1 Adding information - In addition As well as - Also - Too - Furthermore - Moreover - Apart from - And - Besides - In addition to Ideas are often linked by and . In a list, you put a c omma between each item, but not before and . ion and the budget." "We discussed training, educat is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing." Also with to give emphasis. also You c an use not only "We are conc erned not only by the costs, but also by the competition." ith also . If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that We don't usually start a sentence w means also, you can use or In addition to this... In addition, As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence. "As well as the costs, we are conc erned by the competition." "We are interested in c osts as well as the competition." as well . goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means Too " They were conc erned too." "I, too, was concerned." and besides are often used to mean as well as , or Apart from ition to . in add "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making. Moreover tial market. Moreover, they tell us about the "Marketing plans give us an idea of the poten c ompetition." Summarising In short - - In summary - To summarise - In a nutshell - To conclude - In In brief conclusion Sequencing ideas The former, ... the latter Firstly, secondly, finally s - Lastly - The following The first point i The former the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points. "Marketing and and financ e are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term." ly, ... secondly, ... finally (or lastly ) are useful ways to list ideas. First It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point , the second point , the third point and so on. The following is a good way of starting a list. have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A " The following people Owen." Giving a reason Due to / due to the fact that / Owing to / owing to the fact that / Because / Because of / Since / As Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. "Due to the rise in oil pric es, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all i tems within 2 week s." If you want to follow these words with a c lause (a subjec t, verb and objec t), you must follow the the fact that . words with "Due to the fact that oil pric es have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." "Owing to the fact that the workers have g one on strike, the company has been unable to fulfi l all its orders." Because / because of Because of is followed by a noun. "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed." Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. Fo r example, "Because
2 it was raining, the match was postponed." "We believe in inc entive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive." Since / as as Since . mean and because "Sinc e the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." e company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." "As th Giving a result So Therefore Consequently - This means that - As a result - - so , Therefore and as a result are all used in a similar way. , consequently " The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff." So is more informal. Contrasting ideas However But Although / even though - Despite / despite the fact that - In spite - - of / in spite of the fact that - Nonetheless Nevertheless While - Whereas - Unlike - is more informal than howe ver e beginning of a sentence. But . It is not normall y used at th "He works hard, but he doesn't earn muc h." "He works hard. However, he doesn't earn muc h." Although despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must , have two halves of a sentence. s cold, she went out in shorts." "In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts." "Although it wa in spite of are used in the same way as Despite and owing to . They must be and due to followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use act the f that. "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees." and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway . Nevertheless " The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was c old.) " The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year." , While and unlike are used to show how two things are different from eac h other. whereas "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown." " Taxes have gone up, whereas soc ial securi ty contributions have gone down." "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol." Linking words by Viv Quarry (See internet site) - Contrasting Expressing cause / reason Adding and because *and *but as as well as However, since Although besides Moreover, This is why despite Furthermore, because of In spite of What is more, Due to Nevertheless, Owing to In addition, On the contrary, he one hand not only ... but also For this reason, on t another point is that on the other hand, whereas Expressing effect / result while *so relative clauses where so...that but while who In contrast, such a...that that ,which Therefore Neither...nor to whom whose when what Thus Consequently, why As a result, t oo...for/to not enough...for/to
3 Narration Expressing purpose immediately to First (of all) At first Once so as to At the beginning in order that Suddenly As soon as In the beginning so that specific) - for (Non then on next No sooner...than Expressing opinion Hardly...when Before Finally I would say that After After that In my opinion, Eventually At the end I think (that) afterwards When In the end I believe (that) At last While Personally To begin with, during Apparently, until Soon prior to Giving e Summing up / concluding Emphasis xamples especially All in all for example, overall particularly for instance, Naturally, For one thing, generally In conclusion, exactly because this includes above all on the whole such as e.g.. (for example) in the main Whatever i.e. (that is) To sum up, Whenever too / enough The more ...
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