fact, the re- formist government of President Muhammad Khatami (1997– 2004) repre- sented only one, the po liti cal, aspect of this pervasive societal trend. In Egypt, on the other hand, instead of an Islamic revolution, there devel- -1— oped a pervasive Islamist movement that held a conservative moral vision, 0— +1— 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 4 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 244 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

259 NO SILENCE, NO VIOLENCE 245 populist language, a patriarchal disposition, and adherence to scripture. By the early 1990s, through da ̔wa (invitation to faith) and associational work, the movement had captured some large tracts within the civil society, moving on to claim space in state institutions. Although it failed to dislocate Egypt’s secular regime, the movement left an enduring mark on both society and state. It succeeded in hegemonizing an “Islamic mode” in society. Engulfed by the pervasive “Islamic mode,” major actors in Egyptian society, including the in- telligentsia, the new rich, Al- Azhar (the institution of establishment Islam), and ruling elites, all converged around the language of nativism and conserva- tive moral ethos, thus severely marginalizing critical voices, innovative reli- gious thought, and demands for genuine demo cratic reform. In the end, threatened by expanding Islamism, the authoritarian state appropriated as- pects of conservative religiosity and nationalist sentiments (which had been cultivated by the continuing Arab– Israeli confl ict) to confi gure Egypt’s “pas- sive revolution.” This Gramscian passive revolution represented a managed Islamic restoration in which the state, in reality the original target of change, ing fully in charge. Even though a nascent democracy succeeded in remain movement in 2005 (Kifaya) pointed to some hopeful change in the po liti cal climate, the power structure remained authoritarian, religious thought stag- nant and exclusive, and the po liti cal class nativist. Little in Egypt resembled Iran’s post- Islamist trajectory. Since the 1990s, both of these trends, Islamism and post- Islamism, have been unfolding simultaneously in other parts of the Muslim world. On the one hand, the global and domestic social and po liti cal conditions have continued to generate appeals for religious and moral politics, especially in those nations that had not experienced Islamism. Anti- Islamic sentiment in the West follow- ing the September 11 terrorist attacks, and the subsequent “war on terrorism,” reinforced a profound feeling of insecurity and outrage among Muslims who sense that Islam and Muslims are under an intense onslaught. This increased the appeal of religiosity and nativism, so that Islamic parties (such as those in Morocco, Algeria, Pakistan, Bahrain, and Turkey) that among other issues ex- pressed opposition to U.S. policy in Af ghan i stan have scored considerable suc- cesses in several national elections since 2002. At the very same time, however, and against the backdrop of intensifying religious sentiments in the Muslim world, a new post- Islamist trend has begun to emerge, attempting to accommodate aspects of demo cratization, pluralism, —-1 women’s rights, youth concerns, and social development with adherence to —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 4 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 245 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

260 246 PROSPECTS religion. In Lebanon, Hizbullah transcended its exclusivist Islamist platform (i.e., calling for an Islamic state in Lebanon) by adapting to the pluralistic po- liti cal reality of Lebanese society, acting more or less like a confessional po liti- cal party as its Lebanese counterparts. In Egypt, Hizb al- Wasat, a breakaway faction of the Muslim Brothers, disassociated itself from both the violent strat- egy of the al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya (which later, in 1997, renounced violence unilaterally and opted for peaceful activities) and the authoritarian disposition of its Muslim Brothers pre de ces sors. Hizb al- Wasat privileged modern democ- racy over Islamic shura (the principle of consultation), embraced pluralism in religion, and welcomed gender mixing and ideological tendencies. In fact, the main ideologue of the party has been a Coptic Christian. In Central Asia, while the Islamist Hizb al- Tahrir has held its ground in Tajikistan, the Islamic Re nais sance Party has integrated into that country’s secular po liti cal pro cess, 8 attempting to contest po liti cal power through peaceful electoral fashion. The Jamaat- e-Islami of India has experienced a qualitative shift from a movement resting on an organic, complete, and exclusivist Islam— one that rejected de- mocracy and was intolerant of other faith lines— into a movement that em- braces ambiguity and interpretation in its foundational thoughts, values de- 9 mocracy and pluralism, and cooperates with its ideological “others.” Leaders of the current Moroccan religious movement al- Adl wal- Ihsan (Justice and Benevolence) discard an exclusive understanding of Islam, rely on interpreta- tion and historicizing, and acknowledge fl exibility and ambiguity; they reject imposing shari ̔a laws and hijab on Muslims, and endorse human rights, plu- 10 ralism, democracy, and separation of powers. But more than al- Adl wal- Ihsan, it is Morocco’s Justice and Development Party that has spearheaded a post- Islamist disposition by practically participating in the current multiparty elec- toral competition. And fi nally, notwithstanding an initial unease in the West about growing religious revivalism, Turkey has smoothly and rapidly tran- scended the Islamism of Virtue and Welfare Parties by embracing a self- conscious post- Islamist trend expressed in the Justice and Development Party (AKP)— one that advocates a pious society in a secular demo cratic state. Even in the highly conservative Saudi Arabia, a post- Wahhabi trend has been at- tempting to incorporate notions of “liberal Islam,” seeking a compromise with 11 democracy. Yet, except for Turkey, which already had a multiparty democ- racy, none of these movements has assumed governmental power to consider how and to what extent they would be willing or able to forge demo cratic gov- -1— ernance. If there is a lesson in the Ira ni an experience, it is that its post- Islamism 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 4 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 246 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

261 NO SILENCE, NO VIOLENCE 247 was pushed back by the conservative Islamists, who control major domains of the state power. Thus, neither did Egypt’s Islamist movement succeed in fully “Islamizing” the Egyptian state, nor did Iran’s post- Islamism succeed in demo cratizing the Islamic Republic. Both movements encountered stiff opposition from their re- spective power elites. In other words, the po liti cal impasse in these countries has been less a function of religion per se than of structural impediments and the longtime vested interests of ruling elites. To what extent can social move- ment mobilization enforce intended po liti cal and structural change? How far can states accommodate the radical projects of their social movement adver- saries? And how far can social movements alter, without resorting to violent revolutions, the po liti cal status quo in the Middle East— a region entrapped by the authoritarian regimes of both secular and religious dispositions, exclusiv- ist Islamist opposition, and blatant (threat of) foreign domination? SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND PO LITI CAL CHANGE Multifaceted social movements are not single- episode expressions that melt away under an act of repression. Rather, they are prolonged, many- sided pro- cesses of agency and change, with ebbs and fl ows, whose enduring “forward linkages” can revitalize pop u lar mobilization when the opportunity arises. Clearly, the most common work of social movements is to pressure opponents ll social demands. This is carried out through mobilization or authorities to fulfi 12 and threatening disruption or uncertainty against adversaries. For instance, the Islamist campaign in Egypt compelled the government to restrict many lms. Second, even if social liberal publications, persecute authors, or prohibit fi movements are not engaged in a po liti cal campaign, they may still be involved 13 in what Melucci calls “cultural production.” The very operation of a social movement is in itself a change, since it involves creating new social formations, groups, networks, and relationships. Its “animating eff ects,” by enforcing and unfolding such alternative relations and institutions, enhances cultural produc- tion of diff erent value systems, norms, behavior, symbols, and discourse. This pro cess of building “hegemony” is expressed by producing alternative ways of being and doing things. Post- Islamist movements display a vivid example of such uence in civil society, through the press, publica- a moral and intellectual infl tions, associations, discourse, education, and lifestyles. Third, social movements may also induce change by discreetly operating —-1 on the fault line between the state and civil society— in educational, judiciary, —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 4 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 247 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

262 248 PROSPECTS media, and other institutions. In the early 1990s, Egyptian Islamists suc- ceeded in penetrating the state education system, infl uencing policymakers, teachers, and, above all, a generation of students through their activities at teacher training colleges. Islamist judges enforced Islamic law, punishing sec- ulars while supporting Islamic- oriented legal suits. Even police and the mili- tary were not immune. Finally, social movements, if they are tolerated by the incumbent regimes, may be able to capture segments of governmental power through routine electoral means. The cases of Turkey’s ruling AKP and Iran’s reform government under President Khatami represent only two recent ex- amples. Both movements managed to form legitimate governments. A great challenge of a social movement is how to retain its movement char- acter and at the same time exert governmental power. While sharing state power may enable social movements to turn some of their ideas into public policy, failure to do so, even though due to opponents’ sabotage, would under- mine their support base in society, thus rendering them powerless. Clearly, then, social movements need to go beyond discursive struggles for demo cratic polity by consolidating their institutional foundations within the fabric of society, to link up intimately with the subaltern constituencies. For not only can a solid institutional social base compel the opponents/states to undertake po liti cal reform, as in the Mexican experience, and may even enforce a “po liti- cal pact” between democracy movements and the states (as in Chile and Spain), it can also protect movements from repression and annihilation and ensure continuity and revival even aft er a period of downturn. Egypt’s Mus- lim Brothers exemplify a pertinent case, where the movement has managed to survive since its inception in the late 1920s by enduring de cades of ebbs and fl ows, thanks primarily to its deep- seated associational work in civil society and to its kinship networks. THE ART OF PRESENCE No doubt, reform of authoritarian states would require distinctly laborious struggles, the signifi cance and diffi culties of which one cannot discount. However, demo cratic societal change remains indispensable to meaningful and sustained demo cratic reform of the state. Change in society’s sensibilities is a precondition for far- reaching demo cratic transformation. Social change might occur partly as the unintended outcome of structural pro cesses, such s, or a rise in literacy; it may as migration, urbanization, demographic shift -1— also result from global factors and the exchange of ideas, information, and 0— +1— 9/1/09 1:59 PM 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 4 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 248 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 5

263 NO SILENCE, NO VIOLENCE 249 models. But the most crucial element for demo cratic reform is an active citi- zenry: a sustained presence of individuals, groups, and movements in every available social space, whether institutional or informal , collective or indi- ll their responsibilities. For it is vidual, where they assert their rights and fulfi precisely in such spaces that alternative ideas, norms, practices, and politics are produced. The aptitude and audacity associated with active citizenry is what I have phrased the “art of presence.” Muslim citizens cannot spearhead a demo- cratic shift unless they master the art of presence— the skill and stamina to assert collective will in spite of all odds by circumventing constraints, utilizing what is possible, and discovering new spaces within which to make themselves heard, seen, felt, and realized. Authoritarian regimes may be able to suppress or ga nized movements or silence collective re sis tance. But they are limited when it comes to stifl ing an entire society, the mass of ordinary citizens in their daily lives. Beyond acting as a precondition to sustain a demo cratic reform, the change in society’s sensibilities through the active citizenry can also induce and impel change onto (authoritarian) states. In this respect, I envision a strat- egy whereby every social group generates change in society through active citizenship in their immediate domains: children at home and at schools, stu- dents in colleges, teachers in classrooms, workers in factories, the poor in their neighborhoods, athletes in stadiums, artists through their art, intellec- tuals through media, women at home and as public actors. Not only are they to voice their claims, broadcast violations done unto them, and make them- selves heard, but also to take responsibility for excelling at what they do. An authoritarian regime should not be a reason for not producing excellent nov- els, brilliant handicraft s, math champions, world- class athletes, dedicated teachers, or a global fi lm industry. Excellence is power; it is identity. By “art of presence,” I imagine a way in which a society, through the practices of daily life, may regenerate itself by affi rming the values that deject the authoritarian personality, get ahead of its elites, and become capable of enforcing its collec- tive sensibilities on the state and its henchmen. Citizens equipped with the art of presence would subvert authoritarian rule, because the state usually rules not as an externality to society; rather, it does so by weaving its logic of power— through norms, rules, and institutions— into the fabric of society. Challenging those norms, institutions, and logics of power is likely to subvert a state’s 14 “governmentality,” its ability to govern. And in this, women’s struggle to —-1 challenge patriarchy in their day- to- day interactions becomes enormously —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 4 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 249 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

264 250 PROSPECTS critical, precisely because patriarchy is deeply embedded in the perception and practice of religious authoritarian polity. Even though patriarchy may evade or incorporate women’s public presence, the latter still leads to undeni- able eff ect. When girls overtake boys in colleges, women are likely (though not necessarily) to be future directors and managers whose authority men are compelled to accept, if not internalize. This alone would point to a notable shift in society’s norms and balance of power. Under authoritarian rule, such eff orts to challenge patriarchy are likely to be the expression of women’s nonmovements. Indeed, nonmovements, or the col- lective endeavors of noncollective actors, would in general constitute the key vehicle through which active citizenry may be realized. This is so because of the actors’ constant mobilization against, and negotiation or engagement with, the dominant powers— the state, property holders, patriarchy, or moral authorities. Not only would the nonmovements, on their own, cause signifi cant change in the actors’ life- chances; they may in the meantime evolve into sustained social movements and contentious politics when the opportunity arises. My focus on the “art of presence,” or active citizenry, is not intended to downplay the signifi cance of or ga ni za tion and concerted collective endeavors for change. Nor do I mean to substitute contentious movements with indi- vidual active citizenry; in fact, such a citizenry, as noted just above, is likely to embrace and facilitate or ga nized collective action. Aft er all, Iran’s spectacular Green Movement (to protest electoral fraud and demand democratic reform) did not emerge out of the blue, but had roots in the various nonmovements, which then burst collectively into the open once they found a political oppor- tunity in July 2009. Yet it is crucial to recognize that not only does authoritar- ian rule routinely impede contentious collective actions and or ga nized move- ments, it is also unrealistic to expect a civil society to be in a constant state of vigor, vitality, and collective struggle. Society, aft er all, is made up of ordinary people, who get tired, demoralized, and disheartened. Activism, the extraor- dinary practices to produce social change, is the stuff of activists , who may en- ergize collective sentiments when the opportunity allows. The point is not to cance of contentious movements to cause po liti cal reiterate the po liti cal signifi change, or to ignore the necessity of undercutting the coercive power of the states. The point, rather, is to discover and recognize societal spaces in which lay citizens, with their ordinary practices of everyday life, through the art of presence, may recondition the established po liti cal elites and refashion state -1— institutions into their sensibilities. 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 5 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 250 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

265 NO SILENCE, NO VIOLENCE 251 Such refashioning of the state may result not only from active citizenry, individuals’ own initiative and education, but more pervasively from the long- term impact of nonmovements or, especially, social movement activism. Through their cultural production— establishing new social facts on the ground, new lifestyles, modes of thinking, behaving, being, and doing— movements can acclimatize states to new societal trends, compelling the authorities to take account of society’s prevailing sensibilities. For instance, the Islamic re- gime in Iran was compelled to recognize and minimally act upon the pop u lar desire for secularization, demo cratic polity, and civil liberties, which Iran’s social movements had since the late 1990s helped to articulate. Similarly, the fact that the Islamic AKP has bowed to Turkey’s secular democracy is neither simply a sign of deception nor merely the fear of backlash from the Turkish army. Rather, it is a position that has been nurtured and shaped by the secular demo cratic sensibilities of Turkish citizens, both religious and secular. I have called this laborious pro cess of society infl uencing the state— through estab- lishing new lifestyles and new modes of thinking, being, and doing things— socialization of the state . It means conditioning the state and its henchmen to societal sensibilities, ideals, and expectations. Socialization of the state is, in eff ect, “governmentality” in reverse. It can serve as a crucial venue through which citizens may cultivate and compel demo cratic reform onto the authori- tarian states. It would be naive to read too much into society at the expense of demon- izing the state. Just as states may be oppressive and authoritarian, societies can be divided, individualized, conservative, and exploitative. Clearly, then, social- izing the polity, the state, into demo cr atic sensibilities may not su cceed with- out politicizing society into a demo cratic direction. Otherwise, active citizenry can easily recede into co- optation, communalism, authoritarian ethos, or self- ish individualism that can turn it into a citizenry devoid of collective sensibil- ity, inclusive responsibility, and aspiration. It is thus crucial for an active citi- zenry to think and act po liti cally, even within its own immediate sphere, even though its aim might not be revolution or regime change; it must be con- cerned with solidarity, social justice, and an inclusive social order. In the Muslim Middle East, initiatives for a sustained demo cratic reform need to come from the region’s indigenous movements, who would then deter- mine if and how international assistance should be deployed. The painstaking orts in the region will yield little if democracy is preached and pushed reform eff —-1 by foreign forces, and even far less through coercion and conquest. —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 5 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 251 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

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267 NOTES Chapter 1 Arab Human Development Report 1. See United Nations Development Program, , vol. 1, Creating opportunities for Future Generations (New York: UNDP, 2002). See also Chapter 2 of the present work. 2. Adapted from Asaf Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- Islamist Turn (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 200– 201. 3. For a useful discussion of how we should focus on the analysis of “revolution- ary situations” instead of projecting revolutions in retrospect, see Rod Aya, “Theories of Revolution Reconsidered: Contrasting Models of Collective Violence,” Theory and Society 8, no. 1 (July 1979), pp. 39– 99. 4. See United Nations Development Program, Arab Human Development Report , (New York: UNDP, 2005), p. 164. vol. 3, Towards Freedom in the Arab World 5. For a fi ne discussion of “Middle Eastern exceptionalism” and the U.S. policy of “war on terror,” see Mark LeVine, Why They Don’t Hate Us (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2005). 6. See Alexander L. Macfi e, ed. Orientalism: A Reader (Cairo: American Univer- sity in Cairo Press, 2000); Maxine Rodinson, Eu rope and the Mystique of Islam (Lon- don: I. B. Tauris, 2002). 7. A useful recent publication is Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004). See also Roel Meijer, “Taking the Islamist Social Movement Seriously: Social Movement The- 50, no. 2 ory and the Islamist Movement,” International Journal of Social History (August 2005), pp. 279– 92. —-1 8. Charles Tilly, Social Movements, 1768– 2004 (Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm, 2004), —0 p. 7. —+1 253 5 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 4 2 5 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 253 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M 9/1/09 1:59 PM

268 254 NOTES TO PAGES 4–19 9. For elaboration, see Asef Bayat, “Islamism and Social Movement Theory,” 26, no. 6 (July 2000), pp. 891– 908. Third World Quarterly 10. Olivier Roy, (Cambridge: Harvard University The Failure of Po liti cal Islam Press, 1994), pp. 8– 9. 11. Joost Hiltermann, Behind the Intifada: Labor and Women’s Movements in the (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1991); Zachary Occupied Territories Lockman and Joel Beinin, eds., Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Oc- (London: South End Press, 1989). cupation Women in the Middle East: Past and Present 12. See Nikki Keddie, (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 2007), pp. 215– 16. 13. United Nations Development Program , Arab Human Development Report, vol. 4, (New York: UNDP, 2006), pp. 123– 39. Toward the Rise of Women in the Arab World 14. Ibid. 15. There are now some useful studies on the collective struggles of the subal- tern in the Middle East— such as those of casual workers, the unemployed, and the marginals— as well as various ways of survival and individual re sis tance strategies. See, for instance, Stephanie Cronin, ed., Subaltern and Social Protest (London: Rout- Struggle and Survival in ledge, 2008); Edmund Burke III and David Yaghoubian, eds. the Modern Middle East (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). 16. See Joel Beinin and Hossam el- Hamalawy, “Strikes in Egypt Spread from Cen- ter of Gravity,” Middle East Report Online , May 9, 2007. See also Joel Beinin, “Under- belly of Egypt’s Neoliberal Agenda,” Middle East Report Online , April 5, 2008, www .merip .org/ mero/ mero040508 .html . 17. See Freedom House, Freedom in the Middle East and North Africa (New York: Rowman & Littlefi eld, 2005), p. 4. 18. See Human Rights Situation in Iran (see reports by the International Cam- paign for Human Rights in Iran, www .iranhumanrights .org) . 19. See Amnesty International, Report 2007: The State of the World’s Human Rights, http:// thereport .amnesty .org/ eng/ Regions/ Middle -East -and -North -Africa/ Egypt . 20. David Wolman, “Cairo Activists Use Facebook to Rattle the Regime,” Wired Magazine 16 (October 20, 2008), p. 11; www .wired .com/ print/ techbiz/ startups/ magazine/ 16 -11/ ff _facebookegypt . 21. Asef Bayat, Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran (New York: Colum- bia University Press, 1997), p. 15. 22. Asef Bayat, “Neoliberal City and Its Discontent,” Berkeley Journal of Sociology , forthcoming. 23. See Charles Tilly, “Social Movements and National Politics,” in State- Making -1— and Social Movements: Essays in History and Theory , ed. C. Bright and S. Harding 0— (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press), p. 304. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 5 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 254 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

269 NOTES TO PAGES 19–34 255 24. Tilly, Social Movements, 1768– 2004 . Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age 25. Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, of Empire (London: Penguin, 2004), p. 223. , p. 16. 26. See Bayat, Street Politics 27. For the concept of “imagined solidarities,” see Bayat, “Islamism and Social Movement Theory.” 28. See Samantha Shapiro, “Revolution, Facebook- Style,” New York Times , Janu- ary 25, 2009, New York ed., MM34. ” states— their constraints and op- 29. Clearly, the nature of the Middle East “soft erent from that of the liberal demo cratic capitalist states in the portunities— is diff nitely demanding” pro- West, where, according to Slavoj Zizek, the strategy of “infi posed by Simon Critchley, that is, bombarding the state with infi nite demands (be- ght” the state power than it is to seize it), cannot cause it is no more possible to “fi change things; rather, such reformist demands can actually legitimize them (Slavoj Zizek, In Defense of Lost Causes [London: Verso, 2008]). In nonmovements, subjects do not limit themselves merely to making demands; they are oft en involved in action/ practice. Chapter 2 1. United Nations Development Program, Arab Human Development Report , vol. 1, Creating Opportunities for Future Generations (New York: UNDP, 2002). 2. Dudley Seers, “The Meaning of Development,” in The Po liti cal Economy of ed. N. Uphoff and W. Ilchman (Berkeley: University of California Press), Development, pp. 123– 28; Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). 3. United Nations Development Program, Arab Human Development Report , vol. 2, Building a Knowledge Society (New York: UNDP, 2003), p. 3. 4. According to Nader Ferg any, the lead author of the Report , Florence, March 19, 2005. 5. Middle East Quarterly 9, no. 4 (fall 2002), p. 59. 6. According to Nader Fergany, Florence, March 19, 2005. 7. U.S. Department of State, Offi ce of International Information Programs, October 20, 2003. 8. Galal Amin, “An Da ̓f wa al- Taba ̓iyya Fi Taqrir al- Tanmiyya al- Insaniyya al- , December 19, 2003, p. 10. For further comments, see Galal Amin, Arabiyya,” Al- Hayat “Colonial Echoes,” Al- Ahram Weekly , April 7, 2004. 9. Edward Said, “The Arab Condition,” Al- Ahram Weekly , May 22– 28, 2003. , vol. 3, pp. 6– 7. Arab Human Development Report 10. UNDP, —-1 11. United Nations Development Program, Arab Human Development Report , —0 vol. 3, Towards Freedom in the Arab World (New York: UNDP, 2005) p. 153. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 5 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 255 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

270 256 NOTES TO PAGES 34–39 12. See Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post- Industrial Society (New York: Harper (New York: The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology Colophon, 1976); Alvin Gouldner, Basic Books, 1970); Jean- François Lyotard, (Minneapolis: The Postmodern Condition University of Minnesota Press, 1983); Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the (New York: Free Press, 1992); Manuel Castells, The Rise of Network Society Last Man (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996). 13. See, for instance, Steve Fuller, “Universities and the Future of Knowledge Gov- ernance from the Standpoint of Social Epistemology,” unpublished paper presented in = UNICEF, 2004, p. 2. Also in: http:// portal .unesco .org/ education/ en/ ev .php -URL _ID 35262 & URL _DO = = 201 .html . DO _TOPIC & URL _SECTION 14. See, for instance, Steve Fuller, “Can Universities Solve the Problem of Knowl- edge in Society Without Succumbing to the Knowledge Society?” Policy Futures in Ed- ucation 1, no. 1 (2003), pp. 106– 24. 15. See Ibrahim El- Issawy, “Assessing the Index,” Al- Ahram Weekly , January 9– 15, 2003. 16. See Galal Amin, “Colonial Echoes.” , vol. 3, p. 50. 17. UNDP, Arab Human Development Report 18. Ibid., p. 8. Report also acknowledges this identity: “In this comprehen- 19. Volume 3 of the sive sense, freedom is considered both the ultimate goal of human development and its foundation,” p. 62. 20. Sylvia Chan, Liberalism, Democracy and Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), especially chapter 2, “Decomposing Liberal Democracy.” 21. See Massoud Karshenas and Valentine Moghadam, eds., Social Policy in the Middle East (London: Palgrave, 2006). 22. UNDP, Arab Human Development Report , vol. 3, p. 164. 23. Ibid., pp. 164, 165. 24. For “demo cratization by pact,” see Jorge Cadena- Roa, “State Pacts, Elites, and Social Movement in Mexico’s Transition to Democracy,” in States, Parties, and Social Movements , ed. Jack Goldstone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). makes almost no reference to, let alone engages with, the sizeable Report 25. The scholarly work already devoted to the discussion of demo cratic transformation within the authoritarian states, for instance, various issues of the Journal of Democracy; Ghassan Salamé, (London: Palgrave/Macmillan, 1994); Democracy without Demo crats Rex Brynen, Bahgat Korany, and Paul Noble, eds., Po liti cal Liberalization and Demo- cratization in the Arab World (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1995); Khaled Abou El (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Islam and the Challenge of Democracy Fadl, The Third Wave: Demo cratization in the Late Press, 2004); Samuel P. Huntington, -1— Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991). 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 5 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 256 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

271 NOTES TO PAGES 43–48 257 Chapter 3 1. For critiques of the exaggerated globalization thesis, see Chris Harman, “Globali- International Socialism sation: A Critique of a New Orthodoxy” , no. 73 (1997), pp. 3– 33; Marxism Today , special issue, November/December 1998; David Gordon, “The Global Economy,” , no. 168 (March/April 1988), pp. 24– 64. New Left Review Globalization and the Postcolonial World (Baltimore: 2. See Ankie Hoogvelt, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), pp. 121– 31. World Development Report 1995 3. World Bank, (Ox ford: Ox ford Universit y Press, 1995), p. 108. The Eco- 4. Vandemoortele, “The African Employment Crisis of the 1990s,” in nomic Crisis in Africa , ed. C. Grey- Johnson (Harare: African Association for Public Administration and Management, 1990), pp. 34– 36. 5. See Central Intelligence Agency, The 1992 CIA World Factbook (1992). 6. For the fi gures, see International Labour Offi ce, World Employment Report, 1998– 99 (Geneva: ILO, 1999); David McNally, “Globalization on Trial: Crisis and Class Struggle in East Asia,” Monthly Review 50, no. 4 (September 1998), p. 7. 7. Neil Webster, “The Role of NGDOs in Indian Rural Development: Some Les- sons from West Bengal and Karnataka,” Eu ro pe an Journal of Development Research 7, no. 2 (December 1995), pp. 407– 33. Karl Marx’s Theory of Revolution (New York: Monthly Review 8. Hal Draper, Press, 1978), vol. 2, p. 453. 9. Ibid., chapter 15. 10. Peter Worsley, The Three Worlds (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1984). 11. Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (London: Penguin, 1967). 12. Samuel P. Huntington, Po liti cal Order in Changing Societies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1968); Joan Nelson, “The Urban Poor: Disruption or Po- liti cal Integration in Third World Cities,” Worl d Politic s 22 (April 1970), pp. 393– 414; Samuel P. Huntington and J. Nelson, No Easy Choice: Po liti cal Participation in Devel- oping Countries (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). 13. Nelson, “Urban Poor.” Five Families: Mexican Case Studies in the Culture of Poverty 14. See Oscar Lewis, The Children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican (New York: Basic Books, 1959); Family (New York: Random House, 1961); La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Cul- ture of Poverty (New York: Random House, 1966). Three Worlds, 15. Worsley, pp. 190– 94. 16. See Anthony Leeds, “The Concept of the ‘Culture of Poverty’: Conceptual, Logical and Empirical Problems with Perspectives from Brazil and Peru,” in The Cul- —-1 ture of Poverty: A Critique, ed. E. B. Leacock (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971); —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 5 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 257 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

272 258 NOTES TO PAGES 48–51 Charles Valentine, Culture and Poverty: Critique and Counter Proposals (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968). Myth of Marginality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 17. Janice Perlman, The City and Grassroots (Berkeley: University of California 1976); Manuel Castells, Press, 1983). 18. My understanding of the notion of survival strategy is based upon James Scott, Journal of Peasant Studies 13, no. 2 (1986). “Everyday Form of Peasant Re sis tance,” 19. Ernesto Escobar, Encountering Development (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton Uni- versity Press, 1995). 20. See John Friedmann, Empowerment: The Politics of Alternative Development (London: Blackwell, 1992); John Friedmann, “Rethinking Poverty: Empowerment and Citizen Rights,” International Social Science Journal 48, no. 2 (June 1996), pp. 161– 72. 21. Perlman, Myth of Marginality ; Castells, City and the Grassroots . 22. Castells, City and the Grassroots ; Frans Schuurman and Ton van Naerssen, Urban Social Movements in the Third World eds., (London: Croom Helm, 1989); John Friedmann, “The Dialectic of Reason,” International Journal of Urban and Regional 13, no. 2 (1989), pp. 217– 36. Research 23. The term is Bernard Hourcade’s, in his “Conseillisme, classe sociale et space urbain: les squatteurs du sud de Tehran, 1978– 1981,” in Urban Crises and Social Move- ments in the Middle East, ed. Kenneth Brown et al. (Paris: Editions L’Harmattan, 1989). 24. See, for instance, Matthias Stiefel and Marshall Wolfe, A Voice for the Ex- cluded: Pop u lar Participation in Development (London: Zed Books, 1994). The book, which was commissioned by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Devel- opment, has a section on urban social movements that covers exclusively the Latin American countries. 25. Asef Bayat, “Islamism and Empire: The Incongruous Nature of Islamist Anti- Imperialism,” in Socialist Register 2008, ed. Colin Leys and Leo Panitch (London: Merlin Press, 2008). 26. Anthony Leeds and Elizabeth Leeds, “Accounting for Behavioral Diff erences: Three Po liti cal Systems and the Responses of Squatters in Brazil, Peru, and Chile,” in ed. J. Walton and L. Magotti (London: John The City in Comparative Perspective, Wiley, 1976), p. 211. 27. James Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Re sis tance (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985). 28. See Steve Pile, “Opposition, Po liti cal Identities and Spaces of Re sis tance,” in Geographies of Re sis tance, ed. S. Pile and M. Keith (London: Routledge, 1997), p. 2. 29. See Reeves, “Power, Re sis tance and the Cult of Muslim Saints in a Northern American Ethnologist 22, no. 2 (1995), pp. 306– 22. Egyptian Town,” -1— 30. See Lila Abu- Lughod, “The Romance of Re sis tance: Tracing Transformations 0— of Power Through Bedouin Women,” American Ethnologist 17, no. 1 (February 1990), pp. 41– 55. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 5 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 258 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

273 NOTES TO PAGES 51–57 259 31. Diane Singerman, Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics, and Networks in Urban Quarters of Cairo (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1995). 32. Pile, “Opposition, Po liti cal Identities, and Spaces of Re sis tance.” 33. See Arlene Macleod, Accommodating Protest: Working Women, the New Veil- (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991). ing, and Change in Cairo 34. Something that Piven and Cloward wished the American poor people’s move- ments had. See Frances Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why (New York: Vintage, 1979). They Succeed, How They Fail 35. See, for instance, Mike Cole and Dave Hill, “Games of Despair and Rhetorics of Re sis tance: Postmodernism, Education and Reaction,” British Journal of Sociology 16, no. 2 (1995), pp. 165– 82. of Education 36. Scott, , p. 290. Weapons of the Weak 37. Ibid., p. 292. 38. Nathan Brown, Peasant Politics in Modern Egypt: The Struggle Against the State (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990). 39. See Anthony Giddens, Sociology (Oxford: Polity Press, 2000). 40. Scott, , p. 350. Weapons of the Weak 41. Michel Foucault, (New York: Pantheon, 1980). Power/Knowledge 42. In the words of Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly: “Towards an Integrated Perspective on Social Movements and Revolution,” in Comparative Poli- tics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure , ed. M. I. Lichbach and A. Zuckerman (Cam- bridge: Cambridge University Press: 1997), pp. 150– 51. 43. See Diane Singerman, Avenues of Participation (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1985); Homa Hoodfar, From Marriage to the Market (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). In an interesting study of the po liti cal behav- ior of lower- class families in Cairo, Singerman aims to show the par tic u lar ways in which the ordinary people in Egypt participate in the po liti cal pro cesses and even change the outcome of national policies. To this end, she shows how Cairean poor families strive to extend their familial relations through intermarriage within the communities where they can cultivate support. They set up networks of mutual help and credit associations, and diverse strategies to go around government re- quirements for subsidies, pensions, and so on. The result, Singerman suggests, is not passivity and fatalism, but active participation in public life and a challenge to the state. 44. Michael Brown, “On Resisting Re sis tance,” American Anthropologist 98, no. 4 (1996), p. 730. 45. I have elaborated on this perspective in more detail elsewhere (see Asef Bayat, [New York: Columbia University Press, Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran —-1 1997]). Here, I only briefl y outline some of the major points. —0 46. See, Asef Bayat, “Cairo’s Poor: Dilemmas of Survival and Solidarity,” in Mid- dle East Report , no. 202 (winter 1996), special issue on “Cairo: Power, Poverty and —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 5 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 259 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

274 260 NOTES TO PAGES 57–68 Urban Survival.” On internal encroachments, see Farha Ghannam, “Relocation and , no. 202, (winter 1996), pp. 17– 20. Middle East Report the Use of Urban Space,” 47. See particularly Petra Kuppinger, “Giza Spaces,” in Middle East Report , no. 202 (winter 1996), pp. 14– 16. 48. See Bayat, Street Politics . Al- Wafd , 49. Reported by Education Committee of the Majlis al- Sha‘b, cited in January 21, 2002, p. 6. 50. See the report in , January 29, 2002, p. 7. Egyptian Gazette Street Politics 51. For more details on the concept of “street politics,” see my , chap. 1. 52. For many examples, see Bayat, Street Politics . 53. For an example of such a broader alliance in Peru, see Pedro Arévalo, “Huay- can Self- Managing Urban Community: May Hope Be Realized,” in Environment and Urbanization 9, no. 1 (April 1997), pp. 59– 80. Chapter 4 1. The average gross national product growth rates for selected Middle Eastern countries during the 1970– 79 period were as follows: Egypt, 7.6 percent; Iran, 22.2 per- cent; Saudi Arabia, 37.2 percent; Turkey, 15.1 percent; Kuwait, 22.6 percent; Syria, 15.4 IMF International percent; Iraq, 28.8 percent; Jordan, 19.6 percent (“World Tables 1991,” Financial Statistics Yearbook , 1994, 1996 [Washington, D.C.: IMF Publications, 1996]). The Arab State , ed. 2. See Hazem Beblawi, “Rentier State in the Arab World,” in G. Luciani (London: Routledge, 1990). 3. For a typology of the states in the Middle East, see Alan Richards and John Waterbu r y, A Po liti cal Economy of the Middle East (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990). 4. USAID/Cairo/EAS, Report on Economic Conditions in Egypt, 1991– 1992 (Cairo: USAID, 1993), p. 2. 5. See John Westley, “Change in Egyptian Economy, 1977– 1997,” and Galal Amin, “Major Determinants of Economic Development in Egypt: 1977– 1997,” both in Cairo Papers in Social Science 21 (1998), pp. 18– 49. See also Ragui Assaad and Malak Rouchdy, (Cairo: Ford Foundation, 1998). For Poverty and Poverty Alleviation Strategies in Egypt a more recent evaluation of Egypt’s development pro cess, see Richard Adams, “Evalu- ating the Pro cess of Development in Egypt, 1980– 97,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 32 (2000), pp. 255– 75. 6. See Roula Majdalani, “Bridging the Gap between the Development Agendas and the Needs of the Grassroots: The Experience of Jordanian NGOs,” unpublished ms., Beirut, 1999. 7. See Raymond Hinnebusch, “Demo cratization in the Middle East: The Evidence -1— from the Syrian Case,” in Po liti cal and Economic Liberalization , ed. Gred Honneman 0— (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1996). +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 6 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 260 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

275 NOTES TO PAGES 68–73 261 8. Saad Eddin Ibrahim, “The Troubled Triangle: Pop u lism, Islam, and Civil Soci- 19 (1998), pp. 373– 85. International Po liti cal Science Review ety in the Arab World,” Civil Society in the Middle East (Leiden, N.Y.: E. J. 9. See Augustus R. Norton, ed., Brill, 1995). 10. Richards and Waterbury, Po liti cal Economy , p. 268. For a more thorough anal- Free Markets and Food Riots (London: ysis, see John Walton and David Seddon, Blackwell, 1994). Free Markets , pp. 205– 14. 11. See Walton and Seddon, 12. See, for instance, Ira Lapidus, (Ca m- Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967), p. 107. 13. See Al- Ahali , November 3, 1999, p. 3. 14. For details, see Asef Bayat, Workers and Revolution in Iran (London: Zed Books, 1987). On the unemployed movement in Iran, see my “Workless Revolutionar- ies: The Unemployed Movement in Revolutionary Iran,” International Review of So- cial History 42, no. 2 (1997), pp. 159– 85. 15. See Joel Beinin and Zachary Lockman, Workers on the Nile: Nationalism, (Prince ton, N.J.: Communism, Islam and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882– 1954 Prince ton University Press, 1988). 16. Land Center for Human Rights, “Egypt’s Labor Conditions During 1998: The Year of Strikes and Protests” (Cairo, 1998). 17. See Al- Wafd , February 5, 1999, p. 1. 18. See Walton and Seddon, , p. 210. Free Markets 19. Middle East Economic Digest, February 21, 1991, special report on Iran. 20. Posusney, Labor and the State , p. 5. 21. See, for instance, Richards and Waterbury, Po liti cal Economy , p. 267. 22. Posusney, Labor and the State , p. 10. 23. Cited in Walton and Seddon, Free Markets , p. 185. 24. For more detailed fi , Po liti cal Economy gures, see Richards and Waterbury, p. 140. 25. For these, I have relied on papers presented at the Workshop on Changing La- bour and Restructuring Unionism, First Mediterranean Social and Po liti cal Meeting, Florence, March 22– 26, 2000. See the papers by Myriam Catusse, “Les métamorphoses de la question syndicale au Maroc”; Dara Kawthar, “Labor Market in Lebanon: Evolu- tion, Constraints, and the Role of Unionism”; Fathi Rekik, “Mobilité sociale et fl exibilité de l’emploi [Tunisia]”; and Françoise Clement, “Changing Labour and Restructuring in Al- Ahram Weekly, Egypt.” On Egypt, see also Fatemah Farag, “Labour on the Fence,” May 11– 17, 2000, p. 7. Deena A. Gamile, “The Working Class of Shubra al- Khaima,” master’s thesis, American University in Cairo, 2000. —-1 26. For Egypt, see various reports, including Farag, “Labour on the Fence,” p. 7. In —0 Iran, the conservative parliament ratifi ed a law in early 2000 that excludes workshops —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 6 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 261 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

276 262 NOTES TO PAGES 73–77 with fewer than fi ve workers from the provisions of the labor law in order to increase productivity and investment. 27. See , special issue no. 32 (1997), esp. pp. 101– 98 Community Development Journal (Keith Popple and Mae Shaw, “Social Movements: Re- Assessing ‘Community’ ”). 28. See Inaz Tawfi q, “Community Participation and Environmental Change: Mo- bilization in a Cairo Neighborhood,” master’s thesis, American University in Cairo, 1995. Al- Ahram Weekly , August 29. Jailan Halawi, “Mosque Stairs Spark Shubra Riots,” 18– 24, 1994. 30. See Shafeeq Ghabra, “Voluntary Associations in Kuwait,” Middle East Journal 45 (1991), 199– 215. 31. See Joost Hiltermann, (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton Univer- Behind the Intifada sity Press, 1991). 32. For a good analysis of the CDAs, see Maha Mahfouz, “Community Develop- ment in Egypt: The Case of CDAs,” master’s thesis, American University in Cairo, 1992. 33. Samer El- Karanshawy, “Governance, Local Communities and International Development in Urban Egypt,” unpublished report, Cairo, 1998. Barrasi- ye Jame- shenakhti- ye Ravabet- e 34. See Rahmatollah Sedigh Sarvestani, Hamsayegui dar Tehran (Tehran: Tehran University, Institute of Social Studies and Research, 1997). 35. In 1990, there were 823 such associations, 80 percent of them concentrated in the greater Cairo area: see Hirofumi Tanada, “Survey of Migrant Associations in Cairo Metropolitan Society (Egypt), 1955– 1990: Quantitative and Qualitative Data,” in Social Science Review 42, no. 1 (1996). 36. See Nicholas Hopkins et al., Social Response to Environmental Change and Pollution in Egypt (Cairo: American University in Cairo, Social Research Center, 1998). 37. Alan Durning, “People Power and Development,” Foreign Policy 76 (1989), p. 71. 38. This segment draws heavily on my previous article on Egypt: Asef Bayat, “Cairo’s Poor: Dilemmas of Survival and Solidarity,” Middle East Report 202 (winter 1996), 2– 6. 39. For a report on Kafr Seif, see Nadia Abdel Taher, “Social Identity and Class d, 9 (1986); and for Khak Sefi in a Cairo Neighborhood,” Cairo Papers in Social Science see F. Khosrowkhavar, “Nouvelle banlieue et marginalité: La cité Taleghani a Khak- e Sefi d,” in Téhéran: capitale bicentennaire , ed. C. Adle and B. Hourcade (Tehran: Insti- tut français de recherche en Iran, 1992). 40. See El- Karanshawy, “Governance, Local Communities,” p. 11. -1— 41. On this, see a perceptive article by Mustapha El- Sayyid, “Is There a Civil Soci- 0— ety in the Arab World?” in Norton, Civil Society in the Middle East . +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 6 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 262 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

277 NOTES TO PAGES 77–80 263 42. Reported in Manal M. Eid, “Informal Economy in Madinat al- Nahda: Re sis- tance and Accommodation among the Urban Poor,” master’s thesis, American Uni- versity in Cairo, 1998, p. 88. 43. Abdel Moula Ismail, The Liberalization of Egypt’s Agriculture Sector and Peas- ants Movement (Cairo: Land Center for Human Rights, 1998), p. 136, app. 7. 44. See John Cross, Informal Politics: Street Vendors and the State in Mexico City (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998). 45. See, for instance, Gilles Kepel, Muslim Extremism in Egypt (Berkeley: University Po liti cal Islam (London: Routledge, 1991); Salwa of California Press, 1986); Nazih Ayubi, Com- Ismail, “The Pop u lar Movement Dimensions of Contemporary Militant Islamism,” 42 (2000): 363– 93; Paul Lubeck and Bryana Britts, parative Studies in Society and History “Muslim Civil Society in Urban Public Spaces,” in Urban Studies: Contemporary and Future Perspectives , ed. J. Eade and C. Mele (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001). 46. See R. Margulies and E. Yildizoglu, “The Resurgence of Islam and Welfare Party in Turkey,” in Po liti cal Islam , ed. J. Beinin and J. Stork (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), p. 149. 47. Ugur Akinci, “The Welfare Party’s Municipal Track Record: Evaluating Is- lamist Municipal Activism in Turkey,” Middle East Journal 53 (1999), pp. 77– 79. 48. Meriem Verges, “Genesis of a Mobilization: The Young Activists of Algeria’s , pp. 292– 305. Islamic Salvation Front,” in Beinin and Stork, Po liti cal Islam 49. Assaf Kfoury, “Hizb Allah and the Lebanese State,” in Beinin and Stork, Po- liti cal Islam , pp. 136– 43. 50. Roula Majdalani, “Governance and NGOs in Lebanon,” unpublished paper, Beirut, 1999, p. 13. The literature on Hizbullah welfare activities has grown consider- ably in recent years. See, for instance, Lara Deeb, Enchanted Modern: Gender and Public Piety in Shi ̔i Lebanon (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 2006); Au- gustus Richard Norton, Hizbullah: A Short History (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton Univer- sity Press, 2007); Joseph Alagha, s in Hizbullah’s Ideology (Amsterdam: Am- The Shift sterdam University Press, 2006). 51. The latter fi gure as given by the current minister of social aff airs, Mervat Tal- lawi, in Aqidati (October 28, 1997), p. 17. 52. See Amani Qandil, “The Nonprofi t Sector The Nonprofi t Sector in Egypt,” in in the Developing World , ed. H. K. Anheier and L. M. Salamon (Manchester: Man- chester University Press, 1998), pp. 145– 46. Islamic Associations in Cairo 53. Manal Badawy, (master’s thesis, American Uni- versity in Cairo, 1999), p. 110. See also Denis Sullivan, Private Voluntary Organizations in Egypt (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994), pp. 65– 68. (Cairo: Dal Al- Mahrusah, Al- Irhabiiyuun Qademuoun! 54. See Hisham Mubarak, —-1 1995). —0 55. Cited in Qandil, “Nonprofi t Sector in Egypt,” p. 146. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 6 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 263 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

278 264 NOTES TO PAGES 80–86 56. See Saad Eddin Ibrahim, Egyptian Law 32 on Egypt’s Private Sector Organiza- tions (Cairo: Ibn Khaldoun Center for Developmental Studies, 1996), Working Paper no. 3; Amani Qandil, “The Role of Islamic PVOs in Social Welfare Policy: The Case of Egypt,” paper presented at the conference on The Role of NGOs in National Develop- ment Strategy, Cairo, March 28– 31, 1993. 57. Margulies and Yildizoglu, “Resurgence of Islam,” p. 149. 58. See Ibrahim, Egyptian Law 32 , p. 34. 59. Not surprisingly, Western Munira of Imbaba, the stronghold of the Islamists, has been allocated more funding for its development than any other district in north Guiza, to the east of Cairo. Between 1992–93 and 1995– 96, some 372.5 million Egyp- Al- tian pounds were spent on constructing, upgrading, and burnishing this area: Ahram Weekly (October 24– 30, 1996), p. 12. 60. Kfoury, “Hizb Allah,” p. 142. 61. See Mona Harb el- Kak, “Participation Practices in Beirut’s Suburb Municipali- ties: A Comparison Between Islamic and ‘Developmentalist’ Approaches,” paper pre- sented at the 4th International Other Connections Conference, Sites of Recovery, Bei- rut, October 25– 28, 1999. For more recent developments, see Deeb, Enchanted Modern . 62. Akinci, “Welfare Party’s Municipal Track Record.” 63. See Amani Qandil, “Taqdim Adaa al- Islamiyya fi - Niqabat al- Mihniyya” (Cairo: CEDEJ/Cairo University, 1993); and Carrie Rosefsky Wickham, “Islamic Mobilization and Po liti cal Change: The Islamist Trend in Egypt’s Professional Associations,” in Beinin and Stork, Po liti cal Islam , pp. 120– 35. 64. See Badawy, . Islamic Associations in Cairo 65. See Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Libera- tion (New York: Orbis Books, 1988). 66. This is expressed in many ways by the Islamists. See Youssef al- Qaradawi, The Problem of Poverty, and How Can Islam Resolve It (in Arabic) (Beirut: Al- Risalaa, 1985). 67. See interview with Saiid Hajjarian, a leader of Tehran City Council and an adviser to President Khatami, in Middle East Report 212 (1999). For the data on NGOs, see Qandil, “The Nonprofi t Sector in Egypt,” p. 139; Roula Majdalani, “NGOs as Power- Brokers in the Rebuilding of a Fragmented State: The Case of Lebanon,” un- published paper, Beirut, August 1999, p. 14; Majdalani, “Bridging the Gap,” p. 2; Khalil Indigenous Organizations in Palestine (Jerusalem: Arab Thought Forum, Nakhleh, 1991); “A Little Neighborly Advice,” Cairo Times (September 2– 15, 1999), p. 21; Mas- soumeh Ebtekar, “Women’s NGOs and Poverty Alleviation: The Ira ni an Experience” [in En glish], Farzaneh 4 (1998), p. 10. A report by Baquer Namazi, “Ira ni an NGOs: Situational Analysis” (Tehran, January 2000), provides useful early data. See also , 4 Tir 1380/2001, p. 9. Nowrouz -1— 68. Both statements were made in the Regional Follow- Up Conference of Arab 0— NGOs, held in Cairo, May 17– 19, 1997. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 6 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 264 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

279 NOTES TO PAGES 86–88 265 69. See Daoud Istanbuli, “The Future Role of Palestinian NGOs in an Emerging Palestinian Self- Government,” Middle East Working Group Seminar, Jerusalem, June 21– 22, 1993, p. 12. 70. Among many reports expressing such views, see, for instance, Robert LaTowsky, “Financial Profi le of Egypt’s PVO Sector,” report, World Bank, June 1994. 71. Special report, Cairo Times (September 2– 15, 1999), p. 21. 72. Cited in Ibrahim, Egyptian Law 32 . 73. Federation of Community Development Associations, “Fact Sheet,” Cairo, March 14, 1990. 74. Egyptian NGOs, for instance, made only three million Egyptian pounds (less than $1 million) in local income in 1991, and the Ministry of Social Aff airs could support no more than 35 percent of all PVOs, oft en unevenly. According to a diff erent study, total state aid to PVOs provided less than 10 percent of sector reve- nues, and foreign aid only 5 percent. In other words, these PVOs must depend on themselves to survive. Where internal sources are scarce, as in Iraq, Palestine, and Lebanon during the war, dependence on outside funding becomes vital; see Ibrahim, Egyptian Law 32 . 75. Anisur Rahman, (London: Zed Books, 1993), People’s Self- Development pp. 67– 73. 76. Majdalani, “Bridging the Gap.” 77. See interview with Curtis Rhodes of Near East Foundation, Jordan, in Eco- nomic Perspectives 11 (1993), p. 7. 78. See Ghassan Sayyah, “Potential Constraints upon NGOs in Lebanon,” paper presented at the workshop Reconstruction, Rehabilitation, and Reconciliation in the Middle East: A View from Civil Society, Ottawa, June 21, 1993. 79. Majdalani, “NGOs as Power- Brokers,” p. 14. 80. Nakhleh, Indigenous Organizations, p. 50. 81. See Saad Eddin Ibrahim, “Grassroots Participation in Egyptian Development,” Cairo Papers in Social Science 19, no. 3 (1996); Delta Business Ser vice International: Khat- tab and Associates, “Analysis of Registered Private Voluntary Associations in Cairo and Alexandria,” report, Agency for International Development, Cairo, June 21, 1981; El- Karanshawy, “Governance, Local Communities”; Fatma Khafagy, “Needs Assessment Survey of NGOs in Egypt,” report, African Women’s Development and Communica- tions Networks, Cairo, August 1992; Bertrand Laurent and Salma Galal, “PVO Develop- ment Project Evaluation Report,” report, USAID/Egypt, Cairo, December 1995. On Jor- dan and Lebanon, see Majdalani, “Governance and NGOs in Lebanon” and “Bridging the Gap,” respectively. 82. See Susan Schaefer Davis, “Advocacy- Oriented Non- Governmental Organiza- —-1 tions in Egypt: Structure, Activities, Constraints, and Needs,” report, USAID/Egypt, —0 Cairo, May 1995. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 6 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 265 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

280 266 NOTES TO PAGES 88–96 83. Rema Hammami, “NGOs: The Professionalization of Politics,” Race and Class 37 (1995), pp. 51– 63. Volunteer Health Workers in Iran as Social Activists: Can Gov- 84. Homa Hoodfar, ernmental “Non- Governental Organisations Be Agents of Demo cratisation? Women L iv- ing under Muslim Laws occasional paper no. 10 (Paris: WLUML, 1998). 85. Interview with Hassan el- Banna, an offi cial specializing on NGOs in the Min- istry of Social Aff airs, 1996. Globalisation, 86. For more detail, see Staff an Lindberg and A. Sverisson, eds., Demo cratisation, and Social Movements in the Third World , research report no. 35 (Lund, Sweden: University of Lund, 1995), pp. 57– 58. 87. See Mahmood Mamdani’s comments in ibid., p. 61. 88. Neil Webster, “The Role of NGDOs in Indian Rural Development: Some Les- sons from West Bengal and Karnataka,” Eu ro pe an Journal of Development Research 7 (1995), pp. 407– 33. 89. For these theoretical segments, I draw on my Street Politics (New York: Co- lumbia University Press, 1997), chap. 1. 90. For a more detailed description, see Wikan, Tomorrow, God Willing . 91. See (Cairo), no. 8, p. 20. Ru ̓ ya (October 18, 1997), p. 3. Al- Wafd 92. 93. Reported in Eid, Informal Economy , p. 105. 94. Cited in Al- Ahram Weekly (November 27– December 3, 1997), p. 12. 95. Chief of Cairo’s security department referring to the spread of street vendors in Cairo, cited in ibid. 96. Reported in Al- Wafd (March 3, 1998), p. 3. On Iran, see Bayat, Street Politics . The information on Egypt is based on my research reported in an unpublished paper, “Grassroots Participation in Iran: NGOs or Social Movements” (Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1998). er the Imbaba incident in Egypt, President 97. Thus, on May 1, 1993, a year aft Mubarak authorized “an immediate implementation of a national program in upgrad- ing the most important ser vices and facilities in haphazardly built areas in all gover- norates.” A national fi ve- year- plan campaign was announced covering the period from 1993 to 1998, costing 3.8 billion Egyptian pounds. By 1996, 127 of 527 targeted zones had been “fully upgraded” ( Al- Ahram Weekly 17– 23 [1996], p. 12). 98. See Joan Nelson, “The Politics of Pro- Poor Adjustment Policies,” report, World Bank, Country Economics Department, 1988. Chapter 5 1. See, for instance, Paula M. Cooley, William R. Eakin, and Jay B. McDaniel, eds., -1— Aft er Patriarchy: Feminist Transformations of the World Religions (Maryknoll, N.Y.: 0— Orbis Books, 1991), especially the chapter by Riff at Hassan, “Muslim Women and +1— Post- Patriarchal Islam,” pp. 39– 64. 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 6 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 266 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

281 NOTES TO PAGES 98–100 267 2. This section draws heavily on a section from chapter 3 of Asef Bayat, Making (Palo Alto, Calif.: Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- Islamist Turn Stanford University Press, 2007). 3. See a very interesting discussion on this by Kaveh Ehsani, see “The Nation and Its Periphery: Revolution, War and Provincial Urban Change in Iran,” unpublished paper, presented at the conference Iran on the Move: Social Transformation in the Is- lamic Republic, Leiden, April 27– 28, 2005; see also Sohrab Behdad, “Winners and Los- International Journal ers of the Ira ni an Revolution: A Study in Income Distribution,” of Middle East Studies 21 (1989), pp. 327– 58. Women and Po liti cal Pro cess in Iran 4. See Parvin Paydar, (Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press, 1997). 5. See Zahara Karimi, “Sahm- e Zanan dar Bazaar- e Kaar- e Iran” (Women’s Share in Iran’s Labor Market), Ettelaat- e Siyassi- Eqtisadi , nos. 179– 80 (Mordad- Shahrivar 1381/2002), pp. 208– 19. ist groups on women’s issues, see Hamed Shahidian, 6. For the position of left “The Ira ni an Left and the ‘Woman Question’ in the Revolution of 1978– 79,” Interna- tional Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 26 (1994), pp. 223– 47. See also Nayereh Tohidi, “Mas ̓aleye Zanan va Rowshanfekran Teyy- e Tahavvolaat- e Dahe- ye Akhir (Women’s , no. 10 (1368 /1989), Issues and the Intellectuals over the Recent De cade), Nime- ye Digar pp. 51– 95. 7. See, for instance, Golnar Dastgheib, “An Islamist Female Parliamentarian’s Under the Shadow of Islam , ed. Speech at the Havana Inter- Parliamentary Union,” in A. Tabari and N. Yeganeh (London: Zed Books, 1982). See also Azar Tabari, “Islam and Under the Shadow of Islam , the Struggle for the Emancipation of Ira ni an Women,” in ed. Tabari and Yeganeh, p. 17. Payam Hajar no. 1 (Shahrivar 19, 1359/1980), p. 2. Lara Deeb’s 8. See Enchanted Modern: Gender and Public Piety in Shi ̔i Lebanon (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton Univer- sity Press, 2006) contains a fi ne a discussion about how Zeinab is deployed as a sym- bol of female activism in Lebanon. 9. See the statement by the Ira ni an Women’s Delegation to the UN De cade of Women Conference, held in July 1980. 10. See, for instance, statements by two conservative Islamist women members , of the Fift h Majlis, Monireh Nobakht and Marziyeh Vahid Dastjerdi, cited in Zanan no. 42 (Farvardin- Ordibehesht 1377/1998), p. 3. 11. Cited in Zanan , no. 26, p. 3. 12. Maryam Behroozi, cited in Ettelaat , 3 Esfand 1361/1982, p. 6. 13. Shahin Tabatabaii, “Understanding Islam in Its Totality Is the Only Way to , ed. Tabari and Yeganeh, Under the Shadow of Islam Understand Women’s Role,” in —-1 p. 174. —0 14. Cited in Resalat , 26 Farvardin 1375/1996. 15. President Rafsanjani, cited in Zanan no. 26, p. 5. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 2 6 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 267 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

282 268 NOTES TO PAGES 100–103 16. According to Maryam Behroozi, a parliamentary deputy in the 4th Majlis, Women Living under Mus- cited in Kian, “Women and Politics in Post- Islamist Iran,” lim Laws , dossier 21 (September 1998), p. 44. 17. Cited in ibid., p. 39. no. 36 (Shahrivar 1376/19997), p. 12; 18. See no. 27 (Azar- Dey Iran- e Farda, Zanan, 1374/1995), p. 6. 19. Val Moghadam, “Women’s Employment Issues in Contemporary Iran: Prob- Ira ni an Studies 28 (1995), pp. 175– 200. lems and Prospects in the 1990s,” 20. See Azam Khatam, “Sakhtar- e Eshtighal- e Zanan- e Shahri: Qabl va Ba ̓d az Goft - o-gu , no. 28 (sum- Enqilab” (Urban Employment Structure of Ira ni an Women), mer 2000), pp. 129– 39. See also Zahra Karimi, “Sahm- e Zanan dar bazaar- e Kar- e Iran” (The Share of Women in Iran’s Labor Market), Ettelaat- e Siyassi- Eqtisadi , nos. 179– 80 (Mordad- Shahrivar 1381/2002), pp. 208– 19. 21. Zanan , no. 27, p. 42. 22. Observation by Masserat Amir Ebrahimi; see her interviews in Bad- Jens , 6th ed., December 2002, online. 23. Study conducted by Mina Saidi- Shahrouz, “Women’s Mobility in Tehran,” a pre sen ta tion in the seminar “Women and the City,” Tehran, College of Social Sci- ences, University of Tehran, December 30, 2003. 24. For an excellent report, see Homa Hoodfar, Volunteer Health Workers in Iran as Social Activists: Can Governmental NGOs Be Agents of Demo cratization? Women Living under Muslim Laws occasional paper no. 10 (Paris: WLUML, 1998). 25. Between 1990 and 1995, the population growth rate had dropped to an annual average of 2 percent. For all the population growth rate fi gures, see the yearbooks of the United Nations, Population Division. 26. These countries included Pakistan, Syria, Libya, and Cameroon. For women’s sports activities, see a special issue of Zanan , no. 30; see also Zanan , no. 9, Bahman 1371/1991. 27. See womeniniran .com (access date June 6, 2003). , no. 42, Ordibehesht 1998, p. 61; see also womenin- 28. For the reports, see Zanan iran .com, June 2003, for reports on women soccer teams. 29. For an excellent discussion of how the new cultural centers in South Tehran have become “safe” places for public activities of lower- class women, see Maserrat Amir- Ibrahimi, “Ta ̓sir Farhangsara- ye Bahman bar Zendegui- ye Ijtemaii va Farhangui- ye Zanan va Javanan- e Tehran” (The Impact of Bahman Cultural Centers on the Social and Cultural Life of Women and Youths in Tehran), Goft - o-gou , no. 9 (fall 1995), pp. 17– 25. , 15 Aban 1369/November 6, 1990. Ettelaat 30. 31. In a 1994 survey, Ira ni an women were asked if and what type of veil they would -1— wear if they were not obliged to do so. About 20 percent preferred no veil, 10 percent a 0— light head- cover, 40 percent a scarf and a long coat, and 25 percent a full chador; see +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 6 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 268 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

283 NOTES TO PAGES 103–105 269 Abbas Abdi and Mohsen Goudarzi, Tahavvolat- e Farhangui dar Iran (Cultural Devel- opments in Iran) (Tehran: Entesharat- e Ravesh, 1999), p. 148. Zanan 32. A woman’s letter to , no. 35 (Tir 1376), p. 26. , 15 Bahman 1367/1988. 33. MP, Rejaii, cited in Ettelaat 34. Post- Islamist women activists were especially encouraged by the collaborative approach of some secular feminists. For a discussion and attempts to build an alliance of post- Islamist and secular feminists, see Nayereh Tohidi, Feminism, Demokrasy, va (Feminism, Democract, and Islamism in Iran ) (Los Angeles: Islamgarayi dar Iran Ketabsara, 1996); also see her “Islamic Feminism: Women Negotiating Modernity and Patriarchy in Iran,” in The Blackwell Companion of Contemporary Islamic Thought , ed. Ibrahim Abu- Rabi (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 624– 43. 35. For a fi ne exposition of Zanan ’s views and visions, see Afsaneh Najmabadi, “Feminism in an Islamic Republic: Years of Hardship, Years of Growth,” in Islam, Gender and Social Change , ed. Yvonne Haddad and John Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 59– 84. ’s own survey about its readers in 36. See Zanan Zanan , no. 52 (Mordad- Shahrivar 1374/1995), pp. 54– 58. 37. Nayereh Tohidi, “The International Connections of the Women’s Movement in Iran: 1979– 2000,” in Iran and the Surrounding World , ed. Nikki Keddie and Rudi Matthee (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), pp. 205– 31. 38. Azar Tabari, “Islam and the Struggle for Emancipation of Ira ni an Women,” in Under the Shadow of Islam , ed. Tabari and Yeganeh, p. 17. 39. If Eve was “weaker,” the feminists argued, then she was less guilty than Adam in causing his fall. They went on to suggest that woman (Eve) was more noble than man, because man was created from earth, while woman was from man. Indeed, woman is superior, since only she, not man, gives birth to other humans, or “increases the world.” See Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 138– 66. For some instances of feminist theology in Christianity and Ju- daism, see Jane Bayes and Nayereh Tohidi, eds., Globalization, Gender and Religion: The Politics of Women’s Rights in Catholic and Muslim Contexts (New York: Palgrave, 2001), especially, chapter 2, “Women Redefi ning Modernity and Religion in the Globalized Context.” 40. Zanan , no. 9, p. 34. 41. Attention to children is emphasized in such verses as “wealth and sons are the allurements of the life of this world” (Kahf: 45), and the ahadith “Children are the but- terfl ies of heaven” and “no sin is greater than that of ignoring the children” exemplify Zanan , no. 38 (Aban 1376), pp. 2– 5. the centrality of care for children. See 42. See Sayyid Mohsen Saidzadeh, “Kalbod- shekafi - e Tarh- e Entibaq- e Omour- e —-1 Edari” (An Analysis of the Project concerning the Adaptation of Administrative Af- —0 fairs), Zanan , no. 43, p. 15. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 6 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 269 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

284 270 NOTES TO PAGES 105–107 43. See interview with Mostafa Malekian, in Zanan , no. 64, pp. 32– 35. 44. Shokufeh Shokri and Sahireh Labriz, “Mard: Sharik ya Ra ̓is?” (Men: Partners Zanan or Bosses?) , no. 2 (March 1992), pp. 26– 32. , no. 23 (Farvardin- Ordibehesht 1374/1995), pp. 46– 57. 45. Zanan 46. See, for instance, Mehrangiz Kar, “Mosharekat- e Siyassi- e Zanan: Vaqeiyyat Zanan , no. 47, ya Khial” (Po liti cal Participation of Women: Reality or Dream?), pp. 12– 13. Zanan , no. 35 (Tir 1376/1997), p. 6. 47. 48. Clerics such as Ayatollah Bojnordi of Qom Seminary would state: “Fiqh [which contains some discriminatory rulings] is nothing but the par tic u lar perceptions of Farzaneh , no. 8. fuqaha; and it can be changed,” as cited in 49. Cited in , no. 148 (Tir 1382/2003). Mahname- ye Gozaresh 50. Jomhuri- ye Islami , 12 Mehr 1376/1997. 51. Zanan , no. 43 (Khordad 1377/1998). 52. Cited in Zanan , no. 38 (Abab 1379/2000), p. 59. 53. Reported in Zanan , no. 42 (Farvardin- Ordibehesht 1377/1998), p. 3. , no. 32 (Aban 1375 /1995), and 28 (Farvardin 1375/1996). 54. Sobh Weekly 55. See the report of the magazine’s trial in Zanan , no. 43 (Khordad 1377/1998), p. 4. 56. For a fi ne analysis of the gender debates among the Ira ni an Shi ̔i clerics, see Islam and Gender: The Religious Debate in Contemporary Iran Ziba Mir- Hosseini, (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1999). 57. This is compared to 283,253 permanent or normal marriages during the same period. See Hayat- e Nou , 11 Aban 1381/2002, p. 11. It has to be noted that mut ‘ a mar- riage is not always registered. Therefore, its real frequency might be higher. 58. For the list, see Zanan , no. 28 (Farvardin 1375/1996), p. 3. Zanan , no. 38 (Aban 1376/1997). p. 38. 59. 60. This 6 percent women’s share in the parliament was still far short of world average (11.6 percent), but higher than that in the Arab countries (4.3 percent); see Zanan , no. 33, p. 76. 61. Cited in Ramin Mostaghimi, “Tights- Iran: Women Carve out Spaces within Interpress News Agency Islamic Society,” , June 25, 2003. For the report on divorce rates, see Shadi Sadr’s discussion in Ya s - e No u ; cited at womeniniran .com (accessed May 4, 2003). 62. Cited in Zanan , no. 34 (Ordibehesht 1376/1997), p. 4, and no. 37 (Shahrivar- Mehr 1376/1997), p. 8. A study by Uzra Shalbaf confi rmed that women (wives) with higher education had attained a more extensive decision- making power in families, even though their domestic responsibilities had changed modestly. Discussed in a -1— master’s thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology, University of Tehran, 2001; 0— cited at womeniniran .com (accessed May 21, 2003). +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 7 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 270 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

285 NOTES TO PAGES 108–110 271 63. See Zanan , no. 41. ̓e Mahmoudian, “Jonbesh- e Zanan- e Iran: Za ̓f-e Femi- 64. See Mohammad Rafi nism va Feghdan- e Armangeraii” (Iran’s Women Movement: The Weakness of Femi- Zanan , January 2003. nism and the Absence of Utopian Visions), 65. See, for instance, Hamid- Reza Jalaii- pour, “Hamelan- e Bi- Neshan” (Carriers Zanan , January 2004. without Identifi cation), 66. Hamid- Reza Jalaii- pour, “Mas ̓ale- ye Ejtemaii, Na Jonbesh- e Ejtemaii” (Social Yass- e Nou , 10 (Aban 2003); see also his “Tahlili az Problem, Not Social Movement), Pouyesh- e Zanan- e Iran” (An Analysis of Iran’s Women Activism), iran- emrooz.com, 12 Aban 1382/2003. 67. See Nasrin Azadeh, “Jonbesh- e Ejtemaii- ye Zananeh” (Women’s Social Move- ment), zananeiran .com, December 11, 2003. 68. Ali Akbar Mahdi, on iran- emrooz.com, July 2002; Valentine Moghadam, “Feminism in Iran and Algeria: Two Models of Collective Action for Women’s Rights,” 19 (April 2003), pp. 18– 31; Homa Hoodfar, Journal of Ira ni an Research and Analysis “The Women’s Movement in Iran: Women at the Crossroads of Secularization and Islamization,” Women Living under Muslim Laws no. 1, winter 1999; Nasrin Azadeh, “Jonbesh- e Ejtemai- ye Zananeh” (Feminine Social Movement), at www .womeninI- ran .org . 69. Janet Afary, “Jonbesh- e Zanan- e Iran: Gheir- e Motamarkez va Gostardeh” Zanan , April 2003; Mahboubeh (Ira ni an Women’s Movement: Decentred and Vast), Abbasgholizadeh, “Dar Iran Jonbesh- e Zanan bi Sar Ast” (The Ira ni an Movement’s Zanan , September 2003. Movement is Leader- less), 70. See Farideh Farhi, “Jonbesh- e Zanan va Mardan- e Eslah- talab” (The Wom- en’s Movement and the Reformist Men), Zanan , May 2003. 71. James Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Re sis tance (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985). 72. Reported in Zanan , no. 26, p. 5. 73. Between 1990 and 1997, some thirteen new women’s magazines were pub- , lished ( Neda , Rahrovan ̓e Somaaya , Boresh , Pegah , Me ̓raj , Jelveh, Payam- e Zan Zanan , Ta k a p u Farzaneh , Reyhaneh , To u b a , and Banu ). From Khatami’s election in 1997 , until 2002, there emerged twenty- three new women’s publications: Zan va Pa- zhouhesh , Zan (newspaper), Ershad- e Neswan , Hamsar, Mahtab , Kitab- e Zanan , Poushesh , Nour- e Braran , Qarn- e 21 , Zana- e Jonoub , Zan- e Emrooz , Al- Zahra , Banu , Ya a s Shamim- e Narjes Soroush- e Banuvan , Ta rh - va - Mo d e , , , Ira ndokht , Motale‘at- e Zanan , Melina , Arous , Zanan- e Farda , Zan- e Sharghi , Kawkab . As of the 2000, some ve of such journals had been shut down by the authorities. See , May 23, fi Ya a s - e No u 1382/2003. —-1 74. For a critical survey of these women’s studies programs, see Ziba Jalali- Naini, —0 “Ta ̓sis- e Reshte- ye Motaleat- e Zanan dar Iran?” (The Establishment of Women’s —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 7 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 271 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

286 272 NOTES TO PAGES 110–114 Studies Programs: Expropriating a Declining Movement?) , no. 38 (Azar Goft - o-gu 1382/2003), pp. 7– 23. Street 75. For an elaboration of the concept of “passive network,” see Asef Bayat, (New York: Columbia University Press, Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran 1997), chapter 1. 76. In some sense this pro cess resonates with the strategy of “quiet encroach- ment” (see Chapter 3). As with the urban poor, the women’s (non)movement in Iran protracted, and incremental movement of capturing gains, a also represents a discreet, pro cess closely tied to the practices of everyday life. However, whereas quiet encroach- ment of the poor represents a nonmovement, where actors hardly engage in discursive struggles or collective strategy, Muslim women were involved in some kind of social movement, a “movement by consequence,” which involved some degree of ideological struggles about gender relations, patriarchy, and women’s daily activities. A limited degree of lobbying and po liti cal and legal campaigns was also carried out. Secondly, while quiet encroachment is fundamentally an informal and largely illegal strategy, movement by implications is inevitably entrenched in legal battles. For whereas the urban poor operate on the periphery of, and therefore can get around, both normative and (modern) legal structures, Muslim women actors need to function within and thus challenge the constraining codes of such structures. It is true that in both types of activism actions and gains are fundamentally identical, as in squatters taking over land, or women pursuing mechanical engineering in colleges. But while audible col- lective action would be inimical for poor people’s quiet encroachment, it would ben- efi t women’s struggles. 77. A point to which Ayatollah Jawadi Amoli referred, to argue that women could not be qadi or faqih; see Zanan , no. 9, p. 30. 78. As Zahra Shojaii, President Khatami’s advisor on women’s issues, suggested, “Now that women have become breadwinners, is it not time to read the ̔al- rijaal qawa- moun al- annisaa ̓ with new eyes?” Cited in Zanan , no. 37 (Shahrivar- Mehr 1376/1997). 79. Cited in Ali Dawani, Nehzat- e Ruhanion- e Iran , vol. 3 (Tehran: Imam Reza Cultural Foundation), p. 67. 80. Gozideh- haaii az Maqalat- e Payam- e Hajar , no. 1 (Tehran: Women’s Associa- tion of the Islamic Revolution, July 12, 1980). , no. 9, p. 30. Zanan 81. Cited in 82. A study on “Jensiyyat va Negaresh- e Ejtemaii” (Sexuality and Social Outlook), sponsored by the Ministry of Culture, revealed a high discrepancy between the views of men and women on “being content in life” ( rezayat az zendegui ), with women hav- ing many more expectations than men; reported by IRNA News agency, 11 Khordad 1383/2004, cited atiran- emrooz.com. -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 7 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 272 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

287 NOTES TO PAGES 115–122 273 Chapter 6 New York 1. See, for instance, Timothy Gorton Ash, “Soldiers of Hidden Imam,” Review of Books 52, no. 17 (November 3, 2005). See also Bill Samii, “Iran Youth Move- ment Has Untapped Potential,” in RadioFreeEu rope, April 13, 2005, in www .rferl .org/ 04 & y features/ features _Article .aspx ?m 2005 & id = 3D5DCD40 -3EBC -4343 -A1C9 = = New York -5BF29FFE7BB. See also Samantha Shapiro, “Revolution, Facebook- Style,” Times , January 25, 2009. 2. For a listing of such youth organizations and movements, see “A Snapshot of the Global Youth Movement,” www .youthmovements .org/ guide/ globalguide .htm. For Mao Tese- tung, “youth movement” meant the po liti cal participation of students in the anticolonial (Japan) struggle. See Mao Tse- tung, “The Orientation of the Youth Move- ment,” in (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1967), vol. Selected Works of Mao Tse- tung 2, pp. 241– 49. 3. See Herbert Marcuse, “On Revolution,” in Student Power: Problems, Diagnoses, Action , ed. Alexander Cockburn and Robin Blackburn (London: Penguin Books, 1969), 367– 72. 4. See, for instance, Colin Bundy, “Street Sociology and Pavement Politics: As- pects of Youth and Student Re sis tance in Cape Town, 1985,” Journal of Southern Afri- can Studies 13, no. 3 (April 1987), pp. 303– 30. Young Germany: A History of the 5. For the German case, see Walter Laqueur, German Youth Movement (New York: Transaction, 1962/1984). 6. For a discussion of student movements, see Alexander Cockburn and Robin Blackburn, eds., Student Power: Problem, Diagnosis, Action (London: Penguin Books, 1969). 7. Pierre Bourdieu, “ ‘Youth’ Is Just a Word,” in Bourdieu, Sociology in Question (London: SAGE, 1993). 8. For an elaborate exposition of “passive networks,” see Bayat, Street Politics: Poor Peoples Movements in Iran (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), chapter 1. See also chapter 3 in this book. 9. See Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi, “The State, Classes, and Modes of , vol. 1, no. 3 Mobilization in the Ira ni an Revolution,” State, Culture and Society (spring 1985). Out of a sample of 646 people killed in Tehran in the street clashes during the revolution (from August 23, 1977, to February 19, 1978), the largest group aft er artisans and shop keep ers (189) was students (149). See Bayat, Street Politics , p. 39. 10. This is according to a national survey reported in Aft ab , July 30, 2001, p. 9. , 24 Shavrivar 1380 (2001). Nowrooz 11. Cited in —-1 12. Zahra Rahnavard, in Bahar , 29 Khordad 1379 (2000), p. 2. A one- day symposium —0 was or ga nized to discuss why the youth showed such a disinterest in religious lessons. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 7 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 273 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

288 274 NOTES TO PAGES 122–125 13. Cited on http:// dailynews .yahoo .com, July 25, 2000. , no. Iran Javan 14. See Mansour Qotbi, “Causeless Rebellion in the Land of Iran,” 166, Mehr 1379 (2000). 15. According to a July 2000 report authored by Muhammad Ali Zam, the direc- tor of cultural and artistic aff airs for Tehran. This became a highly controversial survey, as the conservatives disputed its authenticity and negative impact on their image. 16. Drawn on offi cial interviews with youngsters cited in Behzad Yaghmaiyan, , pp. 65– 71. Social Change in Iran Aft 17. See , January 16, 2003, p. 9; see a report by IRNA, August 5, 2001. ab Sina News Agency 18. Reported by , June 17, 2004, cited on http:// iran -emrooz .net . 19. Conducted by psychologist Dawood Jeshan with 120 runaway girls in Tehran, reported in Sina News agency, cited on http:// iran -emrooz .net (accessed on June 17, 2004). 20. Reported in Professor Mahmoud Golzari’s paper in the workshop “Young Girls and the Challenges of Life,” May 2004, cited in ISNA News Agency , 22 Ordibe- hest 1383 (2004), at www .womeniniran .com. On the practice of premarital sex in Iran, see Pardis Mahdavi, (Palo Alto, Calif.: Passionate Uprising: Sexual Revolution in Iran Stanford University Press, 2008). 21. In an interview with Siasat- e Rouz, cited in Mozhgan Farahi, “You Cannot Resolve Sexual Misconduct by Exhortation,” in Gozaresh , no. 148, Tir 1382 (2003). 22. Interview with an anonymous medical anthropologist working on the sub- ject, spring 2001. 23. Ibid. 24. Ibid. 25. See Salaam , 27 Shahrivar 1375 (1996). 26. See Jalil Erfan- Manesh, Iran , 19 Aban 1375 (1996). 27. The contribution of Muhammad Hadi Taskhiri, of the Or ga ni za tion of Is- lamic Culture and Communication in the Second International Seminar on Hijab, 28 Aban 1376, reported in Zanan , no. 26, Meh/Aban 1376, pp. 8– 9. 28. A survey of Supreme Council of Youth, cited by Golzari in ibid., p. 9. nding was reported by the National Radio and TV, Or ga ni za tion of Is- 29. This fi lamic Propaganda, and the Or ga ni za tion of the Friday Prayers (Detad- e Namaz), cited by Emad Eddin Baaqui, Payam- e Emrouz , no. 39, Ordibehesht 1379, p. 14. 30. From report by the head of Tehran’s cultural and artistic aff airs July 5, 2000, 5:46 pm, EDT (accessed at www .nandotimes .com; site no longer exists, page was not archived). 31. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, “An Introduction to Behaviorol- -1— ogy of the Youth,” Tehran, 1994, cited in Tahavvolat- e Farhangui dar Iran (Cu ltura l 0— Developments in Iran), by Abbas Abdi and Mohsen Goudarzi (Tehran: Entisharat- e Ravesh, 1999), pp. 138– 39. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 7 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 274 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

289 NOTES TO PAGES 125–129 275 32. Seyed Hossein Serajzadeh, “Non- attending Believers: Religiosity of Ira ni an Youth and Its Implications for Secularization Theory,” a paper presented at the World Congress of Sociology, Montreal, 1999. 33. Survey conducted by National Or ga ni za tion of the Youth, reported in ab , 8 Aft Ordibehesht 1380 (2001). (Stony Brook: State University 34. See Behzad Yaghmaian, Social Change in Iran of New York Press, 2002) for the best account of such events (pp. 61– 65). 35. Interview with Azam, an anonymous participant, June 2002. Al- Hayat , January 22, 1995. 36. Christian Science 37. Scott Peterson, “Ecstasy in Iran, Agony for Its Clerics,” in , December 5, 1997. Monitor Nowrooz , 1 Aban 1380, p. 3. 38. See 39. For some of these reports on confrontation between the youth and the Pasda- ran, see Dowran- e Emrooz , 25 Esfand 1379 (2001), p. 4. 40. This is well illustrated in an editorial of a reformist daily; see “The Mystery of Firecrackers,” Aft ab , 25 Esfand 1379 (March 15, 2001), p. 2. 41. Nowrooz , 29 Mehr 1380 (2001); see also “Leisure Time and Amusement,” Aft ab- e Yazd , April 3, 2001, p. 9; “Shad Zistan- e Zanan,” Dowran- e Emrooz , 20 Bahman 1379 (2000), p. 2; Report on seminar on the “Approaches to the Concept of Living,” cited in Aft ab- e Yazd , January 9, 2001, p. 7, and January 11, 2001, p. 7. Hayat- e Nou , 10 Ordibehesht 1380 (2001), p. 11, and Nourooz 42. See , 15 Mordad 1380 (2001), p. 9. 43. Iran Emrooz , August 11, 2003. 44. See Hayat- e Nou , 10 Ordibehesht 1380 (2001), p. 11; Nourouz , 15 Mordad, 1380 (2001), p. 9. 45. See Morteza Nabawi in Resalat , October 27, 2001, p. 2. 46. See Jean- Michel Cadiot, AP Report , August 20, 2001 at IranMania .com, Au- es,” Christian Science gust 20, 2001; Michael Theodoulou, “Iran’s Culture War Intensifi , August 21, 2001; Nourooz , 20 and 21 Mordad 1380 (2001). Monitor 47. This seemed to be confi rmed by large- scale survey research. See Azadeh Kian- Thiebaut, “Po liti cal Impacts of Ira ni an Youth’s Individuation: How Family Matters,” paper presented at MESA, Washington, D.C., November 24, 2002. 48. Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, The Statistical Year Book (Cairo: CAPMAS, 1996). 49. Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, The Statistical Year (Cairo CAPMAS, 1999). Book, 1992– 1998 50. Eric Denis and Asef Bayat, “Egypt: Twenty Years of Urban Transformation, 1980– 2000,” report for the International Institute of Development and Urbanization, —-1 London, 2001. —0 51. Ayman Khalifa, “The Withering Youths of Egypt,” Ru ̓ya, no. 7 (spring 1995), pp. 6– 10. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 7 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 275 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

290 276 NOTES TO PAGES 129–132 52. Cited in Rime Naguib, “Egyptian Youth: A Tentative Study,” term paper, Ameri- can University in Cairo, spring 2002. 53. The ages of Egypt’s po liti cal leaders by their birthdate: President Mubarak, born in 1928; Dia Eddin Dawoud (Nasser Party), 1926; Khalid Mohyeddin (leader of Brothers), 1921; Ibrahim Tajammo ̓ Party) 1922; Mustafa Mashur (L eader of Muslim Shukri (leader of Labor Party), 1916; Noman Gom‘a, the youn gest opposition leader of the Wafd Party, 1934. 54. In a survey, only 16 percent of Cairo University students expressed interest in party politics. In addition some 87 percent of elders did not trust the youth to do poli- tics; see Ahmed Tahami Abdel- Hay, “Al- Tawajjohat al- Siyasiyya Lil- Ajyal al- Jadida,” Al- Demokratiya , no. 6 (spring 2002), pp. 117– 18. 55. Shapiro, “Revolution, Facebook- Style.” 56. See Andrew Hammond, “Campuses Stay Clear of Politics,” Cairo Times , October 15– 28, 1998, p. 7. 57. Reported in Khalifa, “Withering Youth of Egypt.” 58. Drawn on the conclusion of a debate in Majlis el- Shura, reported in Al- Ahram , July 14, 2000, p. 7. 59. This information is based upon my interview with the Minister of Youths and Sports, Dr. Ali Eddin Hilal, November 3, 2001, Cairo. 60. The Ministry of Social Aff airs reported having extended some EL 30 million between 1997 and 2000. See , July 14, 2000. Al- Ahram 61. The Ministry of Local Development was to extend some of these loans. See Al- Ahram , July 14, 2000, p. 7. 62. See Midhat Fuad, “Youth Centers without Youths,” Sawt ul- Azhar , September 14, 2001, p. 2. I have especially relied on Muhammad Shalabi, “Egypt’s Youth Centers: Between Ideals and Reality,” paper for urbanization class, American University in Cairo, spring 2003. 63. They oft en presented unsubtle, pre- staged shows where the young attendees were carefully picked, the questions were rehearsed, and the oratory and fl attery by which students addressed the president left little genuine interaction. 64. Hoda’s statement in response to my question as to “what is it like to be young in today’s Egyptian society?” spring 2003, Cairo, Egypt. 65. The ticket costs range from LE75 to LE150, with alcoholic drinks, LE20; and , March 14– 20, Cairo Times water, LE10. See Nadia Matar, “Glowsticks and Grooves,” 2002, p. 16. 66. Ibid., p. 19. gure for the country was 22 percent. Based on a survey of 14,656 male 67. The fi high school students in 1990; see M. I. Soueif et al., “Use of Psychoactive Substances -1— among Male Secondary School Pupils in Egypt: A Study of a Nationwide Representa- 0— tive Sample,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 26 (1990), pp. 71– 72. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 7 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 276 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

291 NOTES TO PAGES 132–134 277 68. Reportedly, the quantity seized by the police jumped from 2,276 in 2000 to Cairo Times , March 14– 20, 2002, p. 16. 7,008 in 2001; see 69. See Population Council, Transitions to Adulthood: A National Survey of Egyp- tian Adolescents (Cairo, 1999). 70. See Khalifa, “Withering Youth of Egypt.” 71. See Fatma El- Zanaty, “Behavioral Research among Egyptian University Stu- dents,” MEDTEC, FHI, Behavioral Research Unit, Cairo, 1996; reported in Barbara Ibrahim and Hind Wassef, “Caught Between Two Worlds: Youth in the Egyptian Hin- terland,” in , ed. Roel Meijer (London: Curzon Alienation or Integration of Arab Youth Press, 2000), p. 163. 72. See Cairo Times , May 15– 28, 1997, p. 12. Active sexuality of youth is also con- fi rmed by Mona al- Dabbaqh, “Addiction among Egyptian Upper Class,” master’s thesis, American University in Cairo, 1996, for which she interviewed a number of “deviant” adolescents in a hospital in Cairo. 73. Interviews with youngsters by Rime Naguib, sociology student, American University in Cairo, spring 2002. 74. See Khalifa, “Withering Youth of Egypt.” 75. Shahida El- Baz, cited in , May 15– 28, 1997, p. 12. Cairo Times 76. Ironically, the partially segregated trains made the traditional young er women more mobile. Parents would not mind if their daughters took trains (aft which they took taxis or public buses), since segregated trains were thought to pro- tect their daughters from male harassment. Seif Nasrawi, “An Ethnography of Cairo’s Metro,” term paper for Urban Sociology class, fall 2002, American Univer- sity in Cairo. 77. Cited in Mustafa Abdul- Rahman, “Sex, Urfi Marriage as Survival Strategy in Dahab,” term paper, fall 2001, p. 18. 78. Cited in Rime Naguib, “Egyptian Youth: A Tentative Study,” term paper, spring 2002. 79. Cited in ibid. 80. Yousef Boutrous Ghali extends this “technique of adaptability” to the Egyp- tian psyche in general. “The Egyptian is ingeneious and he will manage a problem, weave his way around a crisis and absorb without causing a confl ictual situation,” cited in Cairo Times , May 15– 28, 1997, p. 13. , May 4, 2000. 81. Al- Wafd 82. Ibid. 83. Ibid; and Al- Ahram , May 6, 2000, p. 13. 84. CAPMAS report of over 5 million bachelor boys and 3.4 million girls caused uproar in the media about the moral consequences of the state of these unmarried —-1 adults. Indeed, the age of marriage reached thirty to forty for men and twenty to —0 thirty for women; see Al- Wafd , January 1, 2002, p. 3. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 7 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 277 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

292 278 NOTES TO PAGES 134–142 85. For an analysis of Amr Khaled “phenomenon,” see Asef Bayat, “Piety, Privi- , no. 10 (July 2002), p. 23, from which this ISIM Newsletter lege and Egyptian Youth,” paragraph has been extracted. 86. For detailed discussion of Amr Khaled, see Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic , pp. 151– 55. 87. Shapiro, “Revolution, Facebook- Style.” Chapter 7 1. Linda Herrera, “A Song for Humanistic Education: Pedagog y and Politics in the Middle East,” Teachers College Record 10, no. 2 (2008), pp. 352– 76. 2. See Mohamed Abdul- Quddus, “Mowajehe sakhina ma ̓a qiyadat al- television Liwa wa al- iza ̓a” (Severe Confrontation with the Directors of Tele vi sion and Radio), al- Islami 43 (1988), pp. 43– 44. For a more detailed discussion of how saints’ festivals in Egypt are contested, see Samuli Schielke, “Habitus of the Authentic, Order of the Ra- tional: Contesting Saints’ Festivals in Contemporary Egypt,” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 12 (2003), pp. 155– 72. 3. Cited in , August 30– September 5, 2001. Cairo Times 4. Cited in Iran Emrooz , April 1, 2002. 5. Discussed in the conservative Islamist monthly Partow- e Sokhan , cited in Nowrooz , 6 Aban AH 1380/October 28, 2001. 6. Haft eh- nameh- ye Sobh , 22 Bahman AH 1379/February 10, 2001; my emphasis. 7. Max Weber, The Sociology of Religion (Boston: Beacon, 1963), pp. 236– 39. 8. See the Islamist conservative weekly , 10 and 17 Esfand AH Partow- e Sokhan 1379/February 28 and March 7, 2000. 9. On these institutions, see Partow- e Sokhan , 24 Esfand AH 1379/March 14, 2000. Imam Sadeq quoted in Partow- e Sokhan , cited in Nowrooz , 6 Aban AH 1380/ October 28, 2001, 11. Jebhe , 22 Esfand AH 1377/March 13, 1999, 8. 10. See 11. The Persian word sangin (heavy) signifi es precisely that moral and morpho- logical solemnity, as opposed to sabok (light), which connotes triviality and shal- ) in Egyptian Arabic has a negative lowness. Interestingly, the word thaqil heavy ( connotation. 12. On “mourners of joy,” see Nowrooz , July 29, 2001. The statement on war- front Jenat- e Fakkeh days was issued by the Cultural Institute of , an extremist Islamist or- Jebhe ga ni za tion, on the occasion of Nowrooz 1998, printed in the weekly , 22 Esfand AH 1377/March 13, 1999, p. 8. 13. Thus, for example, “Death to those who are against Velayat- i Faqih,” instead of “Long live Velayat- i Faqih.” -1— 14. Jebhe , 22 Esfand AH 1377/March 13, 1999, p. 3. 0— 15. Ibid. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 7 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 278 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

293 NOTES TO PAGES 142–144 279 16. Shalamche , no. 40, Mehr AH 1377/September– October 1998, p. 6. 17. Ibid. 18. For a sympathetic treatment, see Fariba Khani, “Backstreets of Forbidden Love,” , Khordad AH 1377/May– June 1998, p. 6. Zanan 19. Such tyranny over the everyday could not escape the attention of the na- tion’s greatest poet, Ahmad Shamloo, in his well- known piece “In This Dead End”: They smell your breath; you better not have said, “I love you.” They smell your heart. Strange times are these, my darling . . . And they excise smiles from lips and songs from mouths. We had better hide joy in the closet . . . This extract is a modifi ed version of a translation available at: poems.lesdoigtsbleus .free.fr/id187.htm (accessed July 2, 2007). 20. See Pardis Mahdavi, Passionate Uprising: Iran’s Sexual Revolution (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2009). 21. For details, see Chapter 6 of this book. 22. Awad al- Otaibi and Pascal Menoret, “Rebels Without a Cause? Politics of De- viance in Saudi Society” in Being Young and Muslim: Cultural Politics in the Global South and North , ed. Linda Herrera and Asef Bayat (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). 23. See Oskar Verkaik, Migrants and Militants: Fun and Urban Violence in Paki- stan (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 2005). 24. Nowrooz , 29 Mehr AH 1380/October 21, 2001. Aft ab- e Yazd 25. See “Zaman faraghat va tafrih” [Leisure Time and Amusement], , April 3, 2001; “Shad Zistan- e Zanan?” [How Can Women Live with Joy?] Dowran- e Emrooz , 20 Bahman AH 1379/February 8, 2001. 26. Report on the seminar “Approaches to the Concept of Living,” cited in Aft ab- e Ya z d , January 9, 2001; and Aft ab- e Yazd , January 11, 2001. 27. See “Khandidan aslan zesht neest” [Laughing Is Not Dreadful], Iran , March 18, 2001. Resalat , October 27, 2001. 28. See Morteza Nabawi, 29. See Jean- Michel Cadiot, Associated Press, IranMania .com (accessed August 20, 2001). 30. See Michael Theodoulou, “Iran’s Culture War Intensifi es,” Christian Science Monitor , August 21, 2001. 31. Charles Recknagel and Azam Gorgin, “Iran: New Morality Police,” Radio Free —-1 Eu rope , July 26, 2000. —0 32. See Nowrooz , 20 and 21 Mordad AH 1380/August 11– 12, 2001. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 7 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 279 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

294 280 NOTES TO PAGES 145–147 33. See the Qur ̓an 3:104, 3:110, 9:71. 34. For an excellent survey of discussions and debates about the subject, see Mi- Forbidding Wrong in Islam chael Cook, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 35. Ibid., p. 3. 36. Ibid., pp. 98, 102. Hafez of Shiraz, one of the greatest Persian poets, critically takes note of the puritanical suppression of joy in his days: Do you know what the harp and the lute are saying? “Drink wine on the quiet: allegations of apostasy are being made.” They’re saying, “Do not hear or divulge hints of love”; It is a hard saying which they are expressing. Love’s dignity and lovers’ grace are being pillaged: The young are prohibited and the old rebuked. The Collected Lyrics of Háfi z Shíráz , trans. Peter Avery (Cambridge: Archetype, From 2007), p. 255. 37. See Franz Rosenthal, Humor in Early Islam (Leiden, N.Y.: E. J. Brill, 1956), p. 4. 38. Cook, Forbidding Wrong in Islam , p. 100. 39. According to Rosenthal, a large number of humorous tales from Arabic litera- ture are collected by René Basset in the voluminous work Mille et un contes, récits et légendes arabes [A Thousand and One Arab Tales, Stories, and Legends] (Paris, 1924); see Rosenthal, Humor in Early Islam . 40. Samuli Schielke, “Snacks and Saints: Mawlid Festivals and the Politics of Fes- tivity, Piety, and Modernity in Contemporary Egypt,” PhD diss., University of Am- sterdam, 2006. 41. (religious singing) focuses on “glorifi cation of God, praise and love for Inshad his Prophet, expressions of spiritual experience, and religious exhortations.” Aghani diniyya are sung by an ordinary mutrib (performer) but have religious lyrics. They may be sung by secular singers or by a shaykh or shaykha. Aghani diniyya are diff erent from inshad in “vocal timbres, melodic styles, improvisations, contexts and religious intentions.” Inshad is sung by munshidin (religious singers), not secular singers. See Michael Frishkopf, “Inshad Dini and Aghani Diniyya in Twentieth Century Egypt: A Middle East Studies Association Review of Styles, Genres, and Available Recordings,” Bulletin 34 (2000), pp. 167, 179. 42. On premodern times, see Cook, Forbidding Wrong in Islam , p. 101. 43. Ibid., p. 125. See also Hamid Algar, Wahhabism: A Critical Essay (New York: Islamic Publications International, 2002). Wahhabism . 44. Cook, Forbidding Wrong in Islam , pp. 126– 27; Algar, -1— 45. Ahmad Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central 0— Asia (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001), pp. 105– 7, 217– 19. See also Amy +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 8 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 280 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

295 NOTES TO PAGES 147–150 281 Waldman, “No T.V., No Chess, No Kites: Taliban Codes from A to Z,” New York Times , November 22, 2001. c, and Cultural Or ga ni za tion (UNESCO), 46. United Nations Educational, Scientifi (Paris: UNESCO), pp. 1960– 75. Statistical Yearbook 47. Cited in Hamid Nafi ci, “The Ira ni an Cinema under the Islamic Republic,” 97 (1995), p. 548. American Anthropologist 48. Expressed by Israel’s foremost “revisionist historian,” Benny Morris; cited in Joel Beinin, “No More Tears: Benny Morris and the Road from Liberal Zionism,” , no. 230 (2004), p. 40. Middle East Report Al- Bukhari (Sahih) 49. See M. Muhsin Khan, ed., (Beirut: Dar al- Arabia, 1985), vol. 8, hadith no. 138. 50. Ibid., hadith no. 56. 51. Ibid., hadith no. 114. 52. Ibid., hadith nos. 175 and 176. 53. Al- Bukhari , Kitab al- Salat, no. 435; Kitab al- Jumu ̔a, no. 897; Kitab al- Johad, no. 2686, cited in Muhammad Khalid Masud, “Arts and Religion in Islamic Jurispru- dence,” unpublished manuscript, Leiden, 2003. 54. See Maribel Fierro, “The Treatises Against Innovations ( kub al bid ̓a ),” Islam 69 (1992), pp. 204– 46. See also Muhammad Umar Memon, Ibn Taimiya’s Struggles (The Hague: Mouton, 1976). Against Pop u lar Religion 55. See Abi Ja ̔far Kolaini, Usoul- e Kafi , 4 vols. (Tehran: Wafa, AH 1382/2003), vol. 3, pp. 485– 87. 56. Ibid., pp. 175– 78, 193. Al- Bukhari , vol. 8, hadith no. 108. 57. Khan, 58. Ibid., hadith nos. 52, 53, 64. 59. Kolaini, Usoul- e Kafi , vol. 3, pp. 485– 87. 60. Ibid., pp. 271– 76. 61. Ibid., pp. 161– 62. 62. Masud, “Arts and Religion in Islamic Jurisprudence.” , vol. 8, hadith no. 95. 63. Khan, Al- Bukhari 64. Ibid., vol. 1, hadith no. 38. 65. Ibid., vol. 8, hadith no. 472. 66. Ibid., hadith no. 73. 67. Muhammad Khalid Masud, personal communication with author, Leiden, 2003. , 9 Tir 68. See Sayyid Hojjat Mahdavi, “Youths and the Crisis of Leisure,” Nowrooz AH 1380/June 30, 2001. 69. Cited in Nowrooz , 23 Tir AH 1380/July 14, 2001. , 16 Tir AH 1380/July 7, 2001. Nowrooz 70. —-1 71. See Guiv Namazi, “Jeans, Short- Sleeves, Bright Color: Never!” Nowrooz , 17 Tir —0 AH 1380/July 8, 2001, 8. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 8 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 281 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

296 282 NOTES TO PAGES 150–155 72. See Lacey B. Smith, Fools, Martyrs, Traitors: The Story of Martyrdom in the Western World (New York: Knopf, 1997). 73. See Weber, , pp. 236– 40. Sociology of Religion 74. See John Kent, “Christianity: Protestantism,” in The Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths , ed. R. C. Zaehner (Boston: Beacon, 1959), p. 121. 75. On the infl uence of reason on human conduct, see Weber, Sociology of Reli- , p. 242. gion Dancing in the Streets: A History of Collective Joy 76. See Barbara Ehrenreich, (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2006), pp. 97– 102. 77. Ehrenreich, Dancing in the Streets , pp. 190– 91; Crane Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1965), p. 180. See also Lynn Hunt, Politics, Cul- ture, and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), pp. 66– 67. 78. Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution , pp. 218– 23. 79. E. P. Thompson, “Time, Work- Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism,” in his Customs in Common (London: Penguin, 1991), p. 401. See also Christopher Hill, Soci- ety and Puritanism in Pre- Revolutionary En gland (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997). 80. Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution , pp. 188– 89. For a more elaborate study of The Cultural Front: cultural politics under the Bolsheviks, see Sheila Fitzpatrick, Power and Culture in Revolutionary Rus sia (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992). 81. Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution , pp. 180, 220. 82. See Vida Hajebi Tabrizi, Dad- e bidad: Nakhostin zendan- e zanan- e siyassi (Memoir of Ira ni an Women Fedaii Guerrillas) (Tehran: Enteshrat- e Baztab- Negar, AH 1383/2004), pp. 38, 39, 67, 75, 127– 28. 83. Mikhail Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993). 84. Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World , p. 92. The Name of the Rose , trans. William Weaver (New York: Har- 85. Umberto Eco, court Brace Jovanovich, 1983). 86. Victor Turner, The Ritual Pro cess: Structure and Anti- structure (Chicago: Al- dine, 1969). 87. Historically, carnivals in the fourteenth and fi eenth centuries represented an ft institutionalized form of dancing mania, whereby the poor classes would circle hand in hand and continue dancing together for hours in a wild delirium until they fell to the ground in exhaustion. Participants engaged for days in feasting, drinking, per- ce. In the sixteenth century French forming, and dancing, as well as animal sacrifi peasants would spend a total of three months of the year in carnival festivities; see -1— Ehrenreich, Dancing in the Streets , p. 92. 0— 88. Cited in Jebhe , 22 Esfand AH 1377/March 13, 1999, p. 8. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 8 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 282 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

297 NOTES TO PAGES 155–162 283 89. “The most dangerous thing that threatens humanity is for men to forget devo- tion to God, to establish cultural centers instead of mosques and churches, and to be lm and art rather than prayer and supplication,” according to Muhammad driven by fi Iran Emrooz , April 1, Taqui Mesbah Yazdi, a prominent conservative cleric; cited in 2002, www .iran -emrooz .net . 90. “We will wage a creative war against them, with more poems, more art, more singing,” according to the singer. Reported by Mohammed Daraghmeh, “Militants Trying to Restrict Arts, as Battle over Character of Future Palestinian State Starts,” Arabic Media Internet Network , July 12, 2005. The Making of a Counter Culture: Refl ections on the 91. See Theodore Roszak, Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition (London: Faber and Faber, 1969). 92. Some have spoken of “pious fun” by referring to the “Islamic musicians” who use a musical genre like rap or hip- hop to convey religious lyrics as a means for da ̔wa . The central purpose in these per for mances is not simply fun, but religious mission. Since spontaneity is either missing or suppressed (e.g., to ensure “norma- tive conduct” women singers wear particularly conservative dress and refrain from moving their bodies), the result becomes a kind of “controlled fun.” For such Is- lamic musicians, see www .muslimhiphop .com, www.pearlsofi slam.com, and www .dawamedia .com . 93. See for instance Ayatollah Khamenei’s lectures on youths, Javan az Manzar- e (Youth from the Perspective of the Leadership) (Tehran: Daft Rahbari ar- e Nashr- e Farhang- e Eslami, AH 1380/2001). 94. According to Ayatollah Mesbah Yazdi, cited in , Mehr AH 1377/ Shalamche September– October 1998, 11. 95. See Hunt, , p. 56. For Bol- Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution shevik Rus sia, see Fitzpatrick, Cultural Front ; see also Sheila Fitzpatrick, Alexander Rabinowitch, and Richard Stites, eds., Rus sia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991). 96. See Algar, Wahhabism . 97. Ibid, pp. 48– 49. Chapter 8 1. These sections draw heavily on my “Revolution Without Movement, Move- ment Without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt,” Com- parative Studies in Society and History 42, no. 1 (January 1998), pp. 136– 69. 2. See Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of Prison (New York: Vintage, 1995); Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Mobilization: An International Quarterly 1991); Charles Tilly, “Spaces of Contention,” —-1 5, no. 2 (fall 2000), pp. 135– 59; Eric Hobsbawm, “Cities and Insurrections,” in his Revo- —0 lutionaries (London: Quartet Books, 1977), pp. 220– 33. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 8 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 283 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

298 284 NOTES TO PAGES 162–174 3. See Ervand Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince- Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History ton University Press, 1983); Nikki Keddie, of Modern Iran The (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981); Mohsen Milani, Making of the Islamic Revolution in Iran (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1986); Fred (London: Penguin Books, 1979). Iran: Dictatorship and Development Halliday, 4. On the antidemo cratic nature of the Shah’s regime and its po liti cal implica- Iran: Dictatorship and Development (London: Penguin, 1977); tions, see Fred Halliday, Labor Unions and Autocracy in Iran Habib Lajevardi, (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse Uni- The Po liti cal Economy of Modern Iran (London: versity Press, 1985); Homa Katouzian, Macmillan, 1982). Iran; Abrahamian, Iran Between 5. On guerrilla activities in Iran, see Halliday, Two Revolutions . 6. See Asef Bayat, Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran (New York: Co- lumbia University Press, 1997). 7. For an excellent discussion, see Manuel Castells, The City and the Grassroots (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983). 8. See Bayat, Street Politics , pp. 25– 26. 9. For a description, see ibid., pp. 105– 6. Chapter 9 1. See, for instance, Phil Marfl Glo- eet, “Globalisation and Religious Activism,” in balisation and the Third World , ed. R. Kiely and P. Marfl eet (London: Routledge, 1998); Jeff rey Haynes, Religion in Third World Politics (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993); and John Esposito, “Religion and Global Aff airs: Po liti cal Challenges,” SAIS Review: Journal of International Aff airs 18, no. 2 (1998), pp. 19– 24. 2. Mike Davis, Planet of Slums (London: Verso, 2006), p. 54; Mike Davis, “Planet of Slums,” New Left Review 26 (MarchApril 2004), pp. 5– 34. (New York: Colum- 3. Asef Bayat, Street Politics: Poor People’s Movements in Iran bia University Press, 2007), chapter 1. Landscapes of the Jihad: Militancy, Morality, Modernity (Ithaca, 4. Faisal Devji, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2005); see also Chapter 12 of this volume. Here I use the urban poor terms urban dispossessed , disenfranchised , and interchangeably, referring broadly to those laboring people who take on low- income, low- skilled, low- status, and low- security jobs, and who are pushed to live in the marginal locales of slums and squat- ter settlements; see Peter Worsley, The Three Worlds (London: Weidenfeld and Nichol- son, 1984), p. 195. 5. On the theoretical shortcomings of the “culture of poverty” thesis, see Eleanor B. The Culture of Poverty: A Critique (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971). Leacock, ed. -1— 6. M. El- Wali, Sukkan Al- ashash Wal- ashwaiyyat [Shacks and Squatter Hous- 0— ing] (Cairo: Rawz al- Yusef Publications, 1992); Cairo Institute of National Plan- +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 8 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 284 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

299 NOTES TO PAGES 174–175 285 ning, Egypt Human Development Report (Cairo: Cairo Institute of National Plan- Towards Modernizing Urban Upgrading Policies: ning, 1996); Ministry of Planning, Executive Report (Cairo: Ministry of Planning and German Technical Coopera- Al- Ashwaiyyat al- Sukkaniya fi al- Modon al- Misriya [In- tion, 1999); A. M. Umar, formal Housing in Egyptian Cities] (Cairo: Ministry of Religious Endowments, Ashwaiyyat , the plural for ashwaiyya (implying “haphazard”) is the term used 2000). in public to refer to the informal communities in Egypt, some one hundred of which exist in the greater Cairo area (as of early 2000). Offi cial estimates put the total number of these settlements at about 1,034, accounting for about twelve million, or 45 percent, of Egypt’s urban population. Land invasion accounts for a very small proportion of these settlements, and the vast majority comprise privately owned homes that are built on purchased agricultural land but lack planning, construction permits, and most conventional urban ser vices. See Asef Bayat and Eric Denis, “Who Is Afraid of Ashwaiyyat ? Urban Change and Politics in Egypt,” Environment and Urbanization 12, no. 2 (2000), pp. 185– 99, on which this section of the chapter draws heavily. 7. Saad Eddin Ibrahim, Egypt, Islam and Democracy (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1996); Adel El- Kirdassi, “Cahira el- Ashwaiyyat wa Thiqafat al- Unf ” [Informal Cairo and Cultures of Violence], paper presented at the conference on Po- liti cal and Religious Violence in Egypt, Cairo, May 19– 20, 1998. 8. Based on a paper given by Ayfer Bartu at the International conference on Global Flows/Local Fissures: Urban Antagonisms Revisited, Istanbul, May 27– 29, 1999. 9. See Ashgar Engineer, (New Delhi: Sterling, Islam and Liberation Theology Land and Revolution in Iran 1990) p. 17; Eric Hooglund, (Austin: Texas University Press, 1982); Mohammad Amjad, “Rural Migrants, Islam, and Revolution in Iran,” Social Movements, Confl icts, and Change 16 (1993), pp. 35– 51. 10. Ali Rahnema and Farhad Nomani, Secular Miracle: Religion, Politics, and Eco- nomic Policy in Iran (London: Zed Books, 1990). 11. Amjad, “Rural Migrants,” p. 35; Rahnema and Nomani, Secular Miracle . 12. Farhad Kazemi, Poverty and Revolution in Iran (New York: New York Univer- sity Press, 1980); Gilles Kepel, Muslim Extremism in Egypt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); S. A. Arjomand, (Oxford: Oxford The Turban for the Crown University Press, 1988); Rahnema and Nomani, Secular Miracle ; G. Denoeux, Urban Unrest in the Middle East (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993); El- Kirdassi, “Cahira el- Ashwaiyyat wa Thiqafat al- Unf”; A. Abdulhadi, “Qiyam al- Ashwaiyyat fi Misr” [The Values of the People in Informal Communities in Egypt], 7, Ahwal Misriya no. 21 (2003). —-1 13. Kazemi, Poverty and Revolution in Iran ; Hooglund, Land and Revolution in —0 Iran ; Rahnema and Nomani, Secular Miracle ; Amjad, “Rural Migrants.” —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 2 8 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 285 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

300 286 NOTES TO PAGES 175–180 14. Kepel, Egypt, Islam and Democracy ; Muslim Extremism in Egypt ; Ibrahim, Ur- Paul Lubeck and Bryana Britts, “Muslim Civil Society in Urban Public Spaces,” in ban Studies: Contemporary and Future Perspectives , ed. J. Eade and C. Mele (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001). 15. Kepel, Muslim Extremism in Egypt , p. 217. Po liti cal Islam (London: Routledge, 1993); Hamid Ansari, 16. Nazih Ayubi, “The Islamic Militants in Egyptian Politics,” International Journal of Middle 16, no. 3 (1984), pp. 123– 44; Salwa Ismail, “The Pop u lar Movement Di- East Studies mensions of Contemporary Militant Islamism: Socio- Spatial Determinants in the Cairo Urban Setting,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 42 (2000), pp. 63– 93. Al- Dawla Waal- harakat al- Islamiya al- Mo ̓arida [The State and 17. Hala Mustafa, the Islamic Opposition Movement] (Cairo: Al- Mahrousa, 1995), p. 362. 18. That is, Jamaiyya El- Shari ̔yaa Li- ta ̔avon al- Amelin Bil- Kitab wal- Sunna al- Muhammadiyya. 19. Al- Ahram Center for Po liti cal and Strategic Studies, Taqrir Halat Eddiniyya fi Misr [The Status of Religion in Egypt] (Cairo: Al- Ahram Center, 1996). ; ibid. 20. Bayat, Street Politics 21. I have examined these struggles in detail in Bayat, Street Politics , chapter 3. Three 22. I adopt Peter Worsley’s conceptualization of the “poor” in Worsley, Worl d s . Al Erhabiyun Qadimoun ( Cairo: Kitab al- Mahrusa, 1995). 23. Hisham Mubarak, 24. Al- Ahram Center, Taqrir Halat Eddiniyya . 25. I. R. Hammady, “Religious Medical Centers in Cairo,” master’s thesis, Ameri- can University in Cairo, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 1990. 26. For a collection of statements by al- Gama ̔a al- Islamiyya of Egypt, see Rif ̔at al- Saiid, Nabih al- Musallah . 27. I realize that the liberation theology movement was much more complex and fragmented than presented here. But I think that a note of comparison with militant Islamism is both important and necessary. , (New York: Orbis 28. Leonardo Boff and Clodovis Boff Salvation and Liberation Books, 1988). 29. Asef Bayat, “Islamism and Empire: The Incongruous Nature of Islamist Anti- (London: Merlin Press, 2008). imperialism,” Socialist Register 2008 30. See Gustavo Gutiérrez, A Theology of Liberation (New York: Orbis Books, Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement 1988); Christian Smith, ed., (London: Routledge, 1996); Sharon Erickson Nepstad, “Pop u lar Religion, Activism Protest, and Revolt: The Emergence of Po liti cal Insurgency in the Nicaraguan and -1— Salvadoran Churches of the 1960s– 1980s,” in Disruptive Religion , ed. Smith; Michael 0— Lowy, The War of Gods: Religion and Politics in Latin America (London: Verso Press, 1996). +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 2 8 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 286 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

301 NOTES TO PAGES 180–187 287 31. Christian Smith, The Emergence of Liberation Theology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). Making Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- Islamist 32. Asef Bayat, (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007). Tu r n . 33. Bayat, Street Politics , October 17– 23, 1996, p. 12. Al Ahram Weekly 34. 35. The Ibn Khaldoun Center for Developmental Studies in Cairo developed a program for the rehabilitation of Islamists in Egypt. 36. Paul A. Jargowsky, Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City (New York: Russell Sage, 1997); Kevin Fox Gotham, “Toward an Understanding of the Spatiality of Urban Poverty: The Urban Poor as Spatial Actors,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27, no. 3 (2003), pp. 723– 37. 37. See Cairo Institute of National Planning, p. 56; El- Kirdassi, 1998; Al- Wafd , “Al- Ashwaiyyat Aana ̓a Hokumiya,” March 5, 1999; A. F. Nasir, “Al- Ashwaiyya fi Hayatna” [Haphazardness in Our Lives], Al- Wafd , March 9, 1999. 38. Evelyn Early, Baladi Women of Cairo (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner,1993); Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics, and Networks in Urban Diane Singerman, Quarters of Cairo (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1995); Unni Wikan, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996); Teresa P. R. Cal- Tomorrow, God Willing deira, The City of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in São Paulo (Berkeley: Between Marriage and the Mar- University of California Press, 1997); Homa Hoodfar, ket (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Farha Ghannam, Remaking the Modern: Space, Relocation, and the Politics of Identity in a Global Cairo (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002). Ashwaiyyat ?” maps 5 and 6. A ran- 39. See Bayat and Denis, “Who Is Afraid of the dom sample of the residents of Dar al- Salam, an informal community in Cairo, reveals the high degree of diversity in occupational structure. Aft er “house wives,” at 37 per- cent, “white collar workers” constituted the largest group, accounting for 14 percent. See Nicholas S. Hopkins, Social Response to Environmental Change and Pollution in Egypt (Cairo: IDRC Report, 1998). 40. Bayat, . Street Politics Chapter 10 , ed. John Hutchinson and 1. See Cliff ord Geertz, “Primordial Ties,” in Ethnicity Anthony Smith (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). Ethnicity , 2. For a fi ne overview of approaches, see Hutchinson and Smith, eds., especially pp. 3– 16. 3. For a comprehensive overview of the concept of community, see Gerard Del- —-1 anty, Community (London: Routledge, 2003). —0 4. For a useful take on Dubai, see Muhammad Masad, “Dubai: What Cosmopoli- —+1 tan City?” ISIM Review , no. 22 (autumn 2008), 10– 11. For a more critical appraisal, see 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 2 8 7 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 287 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

302 288 NOTES TO PAGES 187–191 Mike Davis, “Fear and Money in Dubai,” , no. 41 (September– October New Left Review 2006), pp. 47– 68. The Other Global City 5. An exception is Shail Mayaram, ed., (London: Rout- ledge, 2009). 6. See Sami Zubaida, “Jews and Others in Iraq,” ISIM Review , no. 22 (autumn 2008), pp. 6– 7; for a historical treatment of cosmopolitanism in the Ottoman world, see Bruce Masters, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman World: The Roots of Sectarian- (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Salim Tamari, “Wasif Jawhariy yeh, ism Palestine, Israel, and the Politics Pop u lar Music and Early Modernity in Jerusalem,” in , ed. Rebecca Stein and Ted Swedenburg (Durham, N.C.: Duke Uni- of Pop u lar Culture versity Press, 2005). 7. The precise number of Coptic Christians is a matter of contention. According to government sources, Copts constitute 6 percent of the population, while Coptic The Copts of Egypt sources claim it to be around 18 percent; see Ibn- Khaldoun Center, (London: Minority Group International, 1996), p. 6; see also S. Ibrahim, Al- Milal wal- Nahal wal- I ̓raq (Cairo: Ibn- Khaldoun Center, 1994), p. 381. 8. Susan J. Staff a, Conquest and Fusion: The Social Evolution of Cairo, AD 642– 1850 (Leiden, N.Y.: E. J. Brill, 1977), p. 37. (Cambridge: Cambridge 9. Afaf L. A. Marsot, A Short History of Modern Egypt University Press, 1985), pp. 1– 3. The Coptic Community in Egypt: Spatial and Social Change, Oc- 10. E. J. Chitham, casional Paper series no. 32 (Durham, N.C.: University of Durham, Center for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1988), p. 18. 11. Ibn- Khaldoun Center, Copts of Egypt , p. 16. 12. See Hani Labib, Al- Muwatanah wa- al- Awlamah: Al- Aqbat fi Mujtama ̓a Mu- taghayyir (Cairo: Dar al- Shuruq, 2004), pp. 140– 41. 13. See Aziz S. Atiya, A History of Eastern Christianity (London: Methuen, 1968); see also most publications of militant Copts in the United States and Canada. 14. Quote by Milad Hanna, a prominent Coptic intellectual and politician, cited in Mark Purcell, “A Place for the Copts: Imagined Territory and Spatial Confl ict in Egypt,” Ecumene 5, no. 4 (1998), pp. 432– 51. For the position of other writers, see Jamal (Cairo: Dar Al- Shuruq, 2000); Badawi, Muslimun wa Aqbat: Min al- Mahd Ila al- Majd Al- Muwatanah wa- al- Awlamah ; Tariq al- Bishri, Al- Muslimun wa al- Aqbat (Cairo: Labib, Dar al- Shuruq, 2004). 15. Gamal Hamdan cited in Badawi, Muslimun wa Aqbat , p. 15. 16. Labib, Al- Muwatanah wa- al- Awlamah , pp. 121– 22. 17. The fact is that of Muslim– Christian relations cannot be interpretations divorced from their reality. They are part of it. For if “ethnicity” is based largely on -1— a myth of kinship origin imagined on common ancestry, then the current debate in 0— Egypt about the “reality” of Coptic– Muslim relations is likely to shape that reality. +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 8 8 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 288 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

303 NOTES TO PAGES 191–203 289 In other words, advancing an argument about how Copts are not a ‘minority’ but ‘citizens’ may indeed galvanize consensus leading to an actual change in their status. 18. See Jamal Badawi, Misr (Cairo: Arab Press Center, 1977), Al- Fitna al- Taefi ya fi pp. 13– 15. icts here are cited from Ibn- Khaldoun Center, Copts of 19. The reports of the confl . Egypt 20. I have drawn on Ibn- Khaldoun Center, Copts of Egypt , p. 21. Al- Muwatinah wal- Awlimah , pp. 178– 80; also African Research 21. See Labib, 37, no. 1 (January 2000), p. 13839. Bulletin 22. See D. Zeidan, “The Copts: Equal, Protected or Persecuted? The Impact of Is- lamization on Muslim– Christian Relations in Modern Egypt,” Islam and Christian– Muslim Relations 10, no. 1 (1999), pp. 53– 67. 23. Daily papers. 24. Gerard Viand, “Short History of Shubra,” unpublished paper, submitted by the author, Cairo, August 2004. 25. Based on ibid. 26. The notion of “urban footprints” is discussed in Ash Amin and Nigel Thrift , Cities: Reimagining the Urban (Oxford: Polity, 2002). 27. Cited in Badawi, Muslimun wa Aqbat , p. 166. 28. Interview, July 2004, Cairo. 29. Interview with Maged, in Shubra, July 10, 2004. 30. Edward Lane, Manners and Customs , 1836, pp. 554– 57. 31. Interview with both in August 2004, in Shubra, Cairo. 32. Nicholas Hopkins and Reem Saad, eds., Upper Egypt: Identity and Change (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2005), pp. 13– 15. 33. Interview with Moheb Zaki, Cairo, January 31, 2005. 34. Reported in Cairo Times , November 23– 29, 2000, vol. 4, no. 37. 35. Here, I draw on the defi nition of ethnic developed by John Hutchinson and Anthony Smith as “a named human population with myths of common ancestry, shared historical memories, one or more elements of common culture, a link with homeland, and a sense of solidarity among at least some of its members.” See Hutchin- son and Smith, Ethnicity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 6. Cairo: One Thousand Years of a City Victorious 36. See Janet Abu- Lughod, (Prince- ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1971), p. 60. 37. Ibid., p. 59. 38. Ibid., pp. 59– 60. , pp. 78– 79. Coptic Community in Egypt 39. Chitham, —-1 40. Ibid., pp. 82– 86. —0 41. Ibid., p. 30. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 8 9 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 289 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

304 290 NOTES TO PAGES 203–210 42. Abu- Lughod, Cairo, p. 211. 43. Ibid., p. 210. 44. Moheb Zaki, interview, January 31, 2005, Cairo. 45. Stanley Tambiah, Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Confl icts and Collective (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), p. 275. Violence in South Asia 46. Lila Abu- Lughod, “Local Contexts of Islamism in Pop u lar Media,” ISIM Papers Series, no. 6 (Leiden: ISIM). See also Lila Abu- Lughod, Dramas of Nation- (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, hood: The Politics of Tele vi sion in Egypt 2005). 47. This sectarian eff rmed by a number ect of “welfare pluralism” has been confi of studies. See, for example, Mariz Tadros’s PhD thesis; Paul Sadra, “Class Cleavage and Ethnic Confl ict: Coptic Christian Communities in Modern Egyptian Politics,” 10, no. 2 (1999), pp. 219– 35. Islam and Christian– Muslim Relations 48. Interview with Maged, Shubra, July 10, 2004. 49. See, for instance, a tale of riots in Bombay, India, in Suketu Mehta, Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found (New York: Knopf, 2004). 50. For a South Asian experience, see Tambiah, Leveling Crowds ; and for a general picture, see Donald Horowitz, The Deadly Ethnic Riot (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 2001). 51. For a full story, see Essandr El- Amrani, “The Emergence of the ‘Coptic Ques- Middle East Report Online , April 28, 2006. tion’ in Egypt,” 52. Georg Simmel, Confl ict and the Web of Group Affi liations (New York: Free Press, 1955), pp. 43– 45. 53. Tambiah, Leveling Crowds, p. 276. 54. Reported in Robin Moger and Ho Ehab, “All Over a Play,” , Cairo Magazine October 27, 2006. 55. Donald Horowitz’s general survey of ethnic riots confi rms this conclusion. “. . . when such [indiscriminate and abstract] beliefs change, the deadly riot declines”; see Horowitz, Deadly Ethnic Riot , p. 544. Chapter 11 Wall St re et 1. Robert Bartley, “Resolution, Not Compromise, Builds Co ali tion,” Journal , November 12, 2001. News- 2. Cited in Robert Satloff , “The Arab ‘Street’ Poses No Real Threat to US,” day , September 27, 2002. 3. Ibid. New York Times , November 11, 2001. 4. John Kifner, “Street Brawl,” 5. See, for exa mple, Reuel Marc Gerecht, “Bet ter to Be Feared t ha n Loved,” Weekly -1— Standard , April 29, 2002; and “The Myth of the Arab Street,” Jerusalem Post , April 11, 0— 2002. Authors sympathetic to Arab protest can have similar takes. See, for example, +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 9 0 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 290 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

305 NOTES TO PAGES 210–218 291 Ashraf Khalil, “The Arab Couch,” Cairo Times , December 26, 2002; and Robert Fisk, In- “A Million March in London, But Faced with Disaster, the Arabs Are Like Mice,” de pen dent , February 18, 2003. , November 12, 2001. 6. Wall Street Journal , November 6, 2002. 7. Al- Hayat 8. Raphael Patai, The Arab Mind (London: Macmillan, 1983). Islam, Politics, and Social Movements 9. See Edmund Burke and Ira Lapidus, eds., (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990); and Zachary Lockman, ed., Work e rs (Al- and Working Classes in the Middle East: Struggles, Histories, Historiographies bany: State University of New York Press, 1994). 10. On labor struggles, see Alan Richards and John Waterbury, A Po liti cal Econ- omy of the Middle East (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990); and Marsha Prip- stein Posusney, Labor and the State in Egypt (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997). 11. Lamis Andoni and Jillian Schwedler, “Bread Riots in Jordan,” Middle East Re- port , no. 201 (fall 1996), pp. 40– 42. The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt 12. Ahmed Abdalla, (Lon- don: Saqi Books, 1985). ; Arab Human Development Report 13. United Nations Development Program, vol. 1; Changing Opportunities for Future Generations (New York: UNDP, 2002), p. 90. al- Ahram Weekly , No- 14. See Reda Hilal, “Blowback: Islamization from Below,” vember 21– 27, 2002. See also ̓Ali Abu al- Khayr, “al- Islam al- Siyasi wa al- Dimuqratiyya,” al- Wafd , February 15, 2003. 15. See Asef Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- Islamist Turn (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007). 16. Al- Hayat , January 28, 2003. 17. Al- Hayat , February 15, 2003. , January 20, 2002. 18. Al- Hayat 19. In Arab countries other than Egypt, there was little evidence pointing to dem- onstrators targeting their own governments’ policies. 20. As reported by Human Rights Watch, in Egypt some eleven activists had been , February 6– 19, 2003). detained by security agents in February 2003 ( Cairo Times 21. Interview with Fateh Azzam, coordinator of human rights program, Ford Foundation, Cairo, February 2003. 22. Hossam el- Hamalawy, “Closer to the Street,” Cairo Times , February 6– 19, 2003. 23. For an analysis of Kifaya and new democracy movements in Egypt, see Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic , pp. 181– 86. —-1 24. Payvan Iran News , October 14, 2002; Asia Times , January 24, 2003; al- Qahira , —0 January 7, 2003. —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 2 9 1 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 291 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

306 292 NOTES TO PAGES 219–225 25. See Samantha Shapiro, “Revolution, Facebook- Style,” New York Times , Janu- ary 29, 2009. Chapter 12 1. See Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1991). 2. Stuart Hall, David Held, Don Hubert, and Kenneth Thompson, eds., Moder- nity: An Introduction to Modern Societies (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995). Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics 3. Sidney Tarrow, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Eric Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels (New York: Norton, 1959). 4. Charles Tilly, From Mobilization to Revolution (Reading, Mass.: Addison- We sley, 1978). 5. Theda Skocpol, States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press, 1979). 6. See, for instance, Simon Bromley, Rethinking Middle East Politics (Austin: Uni- versity of Texas Press, 1994); and Isam al- Khafaji, Tormented Births: Passages to Mo- dernity in Eu rope and the Middle East (London: I. B. Tauris, 2005), which suggest that erence between the social formations in the Middle East and there is little diff Eu rope. The Modern Middle East , ed. Albert Ho- 7. Albert Hourani, “Introduction,” in urani, Philip Khoury, and Mary Wilson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). 8. Hisham Sharabi, Neopatriarchy: A Theory of Distorted Change in Arab Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988). 9. Ervand Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1982). ed Return to the 10. Ghassan Salamé, “ ‘Strong’ and ‘Weak’ States: A Qualifi Muqaddimah, ” in The Arab State, ed. Giacomo Luciani (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1990). 11. See Homa Katouzian, The Po liti cal Economy of Modern Iran (London: Mac- millan, 1981). For a discussion of this, see Asef Bayat, “Class, Historiography, and Ira- Workers and Working Classes in the Middle East: Struggles, Histo- ni an Workers,” in ries, Historiographies , ed. Z. Lockman (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994). Tormented Births 12. Khafaji, . 13. The next three paragraphs draw heavily on my article “Islamism and Social 26, no. 6 (2005), pp. 891– 908. Third World Quarterly Movement Theory,” The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World 14. Samuel Huntington, -1— Order (New York: Basic Books, 1996); Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong (London: 0— Phoenix, 2002). +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 9 2 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 292 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

307 NOTES TO PAGES 225–227 293 15. Alberto Melucci, Challenging Codes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (Minneapolis: University of Min- The Return of the Actor 1996), p. 104; Alain Touraine, nesota Press, 1988), p. 64; Alain Touraine, “Do Social Movements Exist?” paper pre- sented at the 14th World Congress of Sociology, Montreal, July 26– August 1, 1998. 16. Michel Foucault, “An Interview with Michel Foucault,” Akhtar , no. 4 (spring Social Theory and Modern Society (Palo Alto, Calif.: 1987), p. 43; Anthony Giddens, Stanford University Press, 1987). 17. Emad Eldin Shahin, “Secularism and Nationalism: The Po liti cal Discourse of ̔Abd al- Salam Yassin,” in John Ruedy, (New Islamism and Secularism in North Africa York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994), p. 173. 18. Here I have cited only sources that are in En glish and accessible to non- native readers; see Ali Shariati, “Return to Self,” in , Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives ed. John Donohue and John Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 305– 7; Abu- Ala Mawdudi, “Nationalism and Islam,” in Islam in Transition: Muslim Per- spectives , ed. John Donohue and John Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 94– 97; Abdulaziz Sachedina, “Ali Shariati: Ideologue of the Ira ni an Revo- lution,” in Voices of Resurgent Islam , ed. John Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 191– 214; and Y. Haddad, “Sayyid Qutb: Ideologue of Islamic Revival,” in , ed. John Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, Voices of Resurgent Islam 1983). 19. United Nations Development Program, Arab Human Development Report (Washington, D.C.: UNDP, 2002). 20. Evidence for this argument is scattered. To begin with, I have utilized my unpublished survey of some 199 middle- class, largely religious, professionals in Cairo, 1990– 94, including an in- depth interview with a focus group of fi ft een professionals conducted by Dana Sajdi. Published studies relevant to Egypt include: Anouk de Kon- ing, “Global Dreams: Space, Class and Gender in Middle Class Cairo,” PhD thesis, Amsterdam University, 2005; Asef Bayat, “Cairo’s Poor: Dilemmas of Survival and Solidarity,” Middle East Report , no. 202 (January– February 1997), pp. 2– 6, 12; Mona Abaza, “Shopping Malls, Consumer Culture and Reshaping of Public Space in Egypt,” Theory, Culture and Society 18, no. 5 (2001), pp. 97– 122; Galal Amin, What ever Hap- (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2000). On Jordan, pened to the Egyptians? see E. Anne Beal, “Real Jordanians Don’t Decorate Like That! The Politics of Taste among Amman’s Elites,” City and Society 12, no. 2 (2000), pp. 65– 94. On Iran, Sohrab Behdad and Farhad Nomani, “Workers, Peasants and Peddlers: A Study of Labor Stratifi cation in the Post- Revolutionary Iran,” International Journal of Middle East Street Politics: Poor People’s Move- 34, no. 4 (2002), pp. 667– 90; Asef Bayat, Studies ments in Iran (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997). —-1 21. Barrington Moore, Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience & Revolt (New —0 York: Random House, 1978). —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n 9/1/09 1:59 PM d 2 9 3 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 293 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

308 294 NOTES TO PAGES 227–235 22. Asef Bayat, “Revolution Without Movement, Movement Without Revolution: Comparative Studies in Society and Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt,” History 44, no. 1 (1998), 136– 69. 23. Bayat, “Cairo’s Poor.” (Albany: 24. See, for example, Guilain Denoeux, Urban Unrest in the Middle East State University of New York Press, 1993). Making Islam Demo cratic: Social Movements and the Post- 25. See also Asef Bayat, Islamist Turn (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 155– 61. Tormented Births , p. 184. 26. Khafaji, Iran: Dictatorship and Development (London: Penguin, 1978). 27. Fred E. Halliday, 28. Nazih Ayubi, “Rethinking the Public/Private Dichotomy: Radical Islamism and Civil Society in the Middle East,” Contention 4, no. 3 (1995), pp. 79– 105. Jahat- guiri- ye Tabaqati- ye Islam (Tehran: n.p., 1980); Ali Shariati, 29. Ali Shariati, Shi‘eh- ye Alavi and Shi‘e-ye Safavi (Tehran: n.p., n.d.). 30. Ervand Abrahamian, Radical Islam: Iran’s Mudjahedin (London: I. B. Tauris, 1989). 31. Indeed, as early as 1954, Bernard Lewis implied in an essay how the ethics of Islam were compatible with the spirit of communism. See Bernard Lewis, “Commu- nism and Islam,” International Aff airs 30, no. 1 (1954), pp. 1– 12. . 32. Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic 33. For the concept of “imagined solidarities,” see Bayat, “Islamism and Social Movement Theory.” Modern Middle East . 34. Hourani, 35. Ankie Hoogvelt, (Baltimore: Johns Globalization and the Postcolonial World Hopkins University Press, 1987); Manuel Castells, Power of Identity (London: Black- well, 1997). 36. Paul Lubeck and Bryana Britts, “Muslim Civil Society in Urban Public Spaces: Globalization, Discursive Shift s and Social Movements,” in Understanding the City: Contemporary and Future Perspectives , ed. J. Eade and C. Mele (Oxford: Black- well, 2002). 37. Castells, Power of Identity . Activists ; Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, 38. Tarrow, Power of Movements (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998). Beyond Borders 39. Hannah Arendt, On Revolution (London: Penguin, 1990), pp. 17– 18; Eric Forward March of Labour Halted? Hobsbawm, (London: Verso Press, 1981); Eric Hobsbawm, Interesting Times: A Twentieth Century Life (London: Allen Lane, 2002); David Harvey, Spaces of Hope (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000). . Spaces of Hope 40. Hobsbawm, Interesting Times ; Harvey, -1— 41. For a discussion of these spaces in the advanced capitalist countries, see Ash 0— Amin and Nigel Thrift , Cities: Reimagining the Urban (Oxford: Polity Press, 2002). +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 9 4 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 294 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

309 NOTES TO PAGES 235–246 295 42. Arturo Escobar, Encountering Development (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton Uni- versity Press, 2001). Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama Bin Laden 43. Bruce Lawrence, ed., Landscapes of the Jihad (London: Hurst Books, (London: Verso, 2006); Faisal Devji, 2006). Chapter 13 Religion of Peace? Why Christianity Is and Is- 1. See, for instance, Robert Spencer, (Washington, D.C.: Regency 2007). A number of infl lam Isn’t uential individuals in the United States, such as Eliot Cohen of Johns Hopkins University and Kenneth Adelman of the Defense Department advisory policy board, suggest Islam is essentially intoler- ant, expansionist, and violent. Some evangelical Protestants have declared Islam an , International Herald Tribune, December 5, “evil” religion (quoted by William Pfaff 2002). In some ways such projections are a self- defeating teleology, because if this is so, then what can one do about it? The solution to demo cratization (defi ned by Daniel Pipes and Bernard Lewis as free elections, in de pen dent judiciary, freedom of speech, rule of law, and minority rights) seems to be to either secularize Muslims or convert them into a diff erent, “demo cratic” religion. Who is able to perform such a task? 2. Expressed by Israel’s foremost “revisionist historian,” Benny Morris, cited in Joel Beinin, “No More Tears: Benny Morris and the Road from Liberal Zionism,” 230 (spring 2004), p. 40. Middle East Report 3. For extensive evidence, see Bayat, Making Islam Demo cratic , pp. 71– 97. 4. James Beckford, Social Theory and Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press, 2003), p. 2. 5. In addition, infl uential thinkers remembering the world wars concluded for some time that Catholicism and democracy were hardly compatible; see Seymour Martin Lipset, Kyoung- Ryung Seong, and John Charles Torres, “Social Requisites of Democracy,” International Social Science Journal 13, no. 6 (May 1993), p. 29. 6. Asef Bayat, “The Coming of Post- Islamist Society,” Critique: Critical Middle East Studies , no. 9 (fall 1996). Making 7. For a detailed discussion of the debates on the concept see Asef Bayat, Islam Demo cratic , p. 10. 8. See Saodat Olimova, “Social Protests and Islamic Movement in Central Eur- asia”; Pinar Akcali, “Secularism under Threat: Radical Islam in Central Asia,” papers presented in workshop “Towards Social Stability and Demo cratic Governance in Cen- tral Eurasia: Challenges to Regional Security,” Leiden, The Netherlands, September 8– 11, 2004. 9. See Irfan Ahmad, “From Islamism to Post- Islamism: The Transformation of —-1 the Jama ̔at- e-Islami in North India” (PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam, Novem- —0 ber 2005). —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 9 5 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 295 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

310 296 NOTES TO PAGES 246–249 10. Based on discussions with two young leaders of the movement; Rabat, Mo- rocco, January 30, 2006. 11. See Stéphane Lacroix, “Between Islamists and Liberals: Saudi Arabia’s New ‘Islamo- Liberal’ Reformists,” Middle East Journal 58, no. 3 (summer 2004), pp. 345– 65. 12. Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social Movements and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). 13. Alberto Melucci, Nomads of the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 60. Melucci’s “cultural production” is roughly what Sztompka terms “la- tent change”; see Piotr Sztompka, The Sociology of Social Change (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999). 14. Foucault describes “governmentality” in terms of the state devising mecha- nisms, methods, and ideas through which citizens govern themselves in accordance (New York: New with the interests of those who govern. See Michel Foucault, Power Press, 1994). -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 9/1/09 1:59 PM c h 0 1 _ 4 P . i n d d 2 9 6 544-41003_ch01_4P.indd 296 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M _

311 INDEX Anti-fun sensibilities, 139; Saudi Arabia, Abdel Nasser, Gamal, 67 140; Taliban, 140; in Iran, 140, 142–144; Abu-Lughod, Janet, 202 history, 145–146; in Saudi Arabia, Accommodating innovation, 120, 134 146–147; in Afghanistan, 147; Accommodating protest, 52 in secular ideologies, 151; reasons of, Active citizenry, 249 152, 154–158 Active piety, 237 Antiglobalization, 45 Activism, 250 April 6 Youth Movement, Egypt, 10, 22, literature, 145 Adab 135, 219 uent women and religion, 228 Affl , 3, 28; Arab Human Development Report Afghanistan, 37 reception in West, 30; reception in Al-Adlwal-Ihsan, Morocco, 246 Arab world, 31; postnationalist Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, 155 approach, 33 Al-Azhar, 137 Arab intelligentsia, 217 Al-Banna, Hasan, 230 Arab mind, 211 Alexandria (Egypt), sectarian violence, Arab socialism, 229 206–207 Arab states, 224 Al-Gama ̔a al-Islamiyya, Egypt, 11, 139, 171, Arab street, 14, 210–220 172, 181, 192; civilities in Cairo, 80; and Arab world, strategy for change, 34–39 the poor, 82 Arendt, Hanna, 234 Algeria, 9 Art of presence, 26, 248–251; women’s role, Algerian resistance, 11 249–250 Algiers, 171 Arts of living, 151 Al-Kosheh, sectarian violence, 193 Asceticism, 149 Al-Qaeda, 173, 238 Ash ̔ab (singer), 145 Alternative Human Development Index, Ashwaiyyat , 4, 178, 180, 182; Middle East, 31 heterogeneity, 183 Amal movement, Lebanon, 82 Asiatic mode of production, 224 American University in Cairo, 218 Assiut, Egypt, 193 Amin, Galal, 35 Authority, 155 Amnesty International, 10 Ayubi, Nazih, 175, 229 Anglo-American invasion of Iraq, 32 —-1 Azadi (Liberation) Square, Tehran, 170 Anomie, 46 Azbakiya (Cairo), 204 Ansari, Hamid, 175 —0 —+1 297 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i 9/1/09 1:59 PM d d 2 9 7 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 297 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M n

312 298 INDEX Collective action, 24 Ba ̔thism, 229 Collective presence, 120 Bad-hijabi , 124 College of Women’s Physical Education, Baghdad, slums, 172 102 Baharestan Plaza, Tehran, 169 Committee for the Defense of Workers’ Bakhtiar, Shahpour, 176 Rights, 218 Bakhtin, Mikhail, 153, 154 Communal identity, 188 , Iran, 125, 177 Baseeji Communalism, 186, 194 Bazaar, Tehran, 169 Communist Manifesto , 234 Bazaaries, 163 Communitas, 153 Bell, Daniel, 34 Community, 185, 188 Bin Laden, Osama, 209, 210, 238 Community activism, Middle East, 73–78; (innovation), 158 Bid ̔a Lebanon, 74; Iran, 74, 75; Egypt, 75; and Biden, Joseph, 209 paternalism, 75–76; weaknesses of, Bolsheviks and fun, 151, 152 76–77; role of political democracy, 77; Bourdeiu, Pierre, on youth, 118, 118 and patronage, 77 Boycotts, 218 Community development, 73 Brazil, 51 Community Development Associations, Brinton, Crane, 151, 152 Egypt, 85 Brown, Michael, 55 Contentious collective action, 9 Brown, Nathan, 53 Contentious politics, 5 , 140 Burkha Cook, Michael, 145 Bush, George W., 3, 28 Coping strategies, 16 Coptic Christians (Egypt) history, 189–191; Café Riche, Cairo, 168 language, 189; personal status, 189; Cairo, 167, 195–200; poor neighborhoods, in Liberal Age, 190; and Egyptian 182; walled city, 202; ethnic minorities, revolution, 190; emigration, 190; 202; Coptic quarter, nineteenth century, relations with Muslims, 190; as 202 minority, 191, 205; the Church, 192, Calvinists, 151 194, 205; and President Mubarak, 193; Camp David, 213 and politics, 194; youths, 194; social Carterite breeze, 163 conservatism, 198; discrimination Caspian Sea, resort, 147 against, 201, 205; in Cairo, 203; Coptic Castells, Manuel, 34, 45, 48, 49, 234, 235 neighborhoods, 203; dilution, 203; Cedar Revolution (Lebanon), 6, 9 distanciated community, 204; or virtual Chan, Sylvia, 37 community, 205 Chastity House, Iran, 124 Cosmopolitan coexistence, 188; in modern Cheap Islamization, 215 city, 188 Chicago School of Urban Sociology, 46 Cosmopolitanism, 186; of subaltern, 187; Child custody, 105, 107 everyday, 187 Chile, 51 Counterculture, 138, 156 Chocolat (novel), 137 Coup 1953, Iran, 162 Christian feminists, 105 Critical communalism, 206 Christianity and democracy, 242 Cultural invasion, 127, 144, 156 Christian-Muslim relations (Egypt), 191–192; Cultural revolution, Iran, 121 sectarian strife, 193; intermarriage, 199; Culture of poverty, 48, 174 sectarian coexistence, 201; mixed neighborhoods, 202 , 180 Da ̔wa Civil society, Middle East, 68 Dabashi, Hamid, 230 Clash of civilizations, 225 Danish cartoons, 237 Class-based movements, Arab world, 214 -1— Dar al-Salam, Cairo, 91 Cohen, Robin, 47 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 2 9 8 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 298 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

313 INDEX 299 Farmers’ protests, Egypt, 77 Davis, Mike, 172 Fashion, 134; Simmelian, 135 Democracy, 29; and development, 31; and Fedaian, Marxist organization, 11, 164 knowledge, 35 Feminist theology, 105 Democratic change, conditions, 248–249 Foucault, Michel, 51, 54, 162, 225 Democratic defi cit, Middle East, 241 Freedom House, 9 Democratization, 37; in Middle East, 38; by nition, 36; in Arab world, Freedom, defi pact, 38 36–37; in the Arab Human Development Demographic changes, Middle East, 181 Report , 36 cits, Development, in Arab world, 27; defi French Revolution, 151 29; defi nition of, 29 Freud, Sigmund, 156 (non-Muslim), 189, 205 Dhimmi Friedmann, John, 49 Diab, Amr, 134 Fukuyama, Francis, 34 Discipline, against fun, 157 nition, 138; diff Fun, 18, 19; defi erence with Distanciated community, 188, 204–206 joy, 138; fear of, 139; and Ayatollah Distanciated dating, Iran, 123 Khomeini, 142; and responsibility, 143; Draper, Hal, 46 in Iran, reformists, 144; in Islamic Dubai, 186 history, 145; culture of, 148; and Islam, Durkheim, Emil, 46 ed, 148–150; subversiveness, 154; pacifi 157; and inclusive politics, 158 Eco, Umberto, 153 Fundamentalist Islamism, 242 Arab Human Economic freedom, in the Fundamentalist paradigm, 156 , 36; and human Development Report development, 37 Gaza, slums, 172 Economic Reform and Structural Gazi Mahallasi, Istanbul, 174 Adjustment Program (ERSAP), 9, 37, Gecekondus, Turkey, 182 43, 64; in Middle East, 67 Gender inequality, in Arab world, 29 Egypt, 1, 8, 27, 189; Arabization of, 189 Gender inequality, Iran, 108 ion Group, 218 Egyptian Anti-Globalizat Gender rights, 17 Egyptian Coalitions in Solidarity with Giddens, Anthony, 225 Palestine and Iraq, 219 Globalization, 43; and subaltern politics, Egyptian Revolution of 1952, 5, 168 63–64 Enghelab Square (Revolution Square), Globalization, and revolutions, 235 Tehran, 161 Gorz, Andre, 117 Episcopal Church, 146 Gouldner, Alvin, 34 Escobar, Arturo, 49 Graham, Billy, 155 Etatism, 67; in Middle East, 67 Grassroots, Middle East, 68 Ethical movement, 173 Greater Middle East, 28, 38 Everyday cosmopolitanism, 13, 187 nition, Everyday resistance, 16, 51–55; defi Habibi, Shahla, 109 52; critique, 53; real resistance, 53; token , 141 eh-name-ye Sobh Haft resistance, 53; defensive and off ensive, Halaqat (Egypt), 228 54; and the state, 54; and the poor, 54; Hamas, 171 and essentialism, 55; and coping Hamdan, Gamal, 191 strategies, 55; of Iranian women, 109 Hammami, Rema, 88 Exceptionalism, 3, 4; Middle Eastern, 28 Hardt, Michael, 21 Extremism, 16 Harris, Joanne, 137 Ezbet Khairallah, Cairo, 92 Harvey, David, 234, 235 Helwan, Cairo, 168 Facebook, 22, 219 Hermeneutics, Muslim feminists, 105 Family protection law, Iran, 98 —-1 Hijab , 112. See also Ve i l ( hijab ), forced veiling Fanon, Frantz, 46 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . 9/1/09 1:59 PM n d d 2 9 9 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 299 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M i

314 300 INDEX Islamic weddings, 139 Hizbullah (Lebanon), 7, 230, 246; and the Islamism, 4, 7, 8, 14, 16, 173, 215; middle poor, 82 class constituency, 83; and the poor, Hiz al-Wasat, 246 176, 184; modernist interpretations, Hizb al-Tahrir (Tajikistan), 246 225; in one country, 236; in Egypt, Hobsbawm, Eric, 234 244–245, 248 Hoogvelt, Ankie, 45 Islamist movements, 7, 50, 78; and social Horowitz, Donald, 206 development, 78–83; as urban social Human rights, in Middle East, 30; See also movement, 81; and the poor, 81. organizations, 218 Islamism Huntington, Samuel, 47, 225 Islamist parties, 215 Hussein, Saddam, 17, 28 Islamists and the poor, 178–179; and joy, 141; Hussein party, Iran, 128 and NGOs, 178–179 Islamo-liberal trend, Saudi Arabia, 237 Ibn Taymiya, 148 Israel, 210 Imagined solidarity, 22 Israeli occupation, impact on Arab human Imam Hussein, 229 development, 32 Imbaba, Cairo, 171, 178; and Islamists, 80, Istanbul, elites, 15 81; , 180 Ashwaiyyat Individual, in Islamist view, 157 Jacobins and fun, 151, 152 Informal communities, Middle East, Jahili , 142, 146, 230 heterogeneity, 183 Jahiliya , 226 Informal Credit Associations ( Gama ̔iyaat ), Jama ̔at-e Islami, India, 246 Egypt, 91; and the state, 92; suppression Jebhe , 142 and resistance, 93; political meaning, 93; Jihadi trends, 237–238 and other type of activism, 94 Jizya , 189 Informal life, 59, 60, 173, 182–183 Jordan, 9, 27, 67 Informal sector, Middle East, 73; Arab Justice and Development Party (AKP), world, 214 Turkey, 7, 246, 251 See also Informal settlements, 174. Justice and Development Party (Morocco), ; Extremism Ashwaiyyat 7, 2 46 Informals, 47 Instrumentalism, 206 Kar, Mehrangiz, 108 International illegal migrants, 15, 16, 20, Karbala (Iraq), 230 22, 57 Karbaschi, Gholam Hussein, 122 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 233 Katouzian, Homa, 224 Iran, 1, 18, 59, 67; urban riots, 69 Kepel, Gilles, 175 Iranian Film Festival in 1995, 101 d, 168 Khak-e Safi Iranian Revolution of 1979, 1, 98, 161, 162–164, Khaled, Amr, 134 See also 229; urban character of, 165. Khatami, Muhammad, 7, 9, 127, 244 Islamic revolution, Iran Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhallah, 113, 163 Iraq, 8, 9, 14, 37 Kifaya movement (Egypt), 6, 38, 135, Islam, 7, 8; and fun, 148–150; anti-fun ethics, 168 148; fun ethics, 149–150 King Hussein, 213 Islam, and revolution, 229–230; and politics, Knowledge society, 34; in Arab world, 35; 231; and democracy, 244 in Medieval period, 35 Islamic Renaissance Party, 246 (nonbelief in God), 149 Kufr Islamic revolution, Iran, 5, 221 Islamic revolutions, future, 233, 235–238; Labib, Hani, 191 and globalization, 235 Labor movements, Arab world, 213 Islamic Salvation Front, Algeria, 11 -1— Lane, Edward, 198 Islamic sector, 231 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 0 0 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 300 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

315 INDEX 301 Moore, Barrington, 227 Latent communication, 12 Moral outrage, 227 Latin America, 173, 182 Morals police, 142 Laughter, politics of, 153 Morocco, 1, 8, 9, 27 Lebanon, 6, 8, 9, 38 Mossadegh, Muhammad, 6, 162 Lefebvre, Henri, 162 Movement by consequence, 111 Lenin, Vladimir, 54 Mubarak, President Husni, 6, 38, 180 Leveling, 204 Muhajir Quami movement, 143 Lewis, Oscar, 48, 183, 225 Mujahedin-e Khalq, 81, 164, 230 Liberalization, in Middle East, 67; in Mulid festivals, 146 Egypt, 67 Multiculturalism, 186 Liberation theology, 50, 83, 180; Multitude, 21, 22 comparison with Islamism, 179–180 Muslim Brothers, Egypt, 10, 173, 205, 232, Libya, 9 248; and the poor, 82 Lima, 59 Muslim street, 210 Liminality, 153 Muslim women activists, 99–100 Lumpenproletariat, 46, 47, 175 n Mustaz ̔afi (downtrodden), 81; language Lyotard, Jean-Francois, 34 of, 177 Mahalla al-Kubra, Egypt, 9 Najmabadi, Afsaneh, 108 Maher, Ahmed, 10 Nasser, Gamal Abdul, 212 Mamdani, Mahmood, 89 Nasser Bank, 80 Mamluks, 189 Nasserist revolution, 228 Marcuse, Herbert, 117, 118 National Campaign Against the War on Iraq Martyrdom, in the West, 150 (Egypt), 218 Marx, Karl, 46 Negri, Antonio, 21 Mashad (Iran), urban riots, 69–70 Neighborly relations, 75 Mashhur, Mustafa, 205 Nelson, Joan, 47 Masoud, Khaled, 149 Neoliberal city, 12 Maternal impunity, 111 Neo-Patriarchy, 223 Maududi, Abul Ala, 146, 226, 230 Network society, 234 Mecca Cola, 218 New social movements, 45 Melluci, Albert, 45, 110, 225, 247 NGO sector, Middle East, 37, 83–90; and Mesbah Yazdi, Muhammad Taqui, 140 development, 45; history, 84; Iran, 84; Middle class, in Middle East, 227 types, 85; reasons for growth, 85; Middle class, marginalization, 44 impacts, 86; in Cairo, 86; in Palestine, Middle East exceptionalism, 3, 5 86, 87; limitations, 87–88; professional, Middle Eastern modernity, 223–224; 88; and the state, 88–89; heterogeneity, contradictions, 224 89; and clientalism, 89 Migrant associations, Egypt, 75 NGOs, Arab world, 214 Urban poor See also Migrant poor, 16. Nonmovements, 14–19, 21, 24, 111, 250; Militant Islamism, 172. Radical See also defi nition, 14; of women, 17; of youth, Islam; Islamism 17–18, 19; logic of practice, 19–20; power Ministry of Youth, Egypt, 131 of, 20; and the state, 25; in Middle East, Model of Muslim women, 99, 100, 103 25; agency of, 26 Modern authority, and fun, 152 Nowruz (Persian New Year), 142, 147 Modern city, and communal identity, 188; Numeiri, Jaafar, 6 and sectarian coexistence, 201 Modern state, 222 Organized labor, 72, 73 Modernity, capacity to handle, 226–227 Oriental despotism, 224 Modernity and revolution, 222–223 —-1 Orietalism, 3, 28 Modernization, Middle East, 224 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 0 1 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 301 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

316 302 INDEX Proto-proletariat, 47 Palestinian Intidafa (1987–93), 6, 213 Public nagging, 111 Palestinian National Authority (PNA), 88 Public presence, women in Iran, 112, 113 Palestinian Popular Organizations, 74 Public sector employment, 214 Palestinian solidarity movement, 216 Public space, politics of, 62 Pan-Arab nationalism, 217 Puritanism, 151 Pan-Arab Solidarity movement, 212 Paradigm power, 155, 231; and politics, Quiet encroachment of the ordinary, 14, 16, 232 45, 56–65, 215, 227; and social movement, Park, Robert, 46, 48 56; and survival strategy, 56; and Parochial jet-setters, 187 resistance, 56; in Beirut, 57; in South Pasdaran, 177 Africa, 57; in Chile, 57; and collective Passive networks, 19, 23, 24, 63, 110, 119, 129; action, 58, 60; and individual action, defi nition, 22 58; goals, 59; and the state, 61; class Passive poor, 47–48 dimension, 61; outcome, 64; limitations, Passive revolution, Egyptian, 130, 135, 245 65; Middle East, 90–95; in Iran, 90–91; Patriarchy, 96 in Egypt, 91 Perlman, Janice, 48, 49 Qutb, Sayed, 226 Peru, 51 , 172 Planet of Slums Radical Islam, 4 Political class, Middle East, 215 Rafsanjani, Faezeh, 102 See also Political Islam, 35, 229, 230. Rafsanjani, President Hashemi, 244 Islamism Rahnavard, Zahra, 99 Political pact, 248 Ramadan , 139 Political poor, 49–51 Rave, Egypt, 132 Political repression, Middle East, 10 Reform, 2 Political street, 13–14, 211–212 Reform government, Iran, 236, 243 Politics of nagging, Iran, 100 Reformist Islamism, 237 Politics of presence, 128 Regime change, 3 Politics of the poor, 16 Religious authoritarian state, 96 Pope Benedict, 205 Religious intellectuals, 125 Popular Committee for Solidarity with the Rentier state, 66, 224; authoritarian Palestinian Intifada, 218 nature, 66 Post-communalism, 206 Revolution Street (Khiaban-e Enghelab), Post-Islamism, 7, 236, 238, 242; concept, 165–170 243–244; in Iran, 244; in Muslim world, Revolutionary reform, 225 245–246 Revolutions, 2, 12, 13, 221, 222; future, Post-Islamist feminism, Iran, 104–107; ideas, 232–235; and globalization, 233–235 104; opposition against, 106–107 Reza Shah, 162 Post-Islamist revolution, 14, 221, 238 Rice, Condoleezza, 210 Post-Islamist turn, 216 Rifah Party, Turkey, 50, 77, 174; and the Post-Islamization, 236 poor, 82 Posusney, Marsha, 72 Rituals of resistance, 125 Power of big numbers, 20 Rosenthal, Franz, 145 Power of presence, 112; women, 98 Runaway girls, Iran, 123 Primordial outlook, 185 Rural migration, Cairo, 181; Tehran 181 Primordialism, 206 Pro-democracy movement, Middle East, Sadat, Anwar, 192; and Copts, 193; and 217 Islamism, 194 Professional associations, 89 Said Pasha, 89 Project identities, 234 -1— Saidzadeh, Mohsen, 107 Protestant puritans, 150 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 0 2 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 302 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

317 INDEX 303 Streets of discontent, 167–169 Sarallah, 102 Strikes, Middle East, 71–72 Saudi Arabia, 1, 27, 38 Subversive accommodation, 125 Sayyeda Zeinab, Cairo, 77 Sudan, 6, 8 Scott, James, 51, 52, 53, 109 Islam, 145 Sufi Secular diversions, Iran, 147 Sultan, Hasan, 181 Seers, Dudley, 29 Sultanbeyli, Istanbul, 174 Self-employed, 214 Sunni Islam, 230 Sen, Amartya, 29 Survival Strategy, 48–49 Senussi dynasty (Libya), 229 Syndicates, 8 Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, 162, 163 Syria, 1, 9, 68 Shalamche , 142 Sharabi, Hisham, 223 Tablighi movement, 237 Shari ̔a, 192 (skidding), 143 Ta h fi t Shariati, Ali, 81, 226, 229, 230 Tahrir Square, Cairo, 161, 168 Shi ̔i Islam, 141, 229, 230 Taleqani, Azam, 99, 100, 103 Shubra (Cairo), homes, 197; neighborly Taliban, 28, 147, 209 relations, 197–198; gender relations, 198; Tambiah, Stanley, 204, 207 Muslim women, 199; youth, 199; Coptic Taqsim Square, Istanbul, 161, 168 quarter, 203 Tawhid (unity of God), 158 Shubra Avenue, Cairo, 196 Tehran, 165, 166, 167, 169 Simmel, Georg, 46, 48, 207 Tehran University, 169 Slums, 4, 16; concept, 182 Temporary marriage ( ), 107, mu ̔ta Small media, 219 124, 141 Social contract, 69, 213 Theo-democracy, 230 Social development, 3; and NGOs, 87; Theology of Dissent , 230 concept, 87 Thompson, Edward, 151 Social Fun for Development, 69 Tilly, Charles, 4, 223 Social Islam, 78, 233; and social Touraine, Alain, 225 development, 78; and Rifah Party, 79; Trade unionism, Middle East, 70–73; in Algeria, 79; and Hizbullah, 79; in history, 71; corporatist, 71; functions, Egypt, 79–80 71; capacity, 72 Social movement theory, 4, 115 Trade unions, 8, 9 Social movements, 2, 4, 19, 8, 39, 97; and asabiyya Traditional solidarity ( ), 224 political change, 247–248, 251; in power, Tr ust, 188 248 Tu n i s , 8 Social provisions, in Middle East, 37 Turkey, 9, 174 Socialism, Middle East, 215 Turner, Victor, 163, 154 Socialization of the state, 251 Soft state, 61 ‘Ulema ’, 163, 164, 231, 232 Spaces of hope, 235 Umar, 189 Spatial identity, 76 UN charter against discrimination against Spatial solidarity, 50 women, 106 Spatiality of discontents, 162 Unemployed, in global South, 44 Squatter upgrading, politics, 62 United Nations Human Development States, 38, Middle East, 24 Program (UNDP), 31, 39 Stoicism, 187 United States, 36, 38 Stonequist, Everett, 46, 48 Upper Egypt, 15 Street lawyers, 58 Urban ecology, and radical religion, Street politics, 11–13, 62, 63, 161, 167, 212 172, 178 Street subsistence workers, 92 —-1 Urban marginality, 46 Street vendors, 57; in Mexico City, 78 —0 —+1 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i n d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 0 3 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 303 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M d

318 304 INDEX Women’s nonmovement, 98, 114; Urban poor See also Urban marginals, 44. achievements, 107; the logic of, 108, Urban poor, 24, 44, 47, 174; Iran and Egypt, 110; 112–113 175; and Islamic Revolution, 176–177; Women’s struggles, 8 and Islamism in Egypt, 177–179; and Workers’ strikes, Egypt, 9 political organizations, 179; and World Bank, 39, 233 Islamism, 180; and modernity, 227; Worsley, Peter, 48 and revolution, 227; and Islamism, Urban marginals See also 227. You t h 20; as social category, 116, 119, 127; , Urban protests, 68–70; in Middle East, 69; as revolutionary class, 117, 118; and fun, in Mashad, 69–70; impacts, 70; in the 138–139; and cultural defi ance, 143; and Arab world, 213 practice of fun, 143 Urban subaltern, 5. Urban poor See also Youth Centers, Egypt, 131 Urban territorial movement, 49, 50, 51, 73 Youth culture, 138 Urban, concept, 182 Youth dissent, 18 urfi (informal) marriage, 134, 140 Youth habitus, 18, 118 USAID, in Egypt, 180 Youth in Egypt, 128–135; demography, 129; gender divide, 129; subculture, 129–130; , ), forced veiling, 99; hijab Ve i l ( bad-hijabi political exclusion, 130; and Islamism, 102, 103 130; and the state, 131; Satanic, 132; Vendetta (Egypt), 200 underground subculture, 132; sexuality, 132, 133; religiosity, 133; accommodating Wafd Party, 190 innovation, 134; (informa l ) urfi Wahabi movement, 146; and fun, 158 marriage, 134; and Islamism, 134 War on terrorism, 209, 215, 245 Youth movements, 17, 115; democratizing Weber, Max, 150, 155 nition, 116, 118 ect, 19; defi eff Webster, Neil, 45, 89 Youth nonmovements, 120 classes, and modernity, 228; and Wel l- off Youth, in Iran, 120, 121–128; NGOs, 18; and religion, 228 the state, 121; social status, 122; deviance, What Is to Be Done? , 54 122; subcultures, 122; Valentine’s Day, Women, and Islamic revolution of 1979, 123; sexuality, 123, 124; pregnancy, 124; 98–99; and secular organizations 99; religiosity, 124–125; riots, 126; and education, 101; employment, 101; demography, 127; rural, 128 voluntarism, 102; public presence, 102; Youthfulness, 17, 18, 116, 118, 128 religiosity, 103 Women activists, Middle East, 16 Zam Zam Cola, 218 Women’s Association of the Islamic (women’s magazine), 104 Zan Revolution, Iran, 99–100, 103 Zanan (women’s magazine), 104, 105, 107 Arab Women’s empowerment, in the Zapatista revolutionary movement, 234 , 36 Human Development Report Zawaya, 196 Women’s magazines, Iran, 103 -1— 0— +1— 5 4 4 - 4 1 0 0 3 _ c h 0 2 _ 4 P . i n d d 9/1/09 1:59 PM 3 0 4 544-41003_ch02_4P.indd 304 9 / 1 / 0 9 1 : 5 9 P M

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